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TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT 



"- 'EPAETMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 

REPORT OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH COUNCIL. 

Vt the end of the fiscal year closing November 30, 1926 the State Department 
(Public Health was constituted as follows: 

(mmissioner of PubUc Health George H. Bigelow, M.D. 

Public Health Council. 
icHARD p. Strong, M.D., 1929. Gordon Hutchins, 1928.'- 

VMES L. TiGHE, B.A.Sc., C.E., 1929. Sylvester E. Ryan, M.D., 1928. 
iGER I. Lee, M.D., 1927. Francis H. Lally, M.D., 1927. 

during the year sixteen formal meetings of the Department were held, as well 
a&eetings of standing committees. The standing committees of the Council are 
asUows: 

Sanitary Engineering (including Housing and Rural Hygiene). 
Mr. Tighe, Dr. Bigelow and Mr. Hutchins. 

Preventive Medicine and Hygiene. 

Drs. Lee, Bigelow, Lally, Ryan and Strong. 

Food and Drugs, 

Drs. Lally and Ryan and Mr. Hutchins. 

Laboratory Work and Research. 

Drs. Strong and Bigelow and Mr. Tighe. 

Publications. 

Drs. Lally and Ryan and Mr. Tighe. 

The Committee on Sanitary Engineering has met prior to the meeting of the 

Public Health Council regularly, as is customary, and has considered in detail all 

niatters coming before the Department having to do with water supplies, sewage 

disposal and sanitation generally, subsequently submitting recommendations 

thereon to the Public Health Council. 

As provided by statute the Department has held fourteen public hearings oi 
plans for sewerage and sewage disposal, taking of lands for the protection of public 
water supplies and contracts pertaining to county tuberculosis hospitals. Tlie 
Public Health Council has considered and approved appointments submitted to 
it by the Commissioner as required by law, and has also considered and given 
advice relative to various matters submitted to it by the Commissioner arising in 
connection with the activities of the Department. 

As directedby Chapter 391 of the Acts of 1926 the Department has conducted 
certain investigations and prepared a plan which in the opinion of the Department 
offers most in the way of benefit both to the individual afflicted with cancer and to 
the Commonwealth, and a report of the study and plan has been submitted. 

Chapter 39 of the Resolves of 1926 directed the Department to investigate .he 
water supply needs and resources of the municipalities of the County of Essex and 
adjacent portions of the County of Middlesex. This study was made as directed 
and report has been submitted. 

Under authority of Chapter 43 of the Resolves of 1926 an investigation was 
made by the Department relative to the extension of the Metropolitan sewerage 
system m the Neponset Valley and the cost thereof, and the report of this investi- 
gation has also been prepared and submitted. 

The Public Health Council visited the territory included in the investigation 
of the water supply needs and resources of the municipalities of Essex County and 
alsoi visited the Neponset Valley in connection with the investigation which was 
made relative to the extension of the Metropolitan seweraF,e system to that area. 
The members of the Pu blic Health Council also attended \.he exercises held at the 

1 Appointed July 9, 1926. . 



2 P.D. 34. 

opening of the Lakeville State Sanatorium for the care of non-puhnonary cases 
of tuberculosis. 

At a meeting of the Department on January 11, 1927 the Commissioner of PubUc 
Health presented to the Council a report of the activities of the Department foy 
the fiscal year 1926 and it was voted that this report, together with the foregoing 
brief summary of the doings of the Public Health Council, be approved and adoptM 
as the report of the State Department of PubUc Health for the year 1926. ' 

TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF PUBLIC 

HEALTH. 
To the Public Health Council: \ 

Gentlemen: — I have the honor to submit herewith my annual report for the 
fiscal year ending November 30, 1926. 

Cancer. 
The most significant development in the activities of the Department is ttat 
during the past year, at the direction of the Legislature (Chapter 391, Acts of 1926) 
a cancer program has been instituted. Communicable diseases have long teen 
considered the principal interest of official health agencies. Exceptions to this 
have been accumulating in late years with the development of service in ^.ild 
hygiene, nutrition, prenatal and infant hygiene, dental hygiene, the identification 
and elimination of defects in school children, as well as in adults, through the healtl 
examination. In the field of cancer the Department in cooperation with the 
Harvard Cancer Commission has for the past five years offered pathological service 
to the doctors and hospitals in the State. But to develop an entire program for a 
specific non-communicable disease, such as cancer, is a new step. 

With the passage of this legislation the Department appointed an Advisory 
Cancer Committee which has served generously, particularly in regard to the initial 
steps. From this general committee four sub-committees were appointed as 
follows : 
Committee on Cancer Clinics: Dr. Robert B, Greenough, Chairman, Drs. Franklin 

G. Balch, Kendall Emerson, James S. Stone, G. Forrest Martin, P. E. Trues- 

dale, and Mr. Robert W. Kelso. 
Committee on Hospitalization: Dr. Henry M. Pollock, Chairman, Dr. Stephen 

Rushmore, Mr. Richard K. Conant, Rev. George P. O'Conor, Miss Ida M. 

Cannon, and Representative S. H. Wellman. 
Committee on Cancer Education: Mr. Robert W. Kelso, Chairman, Rev. George 

P. O'Conor, Miss Ida M. Cannon, Mrs. Edith R. Avery, Miss Florence M. 

Patterson, Dr. Shields Warren, and Dr. Franklin G. Balch. 
Committee on Cancer Studies: Professor Edwin B. Wilson, Chairman, Dr. J. W. 

Schereschewsky, Dr. Walter P. Bowers, Miss Gertrude W. Peabody, Dr. 

E. E. Tyzzer, Dr. Edwin H. Allen, Representative W. J. Bell, and Dr. Francis 

George Curtis. 
As the above indicates, there are four phases to the work. 

Cancer Hospital. — The Norfolk State Hospital will be open for ninety patients 
soon after additional funds are available to complete the renovations. Thirty 
of the beds will be for ambulatory patients and these should largely be filled from 
the clinics with patients for diagnosis and treatment. In addition to the resident 
staff, a consultative staff will be a most important factor. 

Cancer Clinics. — Through money, forms and advice the Department is aiding 
local communities to institute cancer clinics in their general hospitals. Medical 
and lay cancer committees are appointed to handle the professional, educational, 
and social aspects of the problem. The Medical Committee is appointed by the 
local medical profession. Newton has already opened such a clinic and others are 
pending in six communities. The closest relationship must exist between these 
clinics for early recognition of the disease and our Cancer Hospital. 

Cancer Education. — Through a group of physicians as speakers and through 
printed matter the gv^spel of early recognition and places where service can be 
obtained must be spread. Special aid must be given communities with clinics so 
that resources will be fui'' utilized. 



P.D. 34. 3 

Cancer Shidies. — A further report of studies of hospital resources and needs in 
regard to cancer has been made to the Legislature. Through the case reporting 
whi( . has been instituted in Newton, the data which many visiting nursing asso- 
ciations are collecting, as well as the considerable unanalyzed data already at 
hand, we will have material not heretofore available in regard to cancer. 

From all the above we must determine further steps, not only in combating 
this disease but in the other degenerative diseases in which prevention, if it is 
soundly practical, should be instituted. 

Disease Prevalence. 
This year has shown a marked increase in reported disease of about 8 per cent. 
As last year, the increase is largely in measles, whooping cough and influenza. 
This situation was predicted last year, since in the fall an increase of these diseases 
^ ^'as noted. The most notable decrease in disease is found in diphtheria which 
cjj "opped about 25 per cent over last year and established a low point for the State. 
The ever-present danger of disease spread by food has been sharply emphasized 
thi; ^^^ y63,r through scarlet fever and typhoid fever. An obvious method of pro- 
tect ^"^"ion is the routine physical and laboratory examination of all persons coming 
:n f S?/ mtact with food. If all persons harboring the germs of disease are recognized 
m^' -^^^^ their contact with food prevented, control should be effective. Such medical 
^nd laboratory supervision is given at certain certified dairies. But it means 
Constant trained oversight, is expensive, and is not fool proof. Figures are im- 
possible to obtain but probably between half a million and a million persons in 
the State either constantly or intermittently are engaged in the producing, packag- 
ing, transporting, retailing, cooking or serving of food. An examination sufficiently 
detailed and at sufficiently frequent intervals to recognize persons harboring the 
organisms of typhoid, diphtheria, septic sore throat, scarlet fever, and tuberculosis, 
and yet sufficiently simple to be practical is no easy task. Certain cities have 
attempted it with indifferent results. Again, in the last twenty years the amount 
of disease traced to milk has fallen from an average of about 1,000 cases a year 
to 100, and this without any wholesale supervision of the health of the milkers. 
Also there is danger that such an obvious protective measure as the medical ex- 
amination of handlers will give a false sense of security and perhaps decrease vigil 
in general cleanliness of handling, supervision of animal health, and in the appli- 
cation of heat through cooling or pasteurizing which is probably the greatest of all 
single protective barriers. For these multiple reasons the Department has in the 
past opposed legislation for compulsory examination of all food handlers. But 
from the vivid experiences of this year some further protection is imperative. 
This might take the form of compulsory examination of milk handlers, since milk 
is a food particularly vulnerable to infection, or compulsory pasteurization of all 
milk. But with the Department's bill still pending in the Legislature requiring 
that only pasteurized milk or milk from non-tuberculous cattle be sold in the State, 
the protection afforded by an annual examination would seem the most likely of 
enactment into law though it is doubtful if the return in protection would be 
commensurate with the effort. 

The question of what is a "killing" disease has been asked. This last year one 
out of every one and one-half cases of reported tetanus died. For other diseases 
the figures in round numbers were as follows: 

Ratio of Deaths 
Disease. to Cases. 

Typhoid fever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 to 10 

Diphtheria . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . 1 to 14 

Whooping cough 1 to 29 

Measles 1 to 81 

Scarlet fever . . . . . . '. . . . . . . . . 1 to 100 

Chicken pox 1 to 1,183 

When we find that the total deaths from tetanus, scarlet fever, typhoid, and 
diphtheria were 435, while the deaths from whooping cough and measles were 
404 and 367 respectively, these two latter diseases are more killing as far as the 
general public is concerned. This emphasizes the need of advances in methods of 
treatment and even more of prevention of these diseases, as we have in diphtheria, 
and are acquiring in scarlet fever; and further it emphasizes the need of impress- 



4 P.D. 34. 

ing on parents a respect for measles and whooping cough as "killing" diseases, 
such as they very generally have now for diphtheria and scarlet fever. 

Individual consideration of certain of the diseases is indicated: 

Diphtheria. — The continued fall in diphtheria, which began the latter pan t' 
1924, is the most striking communicable disease event of the year. The total 
cases, 3,401, mark a low point for the State. The rate of 80.6 per 100,000 popu- 
lation is the lowest in the last twenty-five years. But five years ago the rate was 
231. However, during the autumn there has been a definite increase and unless 
immunization with toxin-antitoxin is pushed among the school and pre-school 
children we must expect a compensatory increase in this disease. A study of the 
entire diphtheria situation is being made by the Department as a basis for rationally 
furthering immunization. In the meantime, the demand for toxin-antitoxin this 
fall exceeds any previous period. 

Typhoid Fever. — In spite of the fact that this fall there were three milk-borr le 
outbreaks of this disease, both the case and the death rate mark a low point f- or 
the State. These three outbreaks account for 91 cases and 4 deaths up to t ,he 
end of the year. Two of these were due to cases and one to a carrier. Two w ere 
raw milk sources and one supposedly in a pasteurized milk which was evidej^^atly 
infected during the bottling. On the other hand, there is some evidence that ^) raw 
milk was supplied from this pasteurizing plant to customers in the imme(?.^iate 
vicinity. The location of the cases would support this explanation. This empho. o- 
sizes that pasteurization must be supervised as well as the cleanliness of mil k 
handling. Also, there is need of authority for restraining carriers when cooperation ^ 
cannot be obtained. Further reduction of the autumn cases, which have been 
called "vacation typhoid", can be aided by camp supervision, shellfish control, 
and extending the habit of protective inoculations. The increasing demands on 
local water supplies associated with below-average rainfall are conducive to in- 
creasing infection unless constant vigil is maintained. 

Smallpox. — The only four cases in the State came by automobile from Florida 
and illustrate how vulnerable we are to inroads of infection from outside. Those 
in the machine who did not have the disease were those who had been vaccinated. 
To continue the record of the last two years of no smallpox deaths, the protection 
afforded by vaccination must be extended. The extending of compulsory vac- 
cination to the private schools would be a definite step in this direction. 

Influenza. — In March and April there was a high incidence of this disease 
reported, practically doubling the cases for last year. That it was mild is indicated 
by the fact that there was only a 40 per cent increase in deaths. A study of the 
influenza records for Massachusetts ^ lead to the conclusion that there would be 
an increase in respiratory disease this winter. Fortunately this has not as yet 
materialized. 

Anterior Poliomyelitis. — Springfield and Worcester had a high incidence this 
year, 22.4 cases per 100,000 population, while for the rest of the State the rate 
was 4.3. Through a cooperative arrangement with the Harvard Infantile Paralysis 
Commission, Dr. Arthur P. Black made epidemiological studies of cases during the 
summer and fall, as well as giving clinical service to the physicians. This arrange- 
ment will be continued next year. 

Gonorrhea and Syphilis. — There has been a decrease in the number of cases 
reported, the decrease being about 11 per cent for syphilis and 5 per cent for 
gonorrhea. Whether this means less infection or less willingness to report to local 
boards than to the Department as was done previously, we cannot say. The 
demand for arsenicals has increased. We hope this year to study the actual inci- 
dence of the disease in relation to reporting. 

The educational program developed by the Social Hygiene Committee of the 
League of Women Voters in cooperation with the American Social Hygiene Associ- 
ation and this Department is in its second year. Dr. Helen I. D. McGiUicuddy, as 
Executive Secretary, is in constant demand for study groups, and the results of 
these groups has actually been felt in certain of the clinics. The full effect of such 
education cannot, of course, be known for years, if ever. 

1 Doering and Lombard, Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, Vol. 195, pages 405-410, 1926. 



P.D. 34. 5 

The Ten-Yeab Juvenile Tuberculosis Program. 

The second year of the State cUnics for examining the underweight, contact, 
and "problem" children in the schools was the school year 1925-26. 19,073 chil- 
dra*; were examined. The results show surprisingly little variation from the 
l'J,648 examined the year before. 28.5 per cent reacted to tubercuUn, which was 
precisely the figure for last year. The reactors were X-rayed and the findings for 
the two years were : 

1924-25 192S-26 

Pulmonary Tuberculosis — Active and Latent ...... 0.29% 0.33% 

Hilum Tuberculosis — Active and Latent 5.00% 3.30% 

Suspicious Cases 10.00% 7.00% 

By the end of the present school year about three-quarters of the school popu- 
lation will have been gone over. As time goes on the re-examinations will be 
more and more valuable since they will show precisely what has been accomplished 
by various treatments instituted. 

Further details are given in the report of the Division of Tuberculosis. 
. It is, however, worth pointing out in connection with the Department's legis- 
lation requiring that all milk should be either pasteurized or from non-tuberculous 
animals that the rural children show more infection than urban children. Infected 
cervical glands have consistently shown a high percentage of bovine infection. 
Eleven per cent of the rural "reactors" had infected cervical glands, while but 6.3 
per cent of the urban "reactors" had such glands. Although both groups showed 
about the same percentage of total "reactors" if the contact "reactors" (i.e., the 
children showing a positive reaction that are known to be in contact with a case of 
tuberculosis and whose infection, therefore, is most likely to be human) are de- 
ducted, the rural group showed almost 50 per cent more "reactors" than the urban. 
Although these series are small they indicate that in the country where there is less 
supervision of milk suppUes and less access to pasteurized milk there is more 
milk-borne tuberculosis. 

Tuberculosis Sanatoria. 

Westfield and North Reading. — These two institutions are exclusively for 
children, the former with 310 beds, the latter with 200 beds. Since the cities and 
counties have responded to the demands made evident by the clinics to a greater 
degree than had been expected, these two institutions are not full to capacity. As 
long as this condition exists, women will be admitted from the waiting list at 
Rutland and probably some bed cases among the men. It has not been found 
desirable to have ambulatory men patients in children's institutions. Westfield 
needs a new building for women employees and North Reading a new service 
building or at least a remodeling of the present one. As usual, it is easier to get 
new beds than it is to get the additions necessary to give adequate service to the 
patients occupying these beds. 

Lakeville. — On April 27th the institution was formally opened for non-pulmonary 
tuberculosis with exercises at which His Excellency the Governor was among the 
speakers. The children's ward had been open for some time, the women's ward 
was then opened, and renovation of the men's ward was finished in July. Since 
service to these patients will average a number of years, the two hundred beds 
will soon not be adequate for the demands. Certain relief has been found in 
moving some cervical gland cases to the children's institutions. The combination 
of sun treatment with skillful orthopedic supervision, under the direction of Dr. 
Z. B. Adams as Consultant, has already shown some excellent results. The press- 
ing need is a medical building with operating facihties. 

Rutland. — This institution has been fully occupied throughout the year and 
there has been a considerable waiting list. About 250 of the 350 beds are occupied 
by patients from Worcester and Middlesex Counties and the Hospital District of 
Chelsea, Revere and Winthrop, which communities are served by contract. Since 
a considerable number of the cases coming in under contract are advanced cases 
it was decided to reserve the other one hundred beds for hopeful cases in order that 
the institution should not get a bad reputation. This was effected through the 
requirement that all applicants not coming under the contracts should be ex- 
amined by one of our sanatoria staff, or, if in Boston, at the Out-Patient Depart- 



6 P.D. 34. 

ment of the Boston Sanatorium. This latter arrangement has been a great help 
to us. As has been said, for the present at least, relief for the Rutland waiting 
list can be had at Westfield and North Reading. The immediate building need 
for Rutland is a women employees' building. 

The Health of the Child. 

Education. — The very happy relations which exist between this Department 
and that of Education is further shown by two cooperative projects this last year, 
one a course in the rudiments of personal hygiene for immigrants and the other a 
course for mothers in maternal and infant hygiene as a part of the University 
Extension service. 

Well Child Conferences. — These conferences have been held in fifty-nine cities 
and towns. The object is to demonstrate what constitutes service to well children, 
to the end that permanent cUnies will be estabUshed by the communities. 

Dental Hygiene Policy. — After careful consideration with the Dental Hygiene 
Advisory Committee, a policy was promulgated by the Department. The feature 
of this is that attention should be focused on the first, third and sixth grades, at 
which times the first molars, bicuspids, and twelve-year molars are erupted. 
Attention to fissures at these times will have lasting effect. The filling of teeth 
as conventionally done is a surgical procedure with little relation to prevention 
and should be the responsibility of the parent, the family dentist, and dental dis- 
pensary maintained under private auspices rather than the public agency. 

Sanitary Problems. 

Adequate supervision and extension of pubUc water supplies which serve 96 
per cent of the inhabitants of the Commonwealth is still the major sanitary prob- 
lem. Although legislation was passed at the last session for extending the Metro- 
politan water supply it will be some years before this can be accomplished. With 
the Wachusett Reservoir over 30 feet below high water, a serious shortage might 
be experienced toward the end of the year should the rainfall in 1927 be as low or 
lower than in the last two years. It is, therefore, essential that provision be made 
as soon as practicable for increasing the supply by the use of emergency services. 

These same factors of increased consumption and decreased rainfall are taxing 
other supplies severely. The legislative study of the water needs of communities 
in Essex County and adjacent portions of Middlesex County showed quite clearly 
that any solution must depend on group action of the communities involved. 

These conditions are reflected in the increased number of appHcations for advice 
which the Department has received as well as in the increased number of samples 
examined in our Water and Sewage Laboratories, which is this year over 16,000. 

An excellent piece of work has been done in continued supervision, certification, 
and posting of shellfish-bearing waters under Chapter 370 of the Acts of 1926. 
The Department of Conservation, through its Division of Fisheries and Game, 
has had an appropriation to enforce this act and has done so to the end that prob- 
ably there never were so few sewage-infected clams on the market as at present. 
But should this supervision cease through lack of appropriation the typhoid menace 
from these shellfish will be as great or greater than ever. 

The 125 summer camps examined show need of further supervision in a few 
instances, and this is being asked in legislation. 

The menace of the cross-connection in industry has been shown in two instances 
and the entire situation throughout the State will be studied this year. 

Personnel. 

A number of important changes in personnel have occurred. With each change 
the aim has been to get a closer-knit organization of somewhat fewer people some- 
what better paid. In this way about $20,000 has been saved in salaries this year. 
It is to be hoped that the early indications from the reclassification study now in 
progress will actually result in certain material increases in salary. 

Mr. Gordon Hutchins was appointed on July 9, 1926, by the Governor and 
Council to fill the vacancy on the Public Health Council created by the death of 
Mr. Warren C. Jewett. He brings to the Public Health Council the experience of 



P.D. 34. 7 

the practical farmer and has been appointed as the representative of this Depart- 
ment on the Reclamation Board. 

Dr. Clarence L. Scamman was appointed Director of the Division of Com- 
mK..iicable Diseases and Deputy Commissioner on April 1, 1926. 

With much regret the resignation of Dr. Sumner H. Remick as Director of the 
Division of Tuberculosis (Sanatoria) was accepted on April 24, 1926, and Dr. 
Henry D. Chadwick was appointed as Acting Director on April 17, 1926. 

Mr. Merton P. Young was transferred on January 1, 1926, from Assistant Di- 
rector of the Division of Tuberculosis (Sanatoria) to Assistant Director of the 
Division of Administration and Dr. David Zacks was appointed Assistant Director 
of the Division of Tuberculosis (Sanatoria) on May 1, 1926. With the appoint- 
ment of a medical Assistant Director the position of Supervisor of Nurses in the 
Division of Tuberculosis (Sanatoria) was aboUshed and on September 1, 1926, the 
services of Miss Cecilia A. Lemner, who formerly held this position, terminated. 

Dr. Herbert L. Lombard was appointed epidemiologist on cancer on July 1, 
1926. 

Dr. Mary R. Lakeman resigned as Assistant Director of the Division of Hy- 
giene and was appointed epidemiologist on cancer on August 16, 1926. 

Dr. Edward A. Lane was appointed Acting District Health Officer on August 2, 
1926. 

Dr. Filip C. Forsbeck was appointed epidemiologist in the Division of Com- 
municable Diseases on November 1, 1926. 

The organization of the Department is as follows: 
Commissioner of Public Health George H. Bigelow, M.D. 

Public Health Council. 
George H. Bigelow, M.D., Chairman. 1 

Roger I. Lee, M.D. Francis H. Lally, M.D. 

Richard P. Strong, M.D. James L. Tighe, C.E. 

Sylvester E. Ryan, M.D. Gordon Hutchins 6 

Division of Administration (including Cancer) : 

Assistant Director, Secretary, Epidemiologists (2), Clerks and Ste- 
nographers — business office (3), cancer (4), general (7). 18 

Division of Communicable Diseases : 

Clarence L. Scamman, M.D., Director and Deputy Commissioner. 
District Health Officers (6), Acting District Health Officer (1), Epi- 
demiologist (1), Clerks and Stenographers (4), 

(Venereal Disease) : 
Social Worker (1), Investigator (1), Lecturer (1), Stenographers (2). 

(Diagnostic Laboratory) : 
Bacteriologists (4), Laboratory Assistant (1), Clerk (1). 

(Distribution of Biological Products and Diagnostic Outfits): 
Clerk (1), Laborers (6). 31 

Division of Sanitary Engineering: 

X. H. Goodnough, C.E., Director and Chief Engineer. 
Engineers and Assistant Engineers (7), Sanitary and Engineering Assist- 
ants (10), Clerks and Stenographers (8). 26 
Division of Water and Sewage Laboratories: 
H. W. Clark, Director and Chief Chemist. 

Chemists and Bacteriologists (9), Laboratory Assistants (3), Clerks and 
Stenographers (2), Laborers (2). 17 

Division of Food and Drugs: 

Hermann C. Lythgoe, S.B., Director and Chief Analyst. 
Chemists (5), Veterinary Inspectors (3), Food Inspectors (5), Clerks 
and Stenographers (6), Laboratory Assistant (1), Laborers (2). 
(Arsphenamine Laboratory) : 
Chemist (1), Laboratory Assistants (5), Laborers (2). 31 



8 P.D. 34. 

Division of Biologic Laboratories: 

Benjamin White, Ph.D., Director and Pathologist. 

(Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory): 
Assistant Director (1), Bacteriologists (6), Stenographers (2), Labora- 
tory Assistants (5), Laborers (19). 

(Wassermann Laboratory) : 
Assistant Director (1), Bacteriologist (1), Clerks and Stenographers 
(4), Laboratory Assistants (2), Laborers (2). 44 

Division of Hygiene: 

Merrill E. Champion, M.D., Director. 

CUnic Physician (1), Assistants in Hygiene (3), Assistant in Dental Hy- 
giene (1), Instructors (2), Clerks and Stenographers (7). 

(Maternal and Infant Hygiene) : 
Physician (1), Nurses (2), Assistants in Hygiene (3), Clerks and Ste- 
nographers (5). 26 

Division of Tuberculosis (Sanatoria) : 

Henry D. Chadwick, M.D., Acting Director. 

Assistant Director (1), Nurses (7), Examiner of Legal Settlements (1), 
Supt. of Construction (1), Clerks and Stenographers (7). 
(CHnic Units) : 
Physicians (6), Nurses (2), Field Agent (1), X-ray technician (1), 
Clerks and Stenographers (6). 34 



Total .234 

The names and districts of the District Health Officers are : 
First or Southeastern Health District .... Dr. Richard P. MacKnight 
Second or Eastern Health District .... Dr. George T. O'Donnell 
Third or Northeastern Health District . . ~ ~ 

Fourth or North Midland Health District . 
Fifth or Worcester Health District 
Sixth or Connecticut Valley Health District 
Seventh or Berkshire Health District . 



Dr. Lyman A. Jones 



Dr. Oscar A. Dudley 

Dr. H. E. Miner 

Dr. Leland M. French 



The following are the Superintendents of the four State Sanatoria which are 
under the Division of Tuberculosis (Sanatoria) : 

Rutland State Sanatorium Dr. Ernest B. Emerson 

Westfield State Sanatorium Dr. Henry D. Chadwick 

North Reading State Sanatorium Dr. Carl C. MacCorison 

Lakeville State Sanatorium Dr. Leon A. Alley 

New Legislation. 
Again the Department is asking for important milk legislation. We are also 
asking authorization for licensing pasteurizing plants, summer and recreation 
camps, and shellfish handling establishments. The bills are entitled: 
An Act relative to the sale of milk. 
An Act relative to the delivery and receipt of tuberculin. 
An Act relative to the pasteurization of milk. 
An Act relative to the manufacture, distribution, sale and commercial use of 

cosmetics. 
An Act relative to the shucking, marketing and transportation of shellfish. 
An Act to provide for the purchase of radium by the Commonwealth to alleviate 

distress caused by cancer. 
An Act relative to the reimbursement to cities and towns for care of persons ill 

with tuberculosis. 
An Act regulating the operation of recreation, health and tourists' camps. 
An Act relative to charges at the Norfolk State Hospital. 
An Act relative to the control of "typhoid carriers". 
An Act relative to the support of inmates of State sanatoria. 



P.D. 34. 9 

Appropriations and Expenditures for the Year ended November SO, 1926. 

Appropriations. Expended. 

Division of Administration $31,545 00 $29,849 61 

Division of Hygiene 47,750 00 46,671 08 

Maternal and Infant Hygiene 35,400 00 33,394 19 

Division of Communicable Diseases 68,250 00 64,212 92 

Venereal Diseases 30,370 00 27,631 95 

Manufacture and Distribution of Arsphenamine ...... 14,250 00 14,085 42 

Division of Food and Drugs 51,100 00 48,377 84 

Division of Biologic Laboratories: 

Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory 76,500 00 75,088 81 

Wassermann Laboratory . . . " 18,100 00 17,605 08 

Division of Tuberculosis 47,080 00 39,253 20 

Subsidies to cities and towns 225,000 00 224,992 22 

Tuberculosis Clinic Units 74,800 00 58,953 13 

Division of Sanitary Engineering 63,500 00 58,393 61 

Division of Water and Sewage Laboratories ...... 41,100 00 41,063 77 



$824,745 00 $779,572 83 

Special Appropriations and Expenditures for Year ended November 30, 1926. 

Appropriation. Expended. 



Neponset Valley Sewage Disposal, Ch. 43 — Acts 1926 
Essex County Water Supply, Ch. 39 — Res. 1926 
Shellfish Control, Ch. 370 — Acts 1926 
Cancer Clinics, Ch. 391 — Acts 1926 . . . . 

Norfolk Hospital, Ch. 391 — Acts 1926 



$7,500 00 $4,420 91 



8,000 00 


7,812 38 


5,000 00 


3,074 76 


15,000 00 


9,762 81 


100,000 00 


49,720 38 



$135,500 00 $74,791 24 

1926 Expenditures from Balance of Special Appropriation of Previous Year. 

Balance of 
1925 Appropriation. Expended. 
Shellfish Control, Ch. 300 — Acts 1925 $3,130 76 $1,006 35 

GEORGE H. BIGELOW, M.D., 

Commissioner of Public Health. 



MASSACHUSETTS STATISTICS FOR 1926. 

Estimated population . . . . . . . . 4,213,693 

Death rate per 1,000 population . . . . . . 12.& 

Infant mortality ...... 73.4 per 1,000 live births 



10 P.D. 34. 

Eepoet of the Division of Sanitaey Engineeeing. 

X. H. GooDNOUGH, Director and Chief Engineer. ^ . 

Oversight and Care op Inland Waters. - 

Water Supply and Sewerage. 

The number of applications for the approval of plans for systems of water supply^ 
drainage and sewerage, and for advice relative thereto, has increased steadily in the 
years since the close of the war, and the year 1926 has proved no exception to this 
rule. The total number of applications and petitions received during the year 
aggregated 322, of which 239 related to water supply, 5 to sources of ice supply, 37 
to sewerage and sewage disposal, 9 to pollution of streams, and 32 to miscellaneous 
matters. A new water supply was introduced during the year in the town of Lynn- 
fieldby means of an extension of the water supply system of the city of Lynn to 
portions of that town. The total number of cities and towns supplied with water 
from public works during the year was 219 out of a total of 355 cities and towns in 
the State. 

The rainfall for the year 1926 in the State as a whole as deduced from 8 stations 
in different parts of the State having records of 50 years or more was about 4.58 
inches less than the normal. The deficiency was quite general throughout the 
State except in the southeastern portion, where it was slight. The rainfall ex- 
ceeded the normal in the months of February, October and November and was 
deficient in all of the other months, the deficiency being comparatively slight in 
July, August and December. 

The rainfall on the watershed of Wachusett Reservoir which is approximately in 
the central part of the State was 39.31 inches, or 5.74 inches less than the average 
for the past 30 years, which has amounted to 45.05 inches. The average flow from 
the watershed during the year was 826,000 gallons per square mile per day, or 
255,000 gallons per day less than the average for the past 30 years, which has 
amounted to 1,081,000 gallons per square mile per day. 

In consequence of the deficiency, in rainfall and the increasing consumption of 
water in the Metropolitan Water District and demands upon the Metropolitan 
system for emergency supplies, Wachusett Reservoir was drawn down to a level of 
363.24 feet or about 32 feet below the normal and 10.2 feet below the level at the 
end of 1925. Notwithstanding the low level to which the water has been drawn, 
the usual excellent quality of the water has been maintained throughout the year. 

Metropolitan Water Supply. 
After the consideration of various plans for enlarging the water supply of the 
Metropohtan Water District the Legislature at its session of 1926 adopted without 
modification the plan recommended by the Department of Public Health and a 
majority of the Metropolitan District Commission in their report to the Legislature 
of 1922 which was printed as House Document 1550 of that year. By the enact- 
ment of Chapter 375 of the Acts of the year 1926 the Legislature provided for the 
appointment of a commission to be known as the Special Metropohtan District 
Water Supply Commission and directed it to construct a tunnel to the Ware River 
at Coldbrook Springs, to acquire property and water rights in the valley of the 
Swift River for the further extension of the system to include the Swift River and to 
provide for the construction of the proposed great reservoir within the watershed of 
that stream. This act, which requires the construction of the works in accordance 
with the Joint Board plan, was signed by the Governor on May 29, 1926, and the 
commission was subsequently appointed and had entered upon the work before the 
end of the year. The plan when carried out will provide an ample supply of water 
of the same excellent quality furnished by Wachusett Reservoir in ample quantity 
for the needs of the district for many years. Provision is also made in the act for 
an additional water supply for the city of Worcester to be taken from the Quine- 
poxet River, one of the principal tributaries of Wachusett Reservoir, from which 
the water is to be diverted by pumping to the storage reservoirs of the city of 
Worcester. 



P.D. 34. 11 

The Sanitary Protection of Public Water Supplies. 

The great majority of the inhabitants of the State are supplied with surface 
waters taken from natural lakes or ponds or from artificial reservoirs constructed for 
the purpose. In a very few cases these watersheds contain small villages and most 
of them contain a number of farms, and for the protection of these watersheds rules 
and regulations have been established by this Department under the authority of 
legislative acts. Ever since the beginning of the introduction of municipal water 
supplies 50 years or more ago the population of rural districts has been gradually 
decreasing and comparatively little difficulty has been encountered in protecting 
adequately the purity of public supplies. Furthermore, the acts under which 
water supplies have been introduced have nearly always contained authority for 
the municipality controlling the works to acquire lands about its sources of supply 
to protect them from occupation or from uses unfavorable to the purity of the 
supply. Provision is also made in the general laws whereby cities, towns and fire 
districts are authorized to take lands by eminent domain for the protection of their 
water supplies, subject to the approval of this Department. Under these laws many 
cities and towns have acquired such lands within their watersheds as were 
necessary to prevent their unfavorable occupation, but in the comparatively 
few cases where adequate protection has not been secured difficulties are 
arising in the proper protection of the sources of supply. The introduction of 
motor transportation, furthermore, has made possible the occupation of lands 
formerly too remote from centers of population and industry to permit of their use 
for occupation, and under these conditions the watersheds of water supplies near 
the large centers of population, and especially the neighborhood of the Metropolitan 
District, have rapidly become more populous in recent years. In consequence of 
the impracticability of adequately protecting their watersheds from a growing 
population, a serious question has arisen in a number of cities and towns as to the 
practicability of continuing the use of existing sources of supply, and in some of 
them filtration has already been resorted to or is under consideration. The use of 
water more or less directly polluted by sewage and other wastes of human life and 
industry is undesirable, no matter how effectively it may be treated for the purpose 
of neutralizing the effects of pollution. It is fortunate that so many of the public 
water supplies of the State have been protected by the foresight of the managers of 
these works who have secured such adequate control of their watersheds that they 
can continue to be used with safety for an indefinite time. The continuation of 
this wise policy will no doubt secure such further protection as is the case of most of 
the sources of supply in use. 

Rules and regulations for the sanitary protection of the public water supplies 
have been established by this Department for the protection of the water supplies of 
70 cities and towns in previous years, and similar rules were enacted during the past 
year for the Tatnuck Brook watershed of the city of Worcester and for the Lake- 
ville State Sanatorium and the Norfolk State Hospital. 

The cities, towns and districts for which rules and regulations had been estab- 
lished up to the end of the year are the following: 



Abington and Rockland 

Adams 

Amherst 

Andover 

Ashburnham 

Ashfield 

Attleboro 

Braintree 

Brockton and Whitman 

Cambridge 

Chester 

Chicopee 

Cohasset 

Concord 

Dalton 



Danvers and Middleton 

Easthampton 

Fall River 

Falmouth 

Fitchburg 

Gardner 

Great Barrington 

(Housatonic) 
Greenfield 
Haverhill 

Hingham and Hull 
Holden 
Holyoke 
Hudson 
Lakeville (State Sanatorium) 



Lee 

Leicester (Cherry Valley 

and Rochdale) 
Leominster 
Lincoln and Concord 
Lynn 

Marlborough 
Maynard 

Medfield (State Hospital) 
Metropolitan Water 

District 
Milford 
Montague 
Newburyport ■ 
Norfolk (State Hospital) 



12 

Northampton 

North Andover 

Northborough 

Norwood 

Peabody 

Pittsfield 

Plymouth 

Randolph and Holbrook 



P.D. 34. 



Rockport 

Russell 

Rutland 

Salem and Beverly 

Springfield 

Springfield and 

Ludlow 
Stockbridge 



Taunton 

Wakefield 

Westfield 

West Springfield 

Weymouth 

Williamsburg 

Winchester 

Worcester 



Examination of Public Water Supplies. 
The usual chemical and microscopical examinations of the waters of public 
water supplies have been made during the year, and many of the sources have been 
inspected by the engineers of the Division. Bacterial analyses have been made of 
many of the sources of supply, including those of the Metropolitan District. The 
average yearly results of chemical analyses of water from the public sources of 
supply examined during the year 1926 are given in the following table. 

Analyses of the Water of Public Water Supplies. 
Averages of Chemical Analyses of Surface-Water Sources for the Year 1926. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 











O 

OJ o 


Ammonia. 


i 










ALBUMINOID. 


i 


City or Town. 


Source. 




3 n 






• 


c 


^ 






i 

O 


1^ 


6 


1 


^1 


'% 
3 
o 




Metropolitan Water Dis- 


















trict .... 


Wachusett Reservoir, upper end 


.25 


4.22 


.0037 


.0153 


.0032 


.29 


1.2 




Wachusett Reservoir, lower end 


.09 


3.84 


.0021 


.0114 


.0025 


.28 


1.3 




Sudbury Reservoir . 


.12 


4.09 


.0025 


.0125 


.0017 


.31 


1.4 




Framingham Reservoir No 


3 . 


.11 


4.38 


.0025 


.0136 


.0026 


.32 


1.4 




Hopkinton Reservoir . 




.38 


4.38 


.0023 


.0147 


.0017 


.37 


1.3 




Ashland Reservoir 




.43 


4.64 


.0037 


.0163 


.0022 


.36 


1.3 




Framingham Reservoir No 


2 ; 


.57 


6.46 


.0073 


.0196 


.0043 


.76 


1.7 




Lake Cochituate 




.12 


7.47 


.0032 


.0177 


.0035 


.79 


2.8 




Chestnut Hill Reservoir 




.12 


4.11 


.0021 


.0121 


.0022 


.33 


1.6 




Weston Reservoir 




.10 


3.89 


.0027 


.0114 


.0014 


.32 


1.5 




Spot Pond . 




.06 


4.02 


.0030 


.0144 


.0028 


.35 


1.5 




Tap in State House . 




.11 


4.21 


.0015 


.0120 


.0026 


.32 


1.5 




Tap in Revere . 




.06 


3.93 


.0015 


.0119 


.0017 


.34 


1.6 




Tap in Quincy . 




.10 


4.07 


.0010 


.0102 


.0016 


.33 


1.6 


Abington 


Big Sandy Pond 




.04 


3.89 


.0056 


.0137 


.0021 


.69 


0.8 


Adams (Fire District) . 


Dry Brook . 




.15 


7.66 


.0010 


.0100 


.0026 


.15 


4.7 




Bassett Brook 




.00 


4.92 


.0007 


.0062 


.0011 


.13 


3.0 


Amherst 


Amethyst Brook large reservoir . 


.44 


3.95 


.0022 


.0143 


.0028 


.16 


1.0 




Amethyst Brook small reservoir . 


.16 


3.76 


.0043 


.0151 


.0038 


.18 


1.1 


Andover 


Haggett's Pond . . . . 


.11 


4.65 


.0021 


.0145 


.0020 


.39 


2.0 


Ashburnham 


Upper Naukeag Lake 


.06 


2.71 


.0008 


.0055 


.0004 


.15 


0.8 


Ash field 


Bear Swamp Brook 


.19 


6.17 


.0019 


.0120 


.0012 


.16 


3.1 


Athol .... 


Phillipston Reservoir . 


.36 


4.41 


.0090 


.0220 


.0062 


.16 


1.1 




Buckman Brook Reservoir 


.17 


4.07 


.0058 


.0213 


.0079 


.16 


0.8 




Thousand Acre Meadow Brook . 


1.20 


5.89 


.0066 


.0226 


.0033 


.16 


1.5 




Inlet of filter .... 


.35 


4.10 


.0060 


.0183 


.0034 


.14 


1.1 




Outlet of filter . 




.33 


4.17 


.0036 


.0166 


.0032 


.14 


1.2 


Barre .... 


Reservoir 




.10 


4.33 


.0029 


.0149 


.0031 


.21 


1.5 


Blandford (Fire District) 


Freeland Brook . 




.00 


4.40 


.0007 


.0033 


.0002 


.23 


1.3 


Brockton 


Silver Lake . 




.06 


3.77 


.0039 


.0129 


.0025 


.58 


0.9 


Brookfield 


Cooley Hill Reservoir 




.02 


4.70 


.0008 


.0129 


.0015 


.32 


1.5 


Cambridge . 


Lower Hobbs Brook Reservoir . 


.12 


5.64 


.0050 


.0194 


.0029 


.44 


2.3 




Upper Hobbs Brook Reservoir . 


.42 


6.06 


.0057 


.0217 


.0049 


.42 


2.3 




Stony Brook Reservoir 


.33 


6.67 


.0034 


.0183 


.0027 


.53 


2.5 




Fresh Pond 




.06 


8.90 


.0062 


.0186 


.0037 


.69 


4.2 


Cheshire 


Thunder Brook . 




.01 


6.58 


.0044 


.0038 


.0003 


.11 


4.4 




Kitchen Brook 




.00 


5.55 


.0009 


.0044 


.0007 


.09 


3.1 


Chester (Fire District) . 


Austin Brook Reservoir 




.17 


3.92 


.0027 


.0110 


.0011 


.12 


1.5 




Horn Pond . 




.13 


4.15 


.0043 


.0197 


.0057 


.12 


1.7 


Chicopee 


Morton Brook 




.06 


5.08 


.0031 


.0056 


.0014 


.29 


1.5 




Cooley Brook 




.38 


5.43 


.0057 


.0122 


.0025 


.21 


1.6 


Clinton .... 


Tap in town 




.13 


3.94 


.0014 


.0111 


.0025 


.23 


1.4 


Colrain (Griswoldville) 


McClellan Reservoir . 




.01 


7.85 


.0010 


.0067 


.0006 


.13 


4.5 


Colrain (Fire District 




















No. 1) . . . 


Mountain Brook Reservoir 




.04 


9.17 


.0006 


.0050 


.0007 


.13 


6.6 


Concord 


Nagog Pond 




.05 


3.50 


.0026 


.0092 


.0018 


.38 


1.1 


Dalton (Fire District) . 


Egypt Brook Reservoir 




.16 


4.02 


.0017 


.0089 


.0010 


.11 


1.3 




Windsor Reservoir 




.33 


5.95 


.0027 


.0177 


.0040 


.11 


2.6 




Cady Brook 




.21 


5.21 


.0022 


.0111 


.0020 


.11 


2.8 



P.D. 34. r. ^- J 

Averages of Chemical Analyses of Surface-Water Sources, etc. — Continued. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



13 



City or Town. 



Source. 



O 



° o 



Danvers 

Deerfield (South Deer- 
field Water Supply 
District) 

Egremont (South) 

Fall River . 

Falmouth 

FiTCHBURG . 



Gardner 
Gloucester . 



Great Barrington (Fire 

District) 
Great Barrington 

(Housatonic) 
Greenfield 

Hadley (Water Supply 

District) 
Hatfield 
Haverhill . 



Hingham 

Hinsdale (Fire District) 
Holyoke 



Hudson . . . • 
Huntington (Fire Dis- 
trict) . . . . 
Ipswich . . . ■ 
Lawrence . 
Lee . . . . 



Lenox . 
Leominster 



Lincoln . 

Longmeadow 

Lynn 



Manchester . 
Marlborough 

Maynard 
Milford . 
Montague 
Nantucket 
New Bedford 

Newburyport 
North Adams 



Northampton 



North Andover 
Northborough 



Middleton Pond 
Swan Pond . 



Roaring Brook . 
Goodale Brook 
North Watuppa Lake 
Long Pond . 
Meetinghouse Pond 
Scott Reservoir . 
Wachusett Lake . 
Falulah Brook . 
Ashby Reservoir 
Crystal Lake 
Dike's Brook Reservoir 
Wallace Reservoir 
Haskell Brook Reservoir 

East Mountain Reservoir 

Long Pond . 

Glen Brook Upper Reservoir 

Glen Brook Lower Reservoir 



Hart's Brook Reservoir 

Running Gutter Brook Reservoir 

Johnson's Pond . 

Crystal Lake 

Kenoza Lake 

Lake Saltonstall . 

Pentucket Lake . 

Millvale Reservoir 

Accord Pond 

Fulling Mill Pond 

Reservoir 

Whiting Street Reservoir 

Fomer Reservoir 

Wright and Ashley Pond 

High Service Reservoir 

White Reservoir . 

Gates Pond 

Cold Brook Reservoir 

Dow's Brook Reservoir 

Merrimack River, filtered 

Codding Brook Upper Reservoir 

Codding Brook Lower Reservoir 

Basin Pond Brook 

Reservoir 

Laurel Lake 

Morse Reservoir . 

Haynes Reservoir 

Fall Brook Reservoir . 

Sandy Pond 

Cooley Brook 

Birch Reservoir . 

Breed's Reservoir 

Walden Reservoir 

Hawkes Reservoir 

Gravel Pond 

Lake Williams 

Millham Brook Reservoir 

White Pond 

Charles River, filtered 

Lake Pleasant 

Wannacomet Pond 

Little Quittacas Pond 

Great Quittacas Pond 

Artichoke River . 

Notch Brook Reservoir 

Broad Brook 

Mount Williams Reservoir 

Middle Reservoir 

Mountain Street Reservoir 

Great Pond 

Lower Reservoir . 

Upper Reservoir ■ 



Ammonia. 



.07 
.15 
.03 

.10 

.28 

.36 

.11 

.11 

.50 

.02 

.07 

.12 

.14 

.08 

.02 

.08 

.07 

.31 

.47 

.50 

.08 

.09 

.40 

.08 

.27 

.01 

.11 

.23 

.32 

.32 

.03 

.09 

.02 

.25 

.05 

.09 

.52 

.52 



4.94 
5.32 



7.10 
5.05 
4.17 
4.10 
3.08 
3.72 
3.08 
3.97 
3.53 
4.80 
4.41 
4.51 
4.20 

5.96 

7.87 
5.97 
5.45 

4.60 
8.22 
5.26 
4.00 
5.26 
6.68 
5.19 
5.84 
4.18 
5.65 
3.08 
5.90 
4.13 
5.37 
4.50 
3.90 
4.32 

3.75 
6.23 
6.24 
4.85 
4.51 
4.50 
8.05 
16.74 
3.19 
3.13 
2.98 
3.73 
5.92 
5.30 
6.42 
7.12 
7.47 
4.40 
5.68 
5.67 
3.50 
5.67 
3.78 
8.08 
4.30 
4.45 
7.37 
8.19 
4.81 
7.40 
4.42 
4.11 
5.46 
5.25 
5.14 



albuminoid. 



.0042 
.0060 



.0009 
.0005 
.0036 
.0015 
.0035 
.0099 
.0035 
.0045 
.0060 
.0027 
.0047 
.0025 
.0012 

.0024 

.0037 
.0029 
.0029 

.0009 
.0043 
.0034 
.0015 
.0037 
.0057 
.0029 
.0034 
.0031 
.0079 
.0013 
.0079 
.0062 
.0039 
.0040 
.0052 
.0048 

.0004 
.0038 
.0059 
.0014 
.0028 
.0034 
.0007 
.0043 
.0036 
.0076 
.0029 
.0015 
.0050 
.0115 
.0081 



.0014 
.0031 
.0058 
.0013 
.0016 
.0012 
.0043 
.0033 
.0023 
.0284 
.0020 
.0027 
.0024 
.0030 
.0018 
.0030 
.0038 
.0051 



.0184 
.0203 



.0062 

.0038 

.0124 I 

.0081 

.0142 

.0161 

.0136 

.0139 

.0154 

.0126 

.0106 

.0155 

.0090 

.0097 



.0020 
.0038 



.0007 
.0014 
.0024 
.0012 
.0024 
.0035 
.0022 
.0031 
.0029 
.0017 
.0011 
.0024 
.0022 

.0013 



.0206 .0053 
.0083 .0005 
.0109 .0020 



.0082 
.0081 
.0155 
.0148 
.0221 
.0211 
.0189 
.0157 
.0113 
.0203 
.0085 
.0157 
.0186 
.0172 
.0148 
.0155 
.0133 

.0049 

.0160 

.0085 

.0083 

.0089 

.0161 

.0069 

.0210 

.0137 

.0249 

.0112 

.0099 

.0101 

.0160 

.0191 

.0213 

.0259 

.0119 

.0219 

.0202 

.0093 

.0090 

.0068 

.0169 

.0165 

.0161 

.0421 

.0052 

.0077 

.0076 

.0114 

.0083 

.0163 

.0229 

.0238 



.0017 
.0027 
.0023 
.0020 
.0072 
.0054 
.0066 
.0028 
.0014 
.0058 
.0016 
.0037 
.0053 
.0035 
.0034 
.0032 
.0018 

.0006 
.0027 

.0010 
.0009 
.0020 
.0006 
.0048 
.0022 
.0066 
.0021 
.0014 
.0026 
.0030 
.0036 
.0044 
.0041 
.0016 
.0044 
.0038 
.0013 

.0010 
.0078 
.0030 
.0031 
.0120 
.0011 
.0016 
.0010 
.0013 
.0018 
.0023 
.0062 
.0074 



.40 
.37 



1.6 
2.0 



.18 
.10 
.50 
1.07 
.18 
.19 
.19 
.20 
.17 
.30 
.81 
.89 
.78 

.13 3.8 

.15 
.15 
.15 

.19 
.25 
.41 
.34 
.39 
.60 
.41 
.38 
.61 
.70 
.11 
.26 
.16 
.18 
.18 
.14 
.26 

.13 
.66 
.63 
.14 
.15 
.15 
.11 
.23 
.18 
.21 
.21 
.30 
.28 
.69 
.67 
.69 
.77 
.78 
.63 
.42 
.26 
.35 
.18 
2.46 
.52 
.52 
.54 
.10 
.10 
.10 
.16 
.13 
.43 
.25 
.23 



14 P.D. 34. 

Averages of Chemical Analyses of Surface-Water Sources, etc. — Concluded. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





Source. 




a 
o 


Ammonia. 


» 








albuminoid. 


a 

•73 


City or Town. 


g 


:2^ 




3 


i'i 


o 






"o 


sw 




o 


^1 

0. 


2 


M 






O 


« 


(^ 


H 


O 


a 


North Brookfield . 


Doane Pond .... 


.43 


4.42 


.0125 


.0284 


.0066 


.22 


1.1 




North Pond .... 


.46 


4.56 


.0096 


.0299 


.0080 


.23 


1.0 


Northfield . 


Reservoir 


.43 


5.03 


.0018 


.0096 


.0015 


.19 


1.6 


Norwood 


Buckmaster Pond 


.11 


5.05 


.0046 


.0195 


.0064 


.45 


1.7 


Orange .... 


Reservoir 


.08 


4.17 


.0013 


.0051 


.0004 


.15 


0.9 


Palmer (Fire District 


















No. 1) . . . 


Lower Reservoir .... 


.16 


4.87 


.0049 


.0131 


.0029 


.21 


1.1 


Peabody 


Spring Pond .... 


.25 


7.15 


.0106 


.0181 


.0030 


.74 


2.5 




Suntaug Lake .... 


.33 


6.70 


.0120 


.0213 


.0035 


.84 


2.4 


PiTTSFIELD . 


Ashley Lake .... 


.13 


5.61 


.0022 


.0111 


.0018 


.17 


3.8 




Ashley Brook .... 


.16 


5.87 


.0017 


.0097 


.0013 


.15 


4.4 




Hathaway Brook 


.12 


7.88 


.0045 


.0117 


.0061 


.15 


5.7 




Mill Brook 


.42 


4.99 


.0032 


.0176 


.0026 


.14 


2.1 




Sacket Brook .... 


.11 


8.18 


.0012 


.0080 


.0022 


.14 


6.6 




Farnham Reservoir . 


.62 


4.72 


.0034 


.0230 


.0036 


.11 


1.7 


Plymouth 


Little South Pond 


.00 


3.10 


.0015 


.0182 


.0068 


.62 


0.4 




Great South Pond 


.01 


3.17 


.0017 


.0154 


.0035 


.64 


0.4 


Randolph 


Great Pond . . . . 


.29 


5.74 


.0034 


.0175 


.0021 


.74 


1.5 


Rockport 


Cape Pond 


.19 


9.05 


.0022 


.0171 


.0038 


2.99 


2.0 


Russell .... 


Black Brook .... 


.16 


4.85 


.0017 


.0089 


.0002 


.16 


1.7 


Rutland 


Muschopauge Lake 


.05 


3.97 


.0012 


.0099 


.0019 


.40 


1.5 


Salem .... 


Wenham Lake .... 


.30 


7.31 


.0073 


.0208 


.0044 


.88 


2.7 




Longham Reservoir . . 


.84 


7.43 


.0125 


.0290 


.0040 


.93 


2.0 




Ipswich River at pumping sta- 


















tion 


.64 


11.86 


.0223 


.0252 


.0049 


.82 


5.4 


Shelburne (Shelburne 


















Falls Fire District) . 


Fox Brook 


.21 


0.07 


.0022 


.0123 


.0029 


.11 


3.6 


Southbridge . 


Hatchet Brook Reservoir No. 3 . 


.10 


3.52 


.0025 


.0123 


.0027 


.20 


1.1 




Hatchet Brook Reservoir No. 4 . 


.17 


3.15 


.0035 


.0130 


.0021 


.18 


0.9 


South Hadley (Fire Dis- 


















trict No. 1) 


Leaping Well Reservoir 


.04 


3.15 


.0031 


.0107 


.0018 


.18 


1.0 




Buttery Brook Reservoir . 


.12 


4.65 


.0061 


.0112 


.0021 


.32 


1.4 


Spencer .... 


Shaw Pond 


.05 


3.32 


.0033 


.0167 


.0044 


.21 


1.3 


Spkingfield . 


Westfield Little River, filtered . 


.13 


4.20 


.0010 


.0071 


- 


.14 


1.3 


Stockbridge . 


Lake Averic .... 


.10 


7.06 


.0019 


.0143 


.0020 


.13 


5.6 


Stoughton 


Muddy Pond Brook . 


.18 


5.37 


.0025 


.0127 


.0028 


.37 


1.2 


Taunton 


Assawompsett Pond . 


.19 


3.97 


.0049 


.0163 


.0036 


.50 


0.8 




Elder's Pond .... 


.08 


3.88 


.0043 


.0135 


.0026 


.51 


0.9 


Wakefield . 


Crystal Lake .... 


.13 


7.09 


.0060 


.0176 


.0039 


.87 


2.8 


Wareham (Onset) . 


Jonathan Pond .... 


.02 


3.11 


.0028 


.0096 


.0017 


.67 


0.5 


Wayland 


Snake Brook Reservoir 


.71 


5.55 


.0047 


.0229 


.0017 


.36 


2.0 


Westfield 


Montgomery Reservoir 


.44 


3.45 


.0034 


.0186 


.0048 


.13 


0.7 




Tillotson Brook Reservoir . 


.11 


3.43 


.0031 


.0073 


.0017 


.17 


0.9 


West Springfield . 


Bear Hole Brook 


.10 


7.55 


.0053 


.0090 


.0018 


.20 


4.4 




Bear Hole Brook, filtered . 


.01 


7.37 


.0008 


.0025 


- 


.19 


4.5 


West Stockbridge . 


East Mountain Reservoir . 


.01 


6.55 


.0002 


.0031 


.0003 


.18 


3.0 


Weymouth 


Great Pond .... 


.35 


4.64 


.0021 


.0138 


.0026 


.49 


1.2 


Williamsburg 


Reservoir 


.09 


4.92 


.0003 


.0064 


.0005 


.14 


2.0 


Williamstown 


Rattlesnake Brook 


.00 


8.52 


.0009 


.0053 


.0010 


.08 


6.9 




Paul Brook . . 


.00 


5.62 


.0015 


.0076 


.0013 


.10 


3.9 


Winchester . 


North Reservoir .... 


.02 


4.72 


.0020 


.0148 


.0034 


.41 


1.9 




South Reservoir .... 


.05 


4.26 


.0041 


.0118 


.0017 


.37 


1.7 




Middle Reservoir ... 


.10 


4.25 


.0048 


.0229 


.0063 


.38 


1.7 


Worcester . 


Bottomly Reservoir . 


.49 


6.42 


.0033 


.0195 


.0042 


.34 


2.2 




Kent Reservoir .... 


.12 


4.30 


.0031 


.0143 


.0023 


.23 


1.5 




Leicester Reservoir 


.20 


4.01 


.0037 


.0153 


.0029 


.24 


1.4 




Mann Reservoir . . . 


.12 


4.25 


.0039 


.0170 


.0037 


.23 


1.5 




Upper Holden Reservoir . 


.20 


3.78 


.0049 


.0167 


.0044 


.21 


1.2 




Lower Holden Reservoir . 


.07 


3.72 


.0025 


.0120 


.0022 


.22 


1.2 




Kendall Reservoir 


.07 


4.35 


.0039 


.0145 


.0025 


.20 


1.3 




Pine Hill Reservoir 


.54 


5.41 


.0259 


.0245 


.0054 


.27 


1.6 



P.D. 34. 

Averages of Chemical Analyses of Ground-Water Sources for the Year 1926. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



15 





Source. 






Ammonia.. 


6 

a 


Nitrogen 

AS — 


f- 




City or Town. 




12 


S 


1 










"2 > 


i 


=1 S 


'% 
3 


1 




"2 

c3 


p 






U 


tf 


£ 


< 


o 


S 


g 


w 


1— ) 


Acton (West and South 






















Water Supply Dis- 






















trict) 


Tubular wells 


.00 


8.95 


.0006 


.0020 


.40 


.0860 


.0000 


3.5 


.004 


Adams (Fire District) . 


Tubular wells 


.00 


14.20 


.0000 


.0007 


.14 


.0255 


.0000 


12.3 


.004 


Amesbury . 


Tubular wells 


.15 


17.32 


.0074 


.0044 


.50 


.0050 


.0000 


8.6 


.447 


Ashland 


Tubular wells, old 






















supply 


.00 


5.85 


.0010 


.0019 


.54 


.0030 


.0000 


2.1 


.009 




Tubular wells, new 






















supply 


.03 


6.20 


.0011 


.0034 


.51 


.0048 


.0000 


2,5 


.022 


Attleboro . 


Wells . 


.00 


5.98 


.0010 


.0044 


.43 


.0155 


.0001 


2.2 


.008 


Auburn 


Tubular wells 


.00 


8.24 


.0004 


.0012 


.53 


.1780 


.0001 


3.6 


.006 


Avon .... 


Wells . 


.00 


7.13 


.0006 


.0017 


.67 


.1647 


.0000 


2.7 


.004 


Ayer .... 


Large well 


.00 


7.73 


.0015 


.0029 


.54 


.0663 


.0000 


3.3 


.018 




Tubular wells 


.00 


7.00 


.0017 


.0015 


.34 


.0067 


.0000 


3.3 


.012 


Barnstable . 


Tubular wells 


.00 


5.03 


.0021 


.0029 


1.11 


.0027 


.0000 


1.2 


.011 


Bedford 


Large well 


.00 


4.62 


.0005 


.0019 


.35 


.0065 


.0000 


1.7 


.007 


Billerica 


Wells . 


.13 


10.77 


.0007 


.0050 


.46 


.0071 


.0000 


4.9 


.032 


Braintree 


Filter-gallery 


.00 


16.52 


.0013 


.0059 


1.84 


.5133 


.0001 


5.9 


.007 


Bridgewater 


Wells . 


.00 


6.22 


.0019 


.0028 


.70 


.0485 


.0000 


1.9 


.008 


Brookline 


Tubular wells and 
filter-gallery, fil- 






















tered . 


.04 


9.59 


.0006 


.0060 


.76 


.0207 


.0000 


4.3 


.005 


Canton 


Springdale well 
Well near Henry's 


.05 


6.00 


.0012 


.0051 


.46 


.0290 


.0000 


2.1 


.007 




Spring 


.10 


6.60 


.0009 


.0053 


.49 


.0480 


.0000 


2.2 


.005 


Chelmsford (North 






















Chelmsford Fire Dis- 






















trict) 


Tubular wells 


.09 


5.63 


.0147 


.0079 


.48 


.0653 


.0002 


2.2 


.017 


Chelmsford (Water 






















District) . 


Tubular wells 


.00 


8.85 


.0004 


.0020 


.56 


.0880 


.0013 


3.1 


.017 


Cohasset 


Tubular wells 


.09 


13.50 


.0011 


.0068 


1.83 


.1708 


.0000 


5.3 


.014 




Dug well, filtered . 


.20 


6.96 


.0053 


.0085 


1.04 


.0076 


.0001 


2.3 


.017 


Cummington 


Tubular wells 


.00 


6.77 


.0024 


.0040 


.13 


.0030 


.0000 


3.8 


.011 


Dedham 


Large well and 






















tubular wells 


.02 


10.50 


.0024 


.0057 


1.02 


.1367 


.0001 


4.8 


.008 


Deerfield (Fire Dis- 






















trict) 


Wells . 


.03 


4.30 


.0006 


.0020 


.16 


.0028 


.0000 


1.9 


.010 


Douglas 


Tubular wells 


.00 


6.05 


.0011 


.0019 


.40 


.0655 


.0000 


2.0 


.007 


Dracut (Water Supply 






















District) . 


Tubular wells 


.01 


13.42 


.0012 


.0021 


.73 


.1858 


.0001 


6.0 


.024 


Dracut (Collinsville) . 


Tubular wells 


.19 


7.00 


.0008 


.0075 


.43 


.0202 


.0000 


2.4 


.031 


Dudley 


Tubular wells 


.00 


4.40 


.0003 


.0022 


.26 


.0053 


.0000 


1.5 


.005 


Dunstable . 


Well 


.00 


5.00 


.0005 


.0028 


.20 


.0020 


.0000 


2.0 


.005 


Duxbury (Fire and 






















Water District) 


Tubular wells 


.00 


4.37 


.0003 


.0017 


.81 


.0077 


.0000 


0.9 


.005 


East Brookfield . 


Tubular wells 


.00 


4.17 


.0011 


.0023 


.25 


.0050 


.0000 


1.4 


.008 


Easthampton 


Tubular wells 


.00 


7.60 


.0005 


.0016 


.17 


.0233 


.0000 


3.8 


.006 


Easton (North Easton 






















Village District) 


Well 


.00 


6.10 


.0007 


.0024 


.53 


.0601 


.0001 


2.2 


.010 


Edgartown . 


Large well 


.00 


3.77 


.0003 


.0017 


.94 


.0030 


.0000 


0.5 


.009 


Fairhaven . 


Old wells 


.37 


8.28 


.0020 


.0106 


1.06 


.0586 


.0000 


3.1 


.014 




New wells 


.00 


7.50 


.0000 


.0016 


1.13 


.1200 


.0001 


2.2 


.007 


Foxborough (Water 






















Supply District) 


Tubular wells 


.00 


6.33 


.0005 


.0016 


.49 


.0423 


.0000 


1.8 


.007 


Framingham 


Filter-gallery 


.01 


20.77 


.0010 


.0028 


1.44 


.1072 


.0000 


9.1 


.012 


Franklin 


Tubular wells 


.00 


6.10 


.0005 


.0023 


.60 


.0317 


.0001 


2.2 


.008 


Grafton 


Filter-gallery 


.04 


12.93 


.0009 


.0045 


1.52 


.2333 


.0000 


4.7 


.007 


Granville _ . 


Well . 


.00 


4.87 


.0004 


.0019 


.14 


.0017 


.0000 


1.0 


.004 


Great Barrington 


Well near Green 






















River 


.01 


8.25 


.0016 


.0047 


.11 


- 


- 


7.2 


.005 




Filter-gallery near 






















Green River 


.00 


8.07 


.0003 


.0036 


.13 


- 


- 


6.5 


.007 


Greenfield . 


Well near Green 






















River 


.00 


7.50 


.0006 


.0020 


.09 


.0030 


.0000 


4.7 


.007 


Groton 


Large well 


.00 


8.23 


.0014 


.0034 


.23 


.0037 


.0000 


3.9 


.005 


Groton (West Groton 






















Water Supply Dis- 






















trict) 


Tubular wells 


.05 


6.27 


.0010 


.0015 


.23 


.0095 


.0000 


3.5 


.044 


Hingham 


Wells . 


.13 


6.91 


.0017 


.0058 


.70 


.0148 


.0000 


2.2 


.009 


Holliston 


Large well 


.43 


5.63 


.0032 


.0164 


.34 


.0041 


.0000 


1.7 


.036 


Hopkinton . 


Tubular wells 


.00 


10.77 


.0003 


.0017 


.62 


.1510 


.0001 


3.9 


.008 


Kingston 


Tubular wells 


.00 


6.07 


.0003 


.0009 


.68 


.0045 


.0000 


1.4 


.005 


Leicester (Water Sup- 






















ply District) . 


Wells . 


.04 


7.55 


.0007 


.0034 


.26 


.0382 


.0000 


2.8 


.013 


Leicester (Cherry Val- 






















ley and Rochdale 






















Water District) 


Wells . 


.24 


5.62 


.0044 


.0144 


.37 


.0027 


.0000 


2.1 


.013 



16 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Ground-Water Sources, etc. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



P.D. 34. 
Continued. 





Source. 




a 
o 

§1 

OJ o 

3 a 


Amm 


ONIA. 


a 


Nitrogen 

AS — 


c 

1-1 

03 




City or Town. 




.'S 


i 


£ 












i 


1 ^ 

a c 




1 


'B 


a 
p 






O 


« 


£ 


< 


o 


z 


S 


« 


u 


Littleton 


Tubular wells 


.00 


4.07 


.0004 


.0023 


.25 


.0160 


.0000 


1.7 


.011 


Lowell 


Boulevard wells 






















(tubular) . 


.55 


7.55 


.0357 


.0061 


.49 


.0252 


.0002 


2.6 


.301 




Boulevard wells, 






















filtered 


.04 


6.60 


.0004 


.0030 


.49 


.0338 


.0000 


2.4 


.015 


Manchester . 


Wells . 


.01 


11.66 


.0007 


.0015 


1.73 


.1370 


.0000 


4.2 


.018 


Mansfield (Water Sup- 






















ply District) 


Large well 


.00 


4.52 


.0006 


.0015 


.31 


.0282 


.0000 


1.4 


.008 


Marblehead . 


Inlet of filter 


.15 


18.39 


.0072 


.0054 


1.80 


.0072 


.0001 


8.6 


.131 




Outlet of filter 


.02 


20.51 


.0012 


.0053 


2.04 


.0074 


.0000 


11.1 


.007 




Well 


.04 


22.34 


.0008 


.0051 


2.64 


.0095 


.0000 


11.5 


.011 


Marion 


Tubular wells 


.00 


5,70 


.0005 


.0025 


.70 


.0307 


.0000 


1.5 


.005 


Marshfield . 


Tubular wells at 






















Humarock Beach 


.00 


7.85 


.0004 


.0017 


2.06 


.0360 


.0000 


2.6 


.010 




New wells at Brant 






















Rock . 


.00 


7.80 


.0001 


.0014 


2.05 


.0265 


.0000 


1.5 


.005 


Mattapoisett 


Tubular wells 


.00 


6.95 


.0009 


.0020 


1.06 


.0572 


.0001 


2.8 


.013 


Medfield 


Spring . 


.02 


4.77 


.0022 


.0063 


.32 


.0057 


.0000 


1.5 


.009 


Med way 


Wells . 


.00 


8.07 


.0020 


.0027 


.75 


.0433 


.0001 


2.9 


.010 


Merrimac 


Tubular wells 


.00 


9.30 


.0004 


.0017 


.50 


.0290 


.0000 


3.5 


.011 


Methuen 


Tubular wells at 






















Harris Brook 


.30 


7.97 


.0046 


.0096 


.48 


.0222 


.0000 


3.1 


.041 




Tubular wells at 






















Pine Island 


.01 


10.96 


.0005 


.0035 


.66 


.0850 


.0002 


6.9 


.021 


Middleborough (Fire 






















District) . 


Well . 


.16 


7.78 


.0116 


.0065 


.63 


.0353 


.0000 


2.5 


.426 




Filtered water 


.04 


6.08 


.0005 


.0029 


.63 


.0352 


.0000 


2.2 


.020 


Millbury 


Well 


.00 


5.95 


.0006 


.0030 


.37 


.0320 


.0000 


2.5 


.006 


Millis .... 


Spring . 


.00 


12.66 


.0007 


.0015 


.88 


.2700 


.0000 


5.7 


.006 


Monson 


Large well 


.05 


4.57 


.0006 


.0040 


.19 


.0052 


.0000 


1.2 


.006 


Monterey 


Springs . 


.00 


10.40 


.0004 


.0027 


.13 


.0032 


.0000 


7.9 


.005 


Nantucket . 


Wells at Wyers 






















Valley 


.00 


5.07 


.0003 


.0008 


1.77 


.0033 


.0000 


1.2 


.010 


Natick . ; . . 


Large well 


.00 


10.52 


.0005 


.0022 


.98 


.0448 


.0000 


5.5 


.006 


Needham 


Wells . _ . 


.00 


7.70 


.0003 


.0017 


.71 


.1343 


.0000 


3.1 


.006 




Hicks Spring 


.00 


10.45 


.0005 


.0018 


.94 


.4133 


.0000 


3.6 


.007 


Newburyport . 


Wells and Artichoke 






















River, filtered . 


.10 


6.71 


.0014 


.0112 


.60 


.0156 


.0000 


2.7 


.019 


Newton 


Tubular wells and 






















filter-gallery 


.11 


7.46 


.0015 


.0069 


.58 


.0380 


.0000 


3.2 


.020 


North Attleborough . 


Wells . 


.01 


7.42 


.0015 


.0039 


.55 


.0375 


.0000 


2.6 


.012 


Northbridge 


Tubular wells 


.03 


4.26 


.0006 


.0019 


.29 


.0062 


.0000 


1.4 


.006 


Norton 


Tubular wells 


.00 


4.65 


.0004 


.0013 


.34 


.0035 


.0000 


1.5 


.016 


Norwood 


Tubular wells 


.08 


9.58 


.0039 


.0045 


.62 


.0513 


.0001 


4.0 


.064 


Oak Bluffs . 


Springs . 


.00 


4.87 


.0007 


.0031 


.98 


.0063 


.0002 


0.9 


.005 


Oxford .... 


Tubular wells 


.00 


6.40 


.0004 


.0020 


.34 


.0373 


.0001 


2.1 


.00.5 


Palmer (Bondsville) . 


Tubular wells 


.00 


7.80 


.0003 


.0019 


.28 


.0310 


.0000 


2.4 


.008 


Pepperell 


Tubular wells 


.01 


3.93 


.0005 


.0021 


.17 


.0033 


.0000 


1.5 


.004 


Provincetown 


Tubular wells 


.04 


30.50 


.0001 


.0009 


12.83 


.0040 


.0000 


6.3 


.032 


Reading 


Filter-gallery 


.71 


9.98 


.0132 


.0143 


1.24 


.0073 


.0000 


2,7 


.211 




Filtered water 


.40 


17.78 


.0011 


.0101 


1.22 


.0058 


.0002 


9.9 


.040 


Salisbury 


Old well 


.14 


7.26 


.0012 


.0052 


.55 


.0025 


.0000 


3.0 


.011 




New well 


.12 


10.05 


.0008 


.0019 


.55 


.0026 


.0000 


5.4 


.043 


Scituate 


Tubular wells 


.00 


14.72 


.0008 


.0024 


2.57 


.1960 


.0000 


5.4 


.005 


Sharon 


Well 


.00 


17.02 


.0005 


.0021 


2.84 


.3800 


.0000 


7.9 


.005 




Tubular wells 


.00 


6.57 


.0005 


.0019 


.57 


.0512 


.0000 


2.3 


.005 


Sheffield 


Spring . 


.00 


4.53 


.0007 


.0022 


.10 


.0037 


.0000 


2.1 


.005 


Shirley (Shirley Village 






















Water District) 


Well 


.00 


5.00 


.0010 


.0016 


.39 


.1600 


.0000 


1.4 


.006 


Shrewsbury 


Tubular wells 


.02 


6.05 


.0014 


.0046 


.42 


.0267 


.0001 


2.3 


.004 


South Hadley (Fire 






















District No. 2) 


Large well 


.00 


4.48 


.0002 


.0014 


.16 


.0283 


.0000 


1.4 


.004 


Sunderland . 


Springs . 


.00 


8.00 


.0003 


.0018 


.14 


.0020 


.0000 


4.6 


.011 


Tisbury 


Well 


.00 


4.75 


.0001 


.0010 


.98 


.0030 


.0000 


0.9 


.005 


Uxbridge 


Tubular wells 


.00 


6.00 


.0009 


.0023 


.44 


.0530 


.0000 


2.1 


.020 


Walpole 


Tubular wells 


.00 


5.80 


.0005 


.0023 


.41 


.0390 


.0000 


2,4 


.006 


Waltham . 


Old well 


.12 


10.08 


.0049 


.0028 


.78 


.0098 


.0000 


4,2 


.093 




New well 


.00 


7.85 


.0008 


.0036 


.56 


.0188 


.0000 


3.4 


.006 


Ware .... 


Wells . 


.00 


7.38 


.0008 


.0025 


.49 


.1381 


.0000 


2.9 


.006 




Large well 


.00 


7.44 


.0007 


.0022 


.45 


.1259 


.0000 


2,7 


.005 


Wareham (Fire District) 


Tubular wells 


.00 


4.77 


.0004 


.0017 


.58 


.0020 


.0000 


1,1 


,004 


Warren 


Tubular wells 


.00 


4.02 


.0001 


.0014 


.23 


.0205 


.0000 


1.3 


,005 


Webster 


Wells . 


.00 


5.65 


.0021 


.0030 


.34 


.0105 


.0000 


2.0 


.006 


Wellesley . 


Tubular wflls 
Well at Williams 


.00 


10.77 


.0012 


.0028 


1.07 


.0563 


.0000 


4.8 


.00 J 




Spring 


.01 


13.97 


.0009 


.0053 


1.96 


.1187 


.0000 


5.4 


.005 




Filter-gallery 


.00 


11.18 


.0009 


.00.30 


1.20 


.0812 


.0000 


4,8 


.006 



P.D. 34. 17 

Averages of Chemical Analyses of Ground-Water Sources, etc. — Concluded. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





Source. 




d 
o 


Ammonia. 


6 

a 


Nitrogen 

AS— 


i 




City or Town. 




3 


S 


i 








u 

o 




£ 


3 2 


t4 

3 


a! 


'B 


T3 


a 
p 






O 




fe 


<" 


O 


2 


•z 


a 


^ 


Westborough 


Filter basin . 


.01 


3.85 


.0021 


.0095 


.28 


- 


- 


1.2 


.007 


West Brookfield . 


Tubular wells 


.00 


3.77 


.0006 


.0016 


.26 


.0063 


.0000 


1,5 


.006 


Westford 


Tubular wells 


.02 


5.70 


.0009 


.0026 


.21 


.0065 


.0001 


2.3 


.014 


Weston 


Well at Warren Ave. 
Tubular wells at 


.22 


7.85 


.0009 


.0077 


.58 


.0207 


.0000 


3.8 


.011 




Kendal Green . 


.00 


8.05 


.0000 


.0012 


.64 


.0765 


.0000 


3.4 


.006 


West Stockbridge 


Johnson's Spring . 


.00 


12.30 


.0005 


.0015 


.12 


.0015 


.0000 


8.7 


.014 


Williamstown 


Cold Spring . 


.00 


14.00 


.0004 


.0015 


.08 


.0313 


.0000 


14.1 


.006 




Sherman Spring . 


.00 


11.27 


.0008 


.0034 


.10 


.0050 


.0000 


V.2 


.005 


Winchendon 


Old wells 


.09 


3.80 


.0012 


.0056 


.15 


.0044 


.0000 


1.3 


.018 




New wells 


.25 


3.54 


.0008 


.0066 


.14 


.0042 


.0000 


1.2 


.005 


WOBURN 


Filter-gallery 


.00 


12.12 


.0018 


.0035 


1.15 


.0237 


.0000 


5.2 


.007 


Worthington (Fire Dis- 






















trict) 


Springs . 


.01 


5.48 


.0027 


.0035 


.14 


.0013 


.0000 


1.5 


.02'/ 


Wrentham . 


Tubular wells 


.00 


5.07 


.0003 


.0015 


.31 


.0190 


.0000 


1.6 


.004 



Consumption of Water. 

A summary of the records of consumption of water as shown by pumping records 
or meter measurements kept in the various cities and towns is given in the following 
table, including the estimated population of each city and town and the consump- 
tion of water per person. The estimated population is based on the increase which 
took place in the cities and towns included in the table in the years 1920 to 1925. 
The apparently excessive consumption of water in some of the cities and towns is 
due to the use of large quantities of water for manufacturing and in others to the 
fact that the town is a resort of large numbers of people ill the summer season not 
included in the census. 



Average Daily Consumption o 


/ Water 


in Various Cities and Towns in 1926. 






Average 


Daily 






Average 


Daily 




Esti- 
mated 
Popu- 


Consumption. 


City or Town. 


Esti- 
mated 
Popu- 


Consumption. 


City or Town. 




Gallons 




Gallons 




lation. 


Gallons. 


per 
Inhabit- 
ant. 




lation. 


Gallons. 


per 
Inhabit- 
ant. 


Metropolitan Water 








Beverly . 


22,710 


1,451,000 


64 


District 


1,322,253 


130,184,800 


98 


Billerica 


5,166 


273,000 


53 


Arlington 




26,199 


1,504,400 


57 


Braintree . 


13,716 


967,000 


70 


Belmont 




16,157 


1,056,900 


65 


Bridge water 


9,674 


305,000 


31 


Boston . 




785,932 


91,275,700 


116 


Brockton 


65,343 


3,426,000 


52 


Chelsea 




48,060 


3,474,400 


72 


Brookline . 


43,668 


4,207,000 


96 


Everett 




42,463 


5,215,900 


123 


Cambridge 


121,664 


12,309,000 


101 


Lexington 




8,072 


517,000 


64 


Canton 


5,896 


433,000 


73 


Malden 




52,326 


3,139,800 


60 


Chelmsford 


6,751 


181,000 


27 


Medford 




49,345 


2,522,400 


51 


Chicopee . 


43,016 


2,675,000 


62 


Melrose 




20,557 


1,379,600 


67 


Clinton 


14,420 


874,000 


61 


JMilton . 




13,557 


701,600 


52 


Cohasset . 


2,968 


329,000 


111 


Nahant . 




1,692 


178,200 


105 


Concord 


7,175 


595,000 


83 


QUINCY . 




62,491 


4,757,000 


76 


Danvers and Middle- 








Revere 




34,149 


2,263,800 


66 


ton 


13,697 


1,470,000 


107 


SOMERVILLE 




100,220 


7,791,000 


78 


Dartmouth 


9,533 


123,000 


13 


Stoneham 




9,326 


560,000 


60 


Dedham . 


14,543 


832,000 


57 


Swampscott 




9,123 


720,800 


79 


Dracut 


6,624 


128,000 


19 


Watertown 




26,285 


2,059,300 


78 


Dudley 


4,773 


194,000 


41 


Winthrop 




16,299 


1,067,000 


65 


Duxbury . 


1,715 


142,000 


83 


Abington and '. 


^ock- 








East Brookfield 


939 


41,000 


44 


land 




13,951 


573,000 


41 


Easthampton . 


11,652 


814,000 


70 


Acton 




2,432 


117,000 


48 


East Longmeadow . 


3,290 


56,000 


17 


Acushnet . 




4,347 


66,000 


15 


Easton 


6,391 


216,000 


40 


Adams 




13,637 


1,333,000 


98 


Edgartown 


1,244 


121,000 


97 


Agawam . 




6,543 


115,000 


18 


Fairhaven 


11,534 


417,000 


36 


Amesbury 




11,468 


731,000 


64 


Fall River 


130,695 


6,501,000 


50 


Andover . 




10,696 


913,000 


85 


Falmouth . 


4,933 


583,000 


118 


Ashburnham 




2,188 


126,000 


57 


Fitchburo 


44,125 


4,532,000 


103 


Athol 




9,602 


780,000 


81 


Foxborough 


5,094 


476,000 


93 


Attleboro 




20,801 


1,141,000 


55 


Framingham 


21,887 


1,382,000 


63 


Avon 




2,397 


109,000 


45 


Franklin . 


7,167 


499,000 


70 


Ayer . 




3,032 


227,000 


75 


Gardner . 


19,082 


869,000 


46 


Barnstable 




5,962 


315,000 


53 


Gloucester 


23,461 


1,788,000 


76 


Bedford 




1,544 


61,000 


40 


Grafton 


6,990 


104,000 


15 



18 



P.D. 34. 



Average Daily Consumption of Water in Various Cities and Towns in 1926 

— Concluded. 







Average 


Daily 






Average 


Daily 




Esti- 
mated 
Popu- 


CoNStTMPTlON. 


City or Town. 


Esti- 
mated 
Popu- 


Consumption. 


City ok Town. 




Gallons 




Gallons 




lation. 


Gallons. 


per 
Inhabit- 
ant. 




lation. 


Gallons. 


per 

Inhabit- 
ant. 


Greenfield 


15,246 


1,511,000 


99 


Oak Bluffs 


1,367 


171,000 


125 


Groton 


2,477 


230,000 


93 


Orange 




5,141 


190,000 


37 


Oroveland 


2,485 


43,000 


17 


Peabody . 




19,934 


3,154,000 


158 


Haverhill 


49,232 


4,486,000 


91 


Pepperell . 




2,841 


199,000 


70 


Holliston . 


2,833 


117,000 


41 


PiTTSFIELD 




47,900 


6,370,000 


133 


HOLYOKE . 


60,361 


7,298,000 


121 


Plainville . 




1,541 


99,000 


64 


Hudson 


8,235 


427,000 


52 


Plymouth . 




13,202 


1,675,000 


127 


Ipswich 


6.055 


430,000 


71 


Provincetown 




3,787 


287,000 


76 


Kingston . 


2,528 


246,000 


97 


Randolph and 


Hol- 








Lancaster . 


2,721 


102,000 


37 


brook . 




9,117 


490,000 


54 


Lawrence 


93,527 


4,947,000 


53 


Reading 






8,944 


319,000 


36 


Lincoln 


1,359 


246,000 


181 


Rockport 






3,963 


283,000 


71 


Littleton . 


1,438 


49,000 


34 


Salem 






42,879 


5,661,000 


132 


Longmeadow . 


3,476 


173,000 


50 


Salisbury 






1,844 


249,000 


135 


Lowell 


110,296 


5,785,000 


52 


Saugus 






■13,117 


700,000 


53 


Ludlow 


9,068 


195,000 


22 


Scituate 






2,749 


607,000 


221 


Lynn 


103,868 


8,629,000 


83 


Sharon 






3,249 


306,000 


94 


Manchester 


2,506 


314,000 


125 


Shirley 






2,421 


55,000 


23 


Mansfield . 


6,657 


448,000 


67 


Shrewsbury 




6,241 


203,000 


33 


Marblehead 


8,392 


637,000 


76 


Southbridge 




15,738 


781,000 


50 


Marion . . . 


1,271 


133,000 


105 


Springfield 




144,555 


13,972,000 


97 


Marlborough 


16,478 


620,000 


38 


Stockbridge 




1,843 


219,000 


119 


Mattapoisett 


1,612 


97,000 


60 


Stoughton 




8,055 


538,000 


67 


Maynard . 


8,011 


360,000 


45 


Taunton . 




39,679 


3,432,000 


86 


Medfield . 


3,921 


74,000 


19 


Tisbury 




1,462 


216,000 


148 


Medway . 


3,182 


166,000 


52 


Uxbridge . 




6,330 


571,000 


90 


Merrimae . 


2,384 


140,000 


59 


Wakefield . 




16,128 


775,000 


48 


Methuen . 


21,689 


1,151,000 


53 


Walpole 




6,720 


942,000 


140 


Middleborough . 


9,273 


298,000 


32 


Waltham . 




35,512 


2,268,000 


64 


Milford and Hopedale 


18,286 


825,000 


45 


Ware . 




8,650 


319,000 


37 


Millbury . 


6,599 


273,000 


41 


Wareham . 




6,830 


201,000 


34 


Millis 


1,852 


119,000 


64 


Warren ■ . 




4,047 


59,000 


15 


Montague and Erving 


9,374 


913,000 


97 


Webster 




13,415 


695,000 


52 


Nantucket 


3,223 


339,000 


105 


Wellesley . 




9,614 


755,000 


79 


Natick 


13,264 


668,000 


50 


West Brookfield 




1,321 


44,000 


33 


Need ham . 


9,370 


608,000 


65 


Westfield 




19,490 


2,020,000 


104 


New Bedford 


119,539 


8,940,000 


75 


Westford . 




3,651 


148,000 


40 


Newburyport 


15,664 


1,379,000 


88 


Weston 




3,031 


220,000 


73 


Newton . 


54,393 


4,258,000 


78 


West Springfielc 




15,703 


1,601,000 


103 


North Andover 


6,594 


449,000 


68 


Weymouth 




17,692 


1,052,000 


59 


North Attleborough . 


9,900 


635,000 


64 


Whitman . 




7,999 


283,000 


35 


Northbridge 


10,051 


672,000 


67 


Woburn 




18,729 


1,929,000 


103 


North Brookfield 


3,133 


310,000 


99 


Worcester 




192,958 


15,541,000 


81 


Norton 


2,848 


150,000 


53 


Wrentham 




3,295 


102,000 


31 


Norwood . 


14,456 


1,353,000 


94 











Rainfall. 

The average rainfall in the State for 1926 was 39.93 inches or 4.58 inches below 
the normal. 

The following table shows the normal rainfall, the rainfall for the year 1926, and 
the excess or deficiency of precipitation in each month as compared with the normal. 



Month. 


Normal 
Rainfall 
(Inches). 


Rainfall 
in 1926 
(Inches). 


Excess or 

Deficiency 

in 1926 

(Inches). 


Month. 


Normal 
Rainfall 
(Inches). 


Rainfall 
in 1926 

(Inches). 


Excess or 

Deficiency 

in 1926 

(Inches). 


January 
Februar 
March 
April 

May 


y 






3.79 
3.64 
3.95 
3.68 
3.58 
3.29 
3.75 


2.76 
4.95 
2.98 
2.41 
2.34 
2.17 
3.64 


-1.03 
+1.31 
-0.97 
-1.27 
—1.24 
—1.12 
-0.11 


August . 

September 

October 

November 

December 






4.15 
3.45 
3.66 
3.88 
3.69 


3.84 
1.36 
5.15 
4.96 
3.37 


-0.31 
-2.09 
+1.49 
+ 1.08 
-0.32 


July 


Totals 






44.51 


39.93 


-4.58 



Flow of Streams. 
Sudbury River. 
The average yield of the Sudbury River during the year 1926 was 746,000 gallons 
per day per square mile of drainage area. The yield was above the normal in the 
months of March, August and November, and less than normal during the remain- 
ing months. 

The average yield for the six driest months, May to October, inclusive, was 
167,000 gallons per square mile per day. 



P.D. 34. 19 

The following table shows the relation between the average daily yield of the 
Sudbury River for each month in the year 1926 and the normal yield of that stream 
during the past 52 years. The drainage area of the Sudbury River above the point 
of measurement is 75.2 square miles. 

Table showing the Average Daily Yield of the Sudhunj River for Each Month in the 
Year 1926, in Cubic Feet 'per Second per Square Mile of Drainage Area, and in 
Million Gallons per Day per Square Mile of Drainage Area; also. Departure 
from the Normal. 















Normal Yield. 


Actual Yield in 1926. | 


Excess or Deficiency. 




Cubic Feet 


Million 


Cubic Feet 


Million 


Cubic Feet 


Million 


Month. 


per 


Gallons per 


per 


Gallons per 


per 


Gallons per 




Second 


Day 


Second 


Day 


Second 


Day 




per Square 


per Square 


per Square 


per Square 


per Square 


per Square 




Mile. 


Mile. 


Mile. 


Mile. 


Mile. 


Mile. 


January 


1.727 


1.117 


1.335 


.863 


-.392 


-.254 


February 












2.402 


1.553 


1.533 


.991 


-.869 


-.562 


March 












4.197 


2.713 


4.218 


2.726 


+ .021 


+ .013 


April 












3.080 


1.991 


2.982 


1.927 


-.098 


-.064 


May . 












1.703 


1.101 


1.114 


.720 


-.589 


-.381 


June . 












.777 


.501 


.161 


.104 


-.616 


-.397 


July . 












.309 


.200 


-.106 


-.068 


-.415 


-.268 


August 












.333 


.215 


.360 


.233 


+ .027 


+ .018 


September 










.340 


.220 


-.175 


-.113 


-.515 


-.333 


October . 










.575 


.372 


.176 


.114 


-.399 


-.258 


November 










1.115 


.720 


1.242 


.803 


+ .127 


+ .083 


December 










1.489 


.963 


1.037 


.670 


-.452 


-.293 


Averag 


e for 


who 


e yes 


IT 




1.499 


.969 


1.154 


.746 


-.345 


-.223 



The rainfall on the Sudbury River watershed and the total yield expressed in 
inches in depth upon the watershed (inches of rainfall collected) for each of the 
past six years, 1921 to 1926 inclusive, together with the average for a period of 
fifty-two years, are given in the following table: 



Rainfall, in Inches, 


received and collected 


on the Sudbury 


River 


Drainage 


Area. 




1921. 


1922. 


1923. 1 


1924. 


Month. 




Rain- 


Per 




Rain- 


Per 




Rain- 


Per 




Rain- 


Per 


Rain- 


fall 


Cent 


Rain- 


fall 


Cent 


Rain- 


fall 


Cent 


Rain- 


fall 


Cent 




fall. 


col- 


col- 


fall. 


col- 


col- 


fall. 


col- 


col- 


fall. 


col- 


col- 






lected. 


lected. 




lected. 


lected. 




lected. 


lected. 




lected. 


lected. 


January 


2.78 


1.742 


62.7 


1.89 


.577 


30.5 


7.64 


2.779 


36.4 


3.60 


3.205 


89.1 


February 






4.10 


1.361 


33.2 


3.25 


1.316 


40.5 


2.31 


1.507 


65.3 


2.56 


1.193 


46.7 


March . 






2.72 


4.050 


148.8 


5.35 


4.587 


85.7 


3.25 


5.659 


173.9 


2.66 


3.462 


130.0 


April 






5.30 


1.973 


37.2 


1.63 


3.371 


207.1 


5.35 


4.197 


78.4 


5.49 


5.268 


96.1 


May 






3.23 


2.957 


91.6 


5.39 


3.126 


58.0 


1.01 


2.099 


207.3 


3.22 


2.495 


77.6 


June 






3.82 


.295 


7.7 


8.90 


2.695 


30.3 


4.12 


0.668 


16.2 


1.49 


.485 


32.5 


July 






6.86 


1.822 


26.6 


3.21 


1.287 


40.1 


2.94 


0.118 


4.0 


3.19 


-0.094 


-2.9 


August . 






1.20 


.105 


8.7 


4.85 


.627 


12.9 


2.17 


—0.130 


-6.0 


4.73 


0.207 


4.4 


September 






1.88 


-.099 


-5.3 


4.09 


1.135 


27.7 


1.54 


-0.099 


-6.5 


5.67 


0.706 


12.4 


October . 






1.12 


-.175 


-15.6 


2.28 


.486 


21.3 


5.71 


0.707 


12.4 


0.11 


0.011 


10.0 


November 






7.95 


1.152 


14.5 


1.34 


.6.39 


47.8 


5.83 


1.969 


33.8 


2.51 


0.286 


11.4 


December 






2.54 


1.367 


53.8 


3.42 


.730 


21.4 


4.96 


3.921 


79.1 


1.73 


0.489 


28.4 


Totals and 


























averages 


43.50 


16.550 


38.0 


45.60 


20.576 


45.1 


46.83 


23.395 


50.0 


36.96 


17.713 


47.9 

















Mean for 






1925. 






1926. 




FlFTT! 


-two Years, 
















1875-1926 




Month. 




Rain- 


Per 




Rain- 


Per 




Rain- 


Per 




Rain- 


fall 


Cent 


Rain- 


fall 


Cent 


Rain- 


fall 


Cent 




fall. 


col- 


col- 


fall. 


col- 


col- 


fall. 


col- 


col- 






lected. 


lected. 




lected. 


lected. 




lected. 


lected. 


January .... 


4.47 


.328 


7.4 


3.00 


1.539 


51.2 


4.00 


1.992 


49.8 


February 








2.20 


2.985 


136.0 


5.92 


1.596 


27.0 


4.06 


2.523 


62.1 


March . 








5.69 


3.895 


68.4 


3.23 


4.863 


150.6 


4.28 


4.839 


113.2 


April 








2.95 


2.570 


87.2 


2.21 


3.323 


150.5 


3.61 


3.437 


95.3 


May 








2.45 


1.036 


42.2 


2.29 


1.284 


56.1 


3.26 


1.963 


60.2 


June 








4.75 


.374 


7.9 


1.60 


.179 


11.2 


3.27 


.867 


26.6 


July 








5.35 


.427 


8.0 


3.18 


-.122 


-3.8 


3.70 


.356 


9.6 


August . 








1.25 


.102 


8.2 


5.51 


.415 


7.5 


3.75 


.384 


10.2 


September 








3.19 


.068 


2.1 


1.40 


—.196 


-14.0 


3.36 


.380 


11.3 


October . 








4.41 


.626 


14.2 


3.77 


.203 


5.4 


3.58 


.663 


18.5 


November 








3.17 


1.001 


31.6 


5.27 


1.386 


26.3 


3.81 


1.243 


32.6 


December 








5.76 


3.3.30 


57.8 


4.03 


1.195 


29.7 


3.79 


1.717 


45.4 


Totals'an( 


1 ave 


rages 




45.64 


16.742 


36.7 


41 41 


15.665 


37.8 


44.47 


20.364 


45.8 



20 P.D. 34. 

The following table gives the record of the yield of the Sudbury River watei^ed 
in gallons per day per square mile for each of the past six years and the mean for 
the past fifty-two years: 



Yield of the Sudbury River Drainage 


Area in 


Gallons 


per Day 


per Square Mile} 


Month. 


1921. 


1922. 


1923. 


1924. 


1925. 


1926. 


Mean 
for Fifty- 
two Years, 
1875-1926. 


January 


976,000 


323,000 


1,558,000 


1,796,000 


184,000 


863,000 


1,117,000 


February 






845,000 


817,000 


935,000 


715,000 


1,852,000 


991,000 


1,553,000 


March 






2,270,000 


2,571,000 


3,172,000 


1,941,000 


2,183,000 


2,726,000 


2,713,000 


April 






1,144,000 


1,956,000 


2,435,000 


3,056,000 


1,491,000 


1,927,000 


1,991,000 


May 






1,658,000 


1,753,000 


1,177,000 


1,399,000 


581,000 


720,000 


1,101,000 


June 






171,000 


1,561,000 


387,000 


281,000 


217,000 


104,000 


501,000 


July 






1,021,000 


722,000 


67,000 


-52,000 


239,000 


-68,000 


200,000 


August . 






59,000 


351,000 


-73,000 


116,000 


57.000 


233,000 


215,000 


September 






-58,000 


657,000 


-57,000 


408,000 


39,000 


-113,000 


220,000 


October . 






-98,000 


272,000 


397,000 


6,000 


351,000 


114,000 


372,000 


November 






667,000 


370,000 


1,140,000 


166,000 


580,000 


803,000 


720,000 


December 






766,000 


409,000 


2,198,000 


274,000 


1,867,000 


670,000 


963,000 


Average for whole year 


788,000 


980,000 


1,114,000 


841,000 


797,000 


746,000 


969,000 


Average for driest six 
















months . 


294,000 


463,000 


307,000 


152,000 


247,000 


167,000 


370,000 



' The drainage area of the Sudbury River used in making up these records included water surfaces amount- 
ing to about 2 per cent of the whole area from 1875 to 1878, inclusive, subsequently increasing by the con- 
struction of storage reservoirs to about 3 per cent in 1879, to 3.5 per cent in 1885, to 4 per cent in 1894, and 
to 6.5 per cent in 1898. The drainage area also contains extensive areas of swampy land, which, though covered 
with water at times, are not included in the above percentages of water surfaces. 

Nashua River. 

The average yield of the South Branch of the Nashua River at the outlet of the 
Wachusett Reservoir in Clinton during the year 1926 was 826,000 gallons per day 
per square mile of drainage area, or about 23.6 per cent less than the average for 
the past 30 years. 

The average yield for the six driest months was 389,000 gallons per square mile 
per day, or 27.3 per cent below the normal. 

The following table shows the normal yield of the river by months for the past 
30 years, the actual yield in the year 1926, and the excess or deficiency in each 
month. The drainage area of the Nashua River above the point of measurement 
was 119 square miles from 1897 to 1907 and 118.19 square miles from 1908 to 1913, 
inclusive. Since January 1, 1914, the city of Worcester has been diverting water 
from 9.35 square miles of this drainage area for the supply of that city, leaving the 
net drainage area 108.84 square miles. 

Table showing the Average Daily Yield of the South Branch of the Nashua River for 
Each Month in the Year 1926, in Cubic Feet per Second per Square Mile of 
Drainage Area, and in Million Gallons per Day per Square Mile of Drainage 
Area; also, Departure from the Normal. 













Normal Yield. 


Actual Yield in 1926. 


Excess or 


Deficiency 




Cubic Feet 


Million 


Cubic Feet 


Million 


Cubic Feet 


Million 


Month. 


per 


Gallons per 


per 


Gallons per 


per 


Gallons per 




- Second 


Day 


Second 


Day 


Second 


Day 




per Square 


per Square 


per Square 


per Square 


per Square 


per Square 




Mile. 


Mile. 


Mile. 


Mile. 


Mile. 


Mile. 


January 


1.795 


1.160 


1.471 


.951 


- .324 


- .209 


February 










2.007 


1.297 


1.286 


.831 


- .721 


- .466 


March 










4.058 


2.623 


2.920 


1.887 


-1.138 


- .736 


April 










3.462 


2.238 


3.738 


2.416 


+ .276 


+ .178 


May . 










2.014 


1.302 


1.276 


.825 


- .738 


- .477 


June . 










1.241 


.802 


.627 


.405 


- .614 


- .397 


July . 










.726 


.469 


.400 


.258 


- .326 


- .211 


August 










.600 


.388 


.390 


.252 


- .210 


- .136 


September 








.539 


.349 


.311 


.201 


- .228 


- .148 


October 








.692 


.447 


.599 


.387 


- .093 


- .060 


November 








1.181 


.763 


1.355 


.876 


-t- .174 


+ .113 


December 








1.773 


1.146 


1.008 


.651 


- .765 


- .495 


Averag 


e for 


who 


e yea 


r 


1.672 


1.081 


1.279 


.826 


- .393 


- .255 



The rainfall on the Nashua River watershed and the total yield expressed in 
inches in depth upon the watershed (inches of rainfall collected) for each of the 



P.D. 34. 21 

past six years, 1921 to 1926, inclusive, together with the average for the past 30 
years, are given in the following table : 

Rainfall, in Inches, received and collected on the Nashua River Drainage Area. 











1921. 


1922. 


1923. 






Rain- 


Per 




Rain- 


Per 




Rain- 


Per 


Month. 


Rain- 


fall 


Cent 


Rain- 


fall 


Cent 


Rain- 


fall 


Cent 




fall. 


col- 


col- 


fall. 


col- 


col- 


fall. 


col- 


col- 






lected. 


lected. 




lected. 


lected. 




lected. 


lected. 


January .... 


2.67 


2.521 


94.3 


2.40 


1.058 


44.0 


7.95 


3.146 


39.6 


February 








4.07 


1.719 


42.2 


3.77 


1.624 


43.0 


2.30 


1.617 


70.5 


March 








2.87 


4.477 


156.1 


6.21 


5.960 


96.0 


3.29 


5.478 


166.3 


April 








6.51 


3.329 


51.1 


2.19 


4.108 


187.6 


5.52 


5.244 


95.0 


May 








3.01 


3.695 


123.0 


4.78 


3.511 


73.6 


1.44 


2.339 


162.1 


June 








3.75 


.828 


22.1 


9.22 


3.838 


41.6 


3.51 


1.062 


30.3 


July 








6.41 


1.821 


28.4 


4.91 


2.672 


54.5 


3.72 


.529 


14.2 


August . 








1.94 


.438 


22.6 


5.59 


1.419 


25.4 


2.04 


.264 


12.9 


September 








2.35 


.197 


8.4 


2.77 


.891 


32.2 


1.04 


.159 


15.3 


October . 








2.00 


.282 


14.1 


2.41 


.774 


32.1 


5.16 


.766 


14.9 


November 








7.31 


1.366 


18.7 


1.59 


.912 


57.3 


5.87 


1.682 


28.7 


December 








2.77 


2.271 


82.1 


4.02 


.987 


24.5 


5.07 


3.062 


60.4 


Totals anc 


■ ave 


rages 




45.66 


22.944 


50.3 


49.86 


27.754 


55.7 


46.91 


25.348 


54.0 

















Mean for Thirty 




1924. 




1925. 




1926. 




Years 


















1897-1926. 


Month. 




Rain- 


Per 




Rain- 


Per 




Rain- 


Per 




Rain- 


Per 




Rain- 


fall 


Cent 


Rain- 


fall 


Cent 


Rain- 


fall 


Cent 


Rain- 


fall 


Cent 




fall. 


col- 


col- 


fall. 


col- 


col- 


fall. 


col- 


col- 


fall. 


col- 


col- 






lected. 


lected. 




lected. 


lected. 




lected. 


lected. 




lected. 


lected. 


January 


4.23 


3.346 


79.2 


3.68 


.563 


15.3 


2.64 


1.695 


64.1 


3.66 


2.070 


56.6 


February 




3.31 


1.332 


40.3 


2.27 


2.524 


111.3 


5.77 


1.340 


23.2 


3.83 


2.105 


55.0 


March . 




2.41 


3.028 


125.6 


5.81 


4.005 


69,0 


2.92 


3.366 


115.1 


4.06 


4.679 


115.3 


April 




6.58 


7.262 


110.4 


3.06 


2.482 


81.1 


2.46 


4.165 


169.4 


3.88 


3.863 


99.4 


May 




3.55 


3.519 


99.0 


2.14 


1.262 


58.8 


2.00 


1.471 


73.6 


3.30 


2.323 


70.3 


June 




1.13 


.775 


68.4 


3.97 


.684 


17.2 


2.05 


.699 


34.2 


3.82 


1.384 


36.3 


July 




2.60 


.234 


9.0 


3.95 


.417 


10.6 


2.93 


.461 


15.7 


4.09 


.837 


20.5 


August . 




4.61 


.449 


9.7 


2.04 


.347 


17.0 


2.90 


.449 


15.5 


3.91 


.692 


17.7 


September 




4.79 


.552 


11.5 


4.26 


.596 


14.0 


1.43 


.347 


24.2 


3.63 


.601 


16 6 


October . 




0.09 


.114 


122.5 


4.37 


.779 


17.8 


4.69 


.691 


14.7 


3.20 


.798 


24.9 


November 




3.30 


.476 


14.4 


3.43 


1.378 


40.2 


5.32 


1.512 


28.4 


3.67 


1.317 


35.9 


December 




2.03 


.702 


34.6 


4.39 


2.897 


65.9 


4.20 


1.162 


27.7 


4.00 


2.044 


51.1 


Totals and aver- 


























ages 


38.63 


21.789 


56.4 


43.37 


17.934 


41.3 


39.31 


17.358 


44.2 


45.05 


22.713 


50.4 



The following table gives the record of the yield of the Nashua River watershed 
in gallons per day per square mile for each of the past six years and the mean for 
the past 30 years: 



Yield of the Nashua River Drainage Area in 


Gallons 


per Day 


per Square Mile} 


Month. 


1921. 


1922. 


1923. 


1924. 


1925. 


1926. 


Mean 
for Thirty 

Years, 
1897-1926. 


January 


1,413,000 


593,000 


1,764,000 


1,876,000 


316,000 


951,000 


1,160,000 


February 






1,067,000 


1,008,000 


1,004,000 


798,000 


1,566,000 


831,000 


1,297,000 


March . 






2,510,000 


3,341,000 


3,071,000 


1,697,000 


2,245,000 


1,887,000 


2,623,000 


April 






1,931,000 


2,383,000 


3,042,000 


4,213,000 


1,440,000 


2,416,000 


2,238,000 


May 






2,071,000 


1,968,000 


1,311,000 


1,973,000 


708,000 


825,000 


1,302,000 


June 






480,000 


2,223,000 


615,000 


449,000 


396,000 


405,000 


802,000 


July 






1,021,000 


1,498,000 


297,000 


131,000 


234,000 


258,000 


469,000 


August . 






246,000 


795,000 


148,000 


252,000 


194,000 


252,000 


388,000 


September 






114,000 


516,000 


92,000 


320,000 


345,000 


201,000 


349,000 


October . 






158,000 


434,000 


430,000 


64,000 


437,000 


387,000 


447,000 


November 






791,000 


528,000 


974,000 


276,000 


799,000 


876,000 


763,000 


December 






1,273,000 


553,000 


1,717,000 


394,000 


1,624,000 


651,000 


1,146,000 


Average for whole 
















year 


1,092,000 


1,321,000 


1,207,000 


1,035,000 


854,000 


826,000 


1,081,000 


Average for driest six 
















months 


468,000 


723,000 


424,000 


239,000 


386,000 


389,000 


535,000 



1 The drainage area used in making up these records included water surfaces amounting to 2.2 per cent 
of the whole area from 1897 to 1902, inclusive, to 2.4 per cent in 1903, to 3.6 per cent in 1904, to 4.1 per cent 
inl905, to 5.1 per cent in 1906, to 6 per cent in 1907, to 7 per cent in 1908, 1909 and 1910, to 6.5 per cent in 1911. 
to 6.8 per cent in 1912, to 7 per cent in 1913, to 7.4 per cent in 1914 and 1915, to 7.6 per cent in 1916, to 7.4 
per cent in 1917 and 1918, to 7.5 per cent in 1919, 1920, 1921 and 1922, to 7.4 per cent in 1923 and 1924, to 6.4 
per cent in 1925, and 5.9 per cent in 1926. 



22 ■ P.D. 34. 

Nashua and Sudbury Rivers. 
The records of the flow of the Sudbury River are available beginning with 1875. 
The measurements of the flow of the South Branch of the Nashua were not begun 
until 1897. The following table shows a comparison of the average flow of these 
rivers during the period since the Nashua River measurements were begun and also 
the comparative flow of each stream in the year 1926. 

Table shoicing Comparative Floiv of the Nashua and Sudbury Rivers in 1926 and the 
Average Flow of those Streams in the 30 Years from 1897 to 1926, inclusive, in 
Gallons per Day per Square Mile. 













Sudbury River. 


Nashua River. 




Normal 


Actual 


Excess 


Normal 


Actual 


Excess 




Flow, 


Flow, 


or 


Flow, 


Flow, 


or 




1897-1926. 


192G. 


Deficiency. 


1897-1926. 


1926. 


Deficiency. 


January 


1,051,000 


863,000 


-188,000 


1,160,000 


951,000 


-209,000 


February 










1,311,000 


991,000 


-320,000 


1,297,000 


831,000 


-466,000 


March 










2,597,000 


2,726,000 


+129,000 


2,623,000 


1,887,000 


-736,000 


April 










1,965,000 


1,927,000 


- 38,000 


2,238,000 


2,416,000 


+178,000 


May . 










1,092,000 


720,000 


-372,000 


1,302,000 


825,000 


-477,000 


June . 










526,000 


104,000 


-422,000 


802,000 


405,000 


-397,000 


July . 










212,000 


- 68,000 


-280,000 


469,000 


258,000 


-211,000 


August 










171,000 


233,000 


+ 62,000 


388,000 


252,000 


-136,000 


September 








208,000 


-113,000 


-321,000 


349,000 


201,000 


-148,000 


October 








243,000 


114,000 


-129,000 


447,000 


387,000 


- 60,000 


November 








561,000 


803,000 


+242,000 


763,000 


876,000 


+113,000 


December 








921,000 


670,000 


-251,000 


1,146,000 


651,000 


-495,000 


Average for whole year 


902,000 


746,000 


-156,000 


1,081,000 


826,000 


-255,000 


Average for driest six 














months .... 


278,000 


167,000 


-111,000 


535,000 


389,000 


-146,000 



Merrimack River. 

The Merrimack River is the second in size of the streams of Massachusetts. The 
river rises in the White Mountains of New Hampshire and flows southerly through 
the central part of that State until it enters Massachusetts, where it turns to the 
east and flows in a general northeasterly direction the remainder of its course to 
the sea. The total length of its watershed from its extreme northerly limits in 
the mountains of northern New Hampshire to its extreme southerly limits in the 
hills of Hopkinton, Massachusetts, is about 137 miles and its extreme width about 
66 miles. Its total drainage area above its mouth at Newburyport is about 5,000 
square miles, of which about 3^ is within the limits of Massachusetts and the re- 
mainder within the State of New Hampshire. 

Records of the flow of the Merrimack River have been kept continuously at 
Lawrence since 1880. The drainage area of the river at that point is 4,663 square 
miles, including 118.19 square miles tributary to the South Branch of the Nashua 
River used for the water supply of the Metropolitan District and in part for the 
city of Worcester, 75.2 square miles on the Sudbury River, and 18 square miles 
tributary to Lake Cochituate. The flow as measured at Lawrence includes the 
water wasted from these drainage areas. In the year 1926 all of the water from the 
southern Sudbury drainage area and nearly all of that from Lake Cochituate was 
wasted into the stream, but no water whatever was wasted from Wachusett Reser- 
voir into the Nashua River except such as was discharged from the reservoir under 
the provisions of the Metropolitan water supply act. In presenting the record of 
the flow of the river these drainage areas have been deducted, leaving the net drain- 
age area above Lawrence 4,567 square miles in 1880, 4,570 square miles in the years 
1891 to 1897, inclusive, and 4,452 square miles since the latter year. The quantity 
of water overflowing from the Cochituate and Sudbury watersheds as measured by 
the Metropolitan District Commission has also been deducted from the flow of the 
river as measured at Lawrence. The average flow of the river during the year 1926 
amounted to 1.205 cubic feet per second per square mile, or 779,000 gallons per 
day per square mile of drainage area, which is about 17.6 per cent below the normal 
for the past 47 years. The flow exceeded the normal only in April and November 
and was but slightly below the normal in May. 

The following table shows the relation between the normal flow of this stream dur- 
ing the past 47 years and the actual flow during each month of the year 1926. 



P.D. 34. 23 

Table showing the Average Monthly Flow of the Merrimack River at Lawrence for the 
Year 1926, in Cubic Feet per Second per Square Mile of Drainage Area; also, 
Departure from the Normal. 



Month. 



Normal Flow, 
1880-1926. 



Actual Flow 
in 1926. 



Excess or 
Deficiency. 



January 
February 
March 
April . 
May . 
June . 
July . 
August 
September 
October 
November 
December 



1.253 

1.342 

2.744 

3.540 

2.241 

1.249 

.759 

.643 

.633 

,784 

1.098 

1.270 



1.027 

.796 

1.648 

3.933 

2.165 

.843 

.527 

.405 

.341 

.509 

1.395 

.872 



- .226 

- .546 
-1.096 
+ .393 

- .076 

- .406 

- .232 

- .238 

- .292 

- .275 
+ .297 



Average for whole year 



1.463 



1.205 



.258 



The following table gives the record of the flow of the Merrimack River at 
Lawrence for each of the past six years, together with the average flow for the past 
forty-seven years, this amount being expressed in cubic feet per second per square 
mile of drainage area: 

Flow of the Merrimack River at Lawrence in Cubic Feet per Second per Square Mile. 



Month. 



1921. 



1922. 



1923. 



1924. 



1925. 



1926. 



Mean for 

Forty-seven 

Years, 

1880-1926. 



January 
February 
March 
April . 
May . 
June . 
July . 
August 
September 
October 
November 
December 



1.679 

.995 

3.689 

2.700 

1.957 

.597 

1.031 

.683 

.425 

.475 

1.057 

1.652 



.830 

.887 

3.900 

4.903 

2.887 

3.006 

2.111 

.773 

.766 

.660 

.612 



1.074 

.855 

1.956 

4.958 

2.904 

.730 

.434 

.394 

.303 

.491 

1.177 

2.372 



1.964 

.978 

1.767 

5.050 

3.115 

.920 

.464 

.350 

.753 

.612 

.536 

.712 



.357 

1.882 

3.413 

3.102 

1.349 

.689 

.712 

.518 

.454 

.735 

1.067 

1.577 



1.027 

.796 

1.648 

3.933 

2.165 

.843 

.527 

.405 

.341 

.509 

1.395 

.872 



1.253 

1.342 

2.744 

3.540 

2.241 

1.249 

.759 

.643 

.633 

.784 

1.098 

1.270 



Average for whole year 
Average for driest six months 



1.412 
.711 



1.819 
.903 



1.471 



1.435 
.571 



1.321 
.696 



1.205 
.670 



1.463 
.861 



Sudbury, Nashua and Merrimack Rivers. 
Thfe following table shows the weekly fluctuations during the year 1926 in the 
yield. of the Sudbury River at Framingham, the South Branch of the Nashua 
River at the outlet of the Wachusett Reservoir in Clinton, and the Merrimack 
River at Lawrence. The flow of these streams, particularly that of the Sudbury 
River and the South Branch of the Nashua River, serves to indicate the flow of 
other streams in eastern Massachusetts. The area of the Sudbury River water- 
shed is 75.2 square miles, of the South Branch of the Nashua River 118.19 square 
miles, and of the Merrimack River at Lawrence 4,452 square miles. 

Table showing the Average Weekly Flow of the Sudbury, South Branch of the Nashua 
and the Merrimack Rivers for the Year 1926, in Cubic Feet per Second per Square 
Mile of Drainage Area. 



Week ending 
Sunday — 


Yield of 

Sudbury 

River. 


Yield of 

South 

Branch, 

Nashua 

River. 


Flow of 
Merri- 
mack 
River. 


Week ending 
Sunday — 


Yield of 

Sudbury 

River. 


Yield of 
South 
Branch, 
Nashua 
River. 


Flow of 
Merri- 
mack 
River. 


Jan. 3 . . . 
10 . . . 
17 . . . 
24 . . . 
31 . . . 

Feb. 7 . . . 
14 . . . 
21 . . . 

28 . . . 


2.235 
1.080 
.706 
2.674 
2.250 

1.627 
4.842 
7.818 
3.257 


.896 
1.264 

.976 
2.769 
1.136 

1.153 
1.201 
1.088 
1.703 


.756 
.786 
.709 
1.805 
.998 

.789 
.715 
.805 
.875 


Mar. 7 . . . 
14 . . . 
21 . . . 
28 . . . 

Apr. 4 . 

11 . . . 
18 . . . 
25 . . . 


3.522 
4.276 
3.006 
5.700 

4.606 
4.539 
3.409 
1.961 


1.947 
1.927 
1.842 
5.373 

4.641 
5.632 
3.226 
2.539 


.972 
1.236 
1.165 
2.615 

2.788 
3.417 
4.037 
3.696 



24 



P.D. 34. 



Table showing the A 


verage Weekly Flow of the Sudbury, etc. — 


Concluded. 


Week ENDma 

Sunday — 


Yield of 

Sudbury 

River. 


Yield of 
South 
Branch, 
Nashua 
River. 


Flow of 
Merri- 
mack 
River. 


Week ending 
Sunday — 


Yield of 

Sudbury 

River. 


Yield of 
South 
Branch, 
Nashua 
River. 


Flow of 
Merri- 
mack 
River. 


May 2 . . . 


1.681 


2.318 


5.259 


Sept. 5 . . . 


-.336 


.226 


.369 


9 . . . 


1.375 


1,254 


3.667 


12 . . . 


-.142 


.291 


.315 


16 . . . 


1.337 


1.365 


1.896 


19 . . . 


.449 


.209 


.354 


23 . . . 


2.058 


1.658 


1.715 


26 . . . 


-.063 


.465 


.327 


30 . . . 


1.915 


.688 


1.176 


















Oct. 3 . . . 


-.368 


.293 


.344 


June 6 . . 


1.964 


.811 


.978 


10 . . . 


-.187 


.379 


.381 


13 . . . 


.254 


.631 


.816 


17 . . . 


.592 


.357 


.372 


20 . . . 


.205 


.576 


.943 


24 . . . 


.145 


.882 


.479 


27 . . . 


.188 


.690 


.649 


31 . . . 


1.290 


.925 


.905 


July 4 . . . 


-.185 


.275 


.601 


Nov. 7 . . . 


.344 


.564 


.662 


11 . . . 


-.281 


.245 


.436 


14 . . . 


1.495 


1,352 


1.479 


18 . . . 


.008 


.415 


.734 


21 . . . 


1.996 


2,159 


1.877 


25 . . . 


-.056 


.409 


.462 


28 . . . 


2.547 


1.353 


1,505 


Aug. 1 . . . 


-.066 


.599 


.434 


Dec. 5 . . . 


4.574 


1,043 


1,289 


8 . . . 


.835 


.434 


.404 


12 . . . 


1,231 


,883 


.838 


15 . . . 


.485 


.387 


.465 


19 . . . 


1.601 


.816 


.839 


22 . . . 


.985 


.496 


.408 


26 . . . 


1.440 


.874 


.735 


29 . . . 


.276 


.346 


.378 











Examination of Rivers. 
Aberjona River. 
The examinations of the Aberjona River have shown in general more evidence of 
pollution than for a number of years. Early in the year the city of Woburn ob- 
tained legislation authorizing the construction of a sewer for the removal of the 
sewage and manufacturing wastes from that portion of the city lying within the 
valley of the main stream which are the chief causes of the pollution of this river. 
Subsequently an appropriation of $100,000 was made for carrying out the work. 

Assabet River. 
The condition of the Assabet River above Hudson has shown a slight improve- 
ment during the past year, but below Hudson there has been more evidence of 
pollution than in any year since these observations were begun, with the exception 
of 1925. Below Maynard the stream has been in a worse condition than in any year 
since 1917. There has been considerable complaint during the year relative to the 
condition of the stream below Hudson, and during the latter part of the summer this 
portion of the course of the river was offensive. Progress has recently been made 
in the construction of works for the treatment of certain very objectionable wastes 
from an industrial works in Hudson which when completed should relieve the ob- 
jectionable conditions in the future during periods of extended drouth. 

Blackstone River. 

This river continues to be very badly polluted by improperly purified sewage and 
industrial wastes which are discharged into it particularly in the upper portion of 
its course. 

Examinations show that during the past year the condition of the river above the 
entrance of the effluent from the sewage disposal works at Worcester has been 
slightly better than in 1925, but there has been as yet no evidence of any marked 
improvement in the lower portion of its course such as was expected to take place 
following the operation of the new sewage disposal works at Worcester. Efforts 
are being made by the Worcester authorities to improve the efficiency of these works. 

Charles River. 
The results of the analyses of samples of water from the Charles River show a 
decided increase in pollution, especially in the lower part of its course. In general 
the condition of this stream has been worse than for many years. 

Chicopee River and Tributaries. 

The examinations and the analyses of the Quaboag River above Palmer show a 
slight increase in pollution, evidently due largely to certain industrial wastes, while 
below Palmer there was somewhat more evidence of pollution than in any recent year. 

The Ware River shows little change as compared with other recent years, ex- 



P.D. 34. 25 

cepting in the middle portion of its course, where there was an increase in pollution 
as compared with earher years. 

The Chicopee River near its mouth showed evidences of somewhat greater pol- 
lution than in any recent year. 

Concord and Sudbury Rivers. 
Bannister Brook, a tributary of the Sudbury River, above Saxonville was ser- 
iously polluted during the early summer by the effluent from the sewage disposal 
works of Framingham and Natick, but this pollution was less marked during the 
latter part of the year. There was an improvement in the condition of the Sudbury 
River below Saxonville and also at its mouth. The Concord River showed less evi- 
dence of pollution than usual, but at its mouth it is still a very badly polluted stream. 

Connecticut River. 
The analyses of the waters of the Connecticut River show no material change 
from other recent years. There was an increase in the pollution of the Mill River 
below Northampton but above the sewer outlet, and the river is very badly 
polluted below the sewer outlet. There was an increase also in the pollution of the 
Manhan River below Easthampton compared with other recent years. 

French River. 
The condition of this stream below Webster and Dudley has been more ob- 
jectionable than for many years. No definite action appears to have been taken as 
yet to forward the construction of a sewage disposal works for these towns plans for 
which were approved by this Department in 1925. 

Hoosick River. 
The results of the analyses of samples of water from the Hoosick River below 
North Adams and at Williamstown show that the condition of this river continues 
to be very objectionable, especially at Williamstown, where the pollution of the river 
was worse than in any year since 1918. 

Housatonic River. 
The examinations of this stream show in general a slight improvement in its con- 
dition throughout most of its course as compared with other recent years. 

Merrimack River. 

The gradual deterioration in the condition of this river, especially in the lower 
part of its course, has continued in general as in other recent years. 

Complaint was made during the summer relative to the presence of oil and tar on 
the surface of the water and on the banks of the river. An investigation indicates 
that the cause of the complaint was due in part at least to an accident, but a further 
study to determine the sources of this pollution was in progress at the end of the year. 

Millers River and Tributaries. 

The Otter River below Gardner still shows marked evidence of pollution by 
sewage and improperly treated sewage effluent, regardless of the improvements 
that have been effected at the sewage disposal works of the city of Gardner. Fur- 
ther improvements are essential at these works in order to prevent the continued 
pollution of the river. 

A sewerage system and sewage disposal works are being constructed in Winchen- 
don which should prevent pollution of the tributaries of the Mfllers River below that 
town. 

Little change has taken place in the condition of the river at Athol or Orange and 
the river receives comparatively little pollution below the latter point. 

Nashua River. 
Complaints have been made to this Department relative to the condition of the 
Nashua River, especially the North Branch, the condition of which has been more 
objectionable than in any recent year. The condition of the South Branch, also 
very badly polluted below Clinton, has shown little change as compared with the 
previous year. Farther down stream below the confluence of the two branches the 
condition of the river has been very objectionable and the pollution more marked, 



26 P.D..34. 

judging from chemical analyses, than in any year since observations of the condi- 
tion of this river were begun many years ago. 

The principal source of pollution of the Nashua River is the sewage of the city of 
Leominster, which is discharged untreated directly into the stream or its tributaries. 
The river also receives small amounts of sewage from the city of Fitchburg and in 
the aggregate a great amount of polluting manufacturing waste in Fitchburg and 
Leominster. The South Branch is seriously polluted by wastes from Clinton, 
especially the sewage and effluent from the Clinton sewage disposal works, the 
operation of which has not been satisfactory during the past year. The city of 
Leominster has taken up the question of providing a system of sewage disposal, 
and the authorities of both Leominster and Fitchburg are cooperating with the 
Department in attempting to relieve the river of sewage and objectionable wastes. 
A material improvement is necessary in the sewage disposal works in Clinton, but 
this undertaking is being delayed to determine where the responsibility for the new 
work lies under existing laws. 

Neponset River. 

The results of the investigation of the condition of the river have shown in 
general that its condition has been growing worse and is now as objectionable as 
in earlier years before the various works were installed for the treatment of sewage 
and manufacturing waste. The Department has recommended that the best 
practicable way of effecting a permanent improvement in the condition of this 
river is to construct a sewer to serve the towns in the upper portion of the valley in 
connection with the South Metropolitan sewerage system. 

Taunton River. 
The condition of this river and its tributaries has shown little change as compared 
with the previous year. The Three Mile River has shown a marked increase in 
pollution near its mouth due to industrial waste, and the Rumford River, one of its 
main tributaries, has been the source of complaint from a similar cause. 

Ten Mile River. 

The condition of this river varies considerably from year to year due very largely 
to the quantity of industrial wastes discharged into the river in the towns through 
which it flows. The sewage of both North Attleborough and Attleboro, the 
principal towns in the valley, is treated at disposal works before it is discharged into 
the river. 

Examination op Sewage Disposal Works. 

At Attleboro the sewage has been distributed more thoroughly over the entire 
disposal area than in past years, and the results of operation have been satisfactory. 

At Brockton the new disposal works have been used for the treatment of prac- 
tically all of the sewage of the city throughout the year. During most of the year 
the effluent from the secondary tanks has been discharged upon the sand filter 
beds, several of which have been reconstructed to serve as strainer beds for this 
effluent. Additional beds have been reconstructed during the past year which will 
be used for the same purpose. 

The quantity of sewage discharged upon the filters at Clinton is greater than they 
are capable of treating satisfactorily, and considerable quantities of untreated 
sewage have overflowed from these works into the South Branch of the Nashua 
River. No material changes have been effected at this plant in recent years. 

At Easthampton all of the sewage is passed through the settling tanks. The day 
flow during the warmer months is filtered, but the night flow of settled sewage and 
all the settled sewage in the colder months of the year are discharged into the 
Manhan River without further treatment. 

A new grit chamber has been under construction during the year at Fitchburg 
and was ready for operation at the end of the year. 

At Framingham the Imhoff tanks and the eight acres of new sand filters have 
been in constant use during the year. In some of the filters reconstruction work 
has been carried on while other filters have shown evidence of clogging, and an 
investigation was made during the year to determine the cause. The results in- 
dicated that the material in some of the filters is finer than is desirable, and the 
Department has recommended certain improvements. 



P.D. 34. 27 

The Franklin sewage disposal works have operated satisfactorily, but the sewage 
is not distributed to the filters as evenly as desirable in order to secure the best results. 

The condition of the sewage disposal works at Gardner has remained about the 
same as in previous years. The purification of the sewage is not wholly satisfactory, 
and the discharge of more or less imperfectly purified effluent has continued as in 
previous years. The underdrainage system in most of the beds has been relaid dur- 
ing the year and new sand has been placed on several of the beds, but additional 
work is essential both at the disposal works and in relaying some of the sewers to 
reduce leakage into the sj'^stem in order to prevent further pollution of the river. 

At Milford the various units of the sewage disposal works, including Imhoff 
tanks and a trickling filter with an area of 0.28 of an acre which were put into opera- 
tion in 1924, have been operated during the year. The secondary tank and the 
necessary sludge pumps were completed during the year, but the Imhoff tanks have 
not operated satisfactorily due in part to lack of proper expert attention. Con- 
siderable quantities of poorly purified sewage have overflowed from this section 
of the plant into the Charles River during the year, and complaint has been made 
relative to the condition of the river below Milford. The sand filter beds have 
operated with reasonable satisfaction during the year, though the effluent has not 
shown as high a degree of purification as in past years. 

At Natick conditions have been slightly better than in previous years. The 
underdrainage system in about half the filter beds has been relaid during the year 
and some resurfacing has been done. There has been a material reduction in the 
quantity of sewage requiring disposal due to the relaying of some of the sewers and 
the exclusion of ground water, but the disposal works are still inadequate for the 
proper treatment of all the sewage of the to^vn. 

At Norwood the filter beds have been in regular use throughout the year, but 
considerable settled sewage has been discharged into a swamp outside the filter 
beds, and some crude sewage has overflowed directly into the river. The area of 
the filters is not sufficient for the proper treatment of all the sewage of the town. 
A new filter bed with an area of about an acre constructed of material hauled in 
from a distance was put into operation during the latter part of the year. 

The sewage disposal works at Pittsfield have become inadequate for the effective 
treatment of the quantity of sewage discharged from the city. The new pumping 
machinery consisting of two motor driven centrifugal pumps which were installed 
during the year 1925 has operated satisfactorily and less untreated sewage has been 
discharged into the Housatonic River at the pumping station than in recent years. 
As a result the filter beds have been more overloaded than usual. Investigations 
relative to the extension of the filter beds were under way during the year. 

At Southbridge six new filter beds with an aggregate area of four acres, the 
construction of which was begun in 1925, have been completed and were used during 
the latter half of the year. The disposal works of this town are still inadequate for 
the proper treatment of all the sewage of the town and more or less sewage is dis- 
charged without treatment into the Quinebaug River. 

The area of filters at Westborough is inadequate for the treatment of all the 
sewage and untreated or imperfectly purified sewage has overflowed at times into 
the Assabet River. 

The use of the old disposal works at Worcester was discontinued in 1925, and the 
new works have been in use throughout the year 1926. Considerable construction 
work has been going on during the past year to complete the new works. The 
quantity of sludge coUecting in the Imhoff tanks has been abnormal, due in part at 
least to the presence of large quantities of industrial wastes, and much pooling has 
occurred on the surface of the trickling filters. Septic action has taken place in the 
secondary tanks, causing a discharge of solid matter with the final effluent, and 
the efficiency of the new works has not yet become satisfactory. Efforts are being 
made to effect the necessary improvement in the operation of the works. 

The other larger municipal sewage disposal works have been in reasonably 
satisfactory condition during the year, but extensions are required at some of the 
smaller works. 

The average results of the analyses of sewage and effluent, together with statistics 
concerning the more important sewage disposal works, are presented in the follow- 
ing tables: 



28 



P.D. 34. 



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-^t* 00 I>- lO (M OQiCC 



00 OS O I>- CO 
OO tC OS CO CO 



oo o o ■^ c 

Tt* CD CO CO 1-H 



s^ 



'^ CO OC^ (M 



■<O0O0i-l(M "(MOCDOC 



H CM •-# -Tt* TtH cor-oO'- 



O0<M'*I>-00 OOCDO<MO OSC<]00t^(M (M (M CSI OO CO 



lO »0 CD "Tj* iC iCOt^^COO C-1 OS (M * 



00 iCI>» 00 t 
esq CO CO<M (N 



I l-H ^ 1-H .-H OOOSCKIOOS 

C^Tt<iOCOO t^iOOOCO^H 



t '^ 



CO-^OSOCO t- OS O CD O iO "^ 00 O CD CO CO (M !>■ t}< tH O t^ CD kO 



l>. '(J* CD t>. T-H 



00 OO 00 CO -^ M 00 CD OS O »-* M -^ CO f-H 



3t>-OOI>. i-HiiO'^OOO ■»-< ^H C^ »0 -rj^ 



DOOCO 
5 00 OS OS Cq 



f^ t^COOOCOl>- lO OS CO t- O OOOiOOt-- 



OS OO T*H CO 
Q ^ C-TM -^ O '-H 



t^ -"S* t^ ''t* OO CO O 1-H iC •<*< COOC^t>-(N 
C^OiCOOCO t>. -.*« t^ CO ■pH ococooc^ 



oi>.t^coco 



5 OOCO CO O CO " 



O CD OOO CO 
CSl i-< OO i-H CSI 



coco ^ rH (M 
kO CO 1— < OS ■- 



30CO 00lCt--^-t 



CO *— I O »C C<1 



5^ 



5O0 -rt* 00 (M 
3COiOCOI>- 



00 CO CD CO aO 
00 -^ C^ «-<^ 



O t-* I>- CO CO lO lO O CO o 



CD OS 00 CO CO O 1— I OO OS rH 



tP CO CO CO rp 



^H l>. CM iM I 



O (M CO lO h- 
GO lO t^ '■It* "«* 



OO OS T-H OS CO . 
lO GO O CO CO 



^ 2 

ffl & fi 



T^a 



w ^ o o 



O cj 03 

ti bfl ho C3 t] 

W ci c3 Q 

o S s C cu 

H ^ c3 c3 ^ 



fi 










a; 










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ei 


















« 






**• 




w 


03 


c 


S 


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« 


a-2 


o 


^ 






^nbow eeeeo offiK^:3;^ ss:?^:^^ 



o S fc; t- '1 

11° ^2 



oo 
oo 

F-tOO 



OsOOOC<l cOOSOOCOiO Osl>-I:^OSCO CO u^ 



3CO Tt* »-lO 



^ CD 
l>ios 



lO ■-*< CD M 00 !>. lO OO OS CO MCOCIOO t-- '* O CO t^ i— i Os lO -^ "«** O -^ 



■^ OS 



C^ C^ 05 C^ CO C^ CO lO C<l OO CO Ttl CD M CO iC CO CO C^ Tt< Tt* CS| ■^ 00 i-l CO ■^ 



-^jHCD-*»OCD 'rt^OOCM^^OO t- CM CM t^ O ^H O OO ^ OS t^ b- O CO CO CO t^ 
COC^t^C<lCM COCOf-HCOOS cDiOCOeOTtH lOCOCMCMiO CMCsICOOS»-< ^»-H 



0<DCD'«*^0 l>-iOlr^00CM OOCO 



J OS CM OO CD OS "^ OO t~* O OO O CO •»*" t^ CD O -^ iC OS t* i-H »0 O OS CO Tf* 



t^OCOCOOO OOO 



1-H l-Hi-rC<l CM COr-fCO (M CMi-HrH rH »-l ^H CO i-H t-H 



iifloco oococor^io oco 



C<t CO O CO O I>- »« 



CM CO 



) CO ^ t-H lO -^ CM ■<*< CM CO Tt* C<1 CM r-l CM CO CM CO iC t-H COCO 



^O'^COCO oos 



t»>ooocoo ocoii^-^io lOcDCMOO coiocMi>-co osiot~^oio moo 

OSt-COiOO CMOSCOi-H'" - — ' *" " ~ ~ " 



UOCDt-^t>- OOi-HC^OO OCDI>.OOGO t-H CM 
OS "lO "^ t^ CD CO OS OS 00 ■- 



CMOOSOSCvI Ot^ CM CM CM iftCOO— -.■ -. — -- ^ ^. .-^., ^■ 
CO CO CO CM CO COTj<i]OCOCO TJH CO -^t* CM CM Tfi CO Tfl CM CM lO CO CO CO CM CO 



- kO CD OS CM to OS 



O H 

O H 

m OS 

S O 






WW 



ga 



Si 

c8 3 



QQ-< 



P.D. 34. 



29 



(N-H oiire "- 



•B^B^ 



•u88oJ;r>j 



m^ppfH 



— ^00 <M 03 ^^ 



•paja^n^ 



•^iO"<ft^iO O-^OCOCD 



5 CO 00 M C^ 00 iC lO CO Oi -^ M <M CO C 



• 05 CO o '-H c^ 00 r^ oo CO icooooioo co c^i 



»0 »0 -^1 t-- -H -^ 1— ( 



OOOOO i-hOOOO OOOOO OOOOO OOOOO O " 
CO C^ »-H -N OO CO -^ 1— " 05 CO CC 00 O »0 -^ lO CO *-< C^ Oi OS C^ CO CO W3 O "O 



o s 



•paaa-^igan 



•paja;n^ 



•paja^igun 



05C1<M03C5 .— iCOCOiCC 



»^0«-'00 C0<-«0^'^ i-iO^O» 



1 05-<** t^(M CO OOC 



CO ^ ^ Oi - 



oo-^oo ^i-H^eco ^c 



aOCO^(M(M i-NCOOOC 



CO CO o (M CO « 05 GO t^ oo o r^ r* OS CO 



CO O t— b- CO CO C^ -^ C^ O CO CO O iC CO lO -^ O t-i O OO 00 CO O iO 



(M -H-<ii rt C 



-COOiOOOO t^CifMOCO <MC 



cq ^ (M ^ »-( CO M C<) i« ^ CO C 



i Oi CO lOCOCO !>. 



3 CO -^ »— I O 



^ lO lO -^JH c^ tC Tjl 



*8nuo|qQ 



Oi 1-H O CD 03 



S10C005 ^^ooor* 



- 05 I>- ^ ■^ O 05 



•papasdsng 



•paA|OSSTQ 



*F^ox 



■* OO C^ (M 05 lO 



■^iCOCliM lOO-^Ci-* 



i* Tt* O CO C 



(M C<1 C^ (M (M i-«C^,-ioO<M C^C^fMCOCO C^J CS CO O ^ ■'J* C<J CO GO i-l CO C 



^ CO CO lO O -^ CO GO CO - 



. O OO »-H CO COt~-C^cOCO CO lO 



CO C>5 Tt< Cq C^ CM -^ •-« C5 CO O) C^ CO ^ iC C<1 CI C^ (M i-" C^ d ■-* Oi »— I -^ y-i 



OO CO CO t-- •-H CO «— I OS o i-^ 



iiO -^ CO ■^ lO 



a 00 »c ic lO »o t-^ CO 1/5 ^ CO CO c 



CO ^ CO O CO CQ t 
C0i01>"00 N CO C 



i^^cqco^-i tOir^OO" 



-«t* o -* i-^ o 



1 ^ !>. _, O .-H O O 05 CO 05 



•oaj^ 



GOO t^O Oi 



•papnadsng 



■p8A|0SSTQ 



'mox 



CO lOCM O O 



I CO -^ O lO O lO O CO o 



CO OOCDiO I>-l>- 



»-H CO 1-H 



t>- O CO CO O CO O CO o »o 



s OS lO CO r— CO CO CO t-^ >o oo 



OiOOCOO OCDIT^OO Ot^OCOCq 'Tf-^t^t 



i-«co coco c 



OrfOOGOCO -^JH^O-*-^ 

— H CM ■^ (N ^HC^r-HlOlM 



iC^CMCOCO (Ml— icv^i— « COdtMuOi-H COi— I 



•papuadsng 



•paA|OSSIQ 



"I^^oj, 



COCO'rt^OCO ■^COt 
tMCOCOOSCO CDOC 

OS Tt^' 00 od oi lo CO ' 



CO CO »c o o 

t^- !>. CM -rj^ !>. 

t^ CO t^ d* CO 



CO CO -^ CO W5 



CM ^H ^ lO 



CO'"^ OiTS CO 



-^ CO 'Tj* cq ^ iCCO-^COC 



OOOO CO CO 
Cq CSOS '^ CM 



-:t< CO »0 CO ■^ CO ■^ CM OS -^ CO "* Tt< Tf^ CO rp CO CO CM C 



t^ lO to Oi CM 



oco 



S O O 00 »-t O CM CO O OS lO CO O "^ lO t 
5 r* l>- CO urs Tj" t--. CO CO i-H CO 1/5 00 GO »— I c 



I OS -^ oo -^ I>- CM 



s r- O O CO CO »c o CO -^ o ■^ CO t* »cooi>-coo ost^ 



a-? s 



ZhmZH i5£h2;h he-i2;zh HmZihh hi^ih^z iz;»S 



fete 
^^^•3-,^ BB^'^S t5t5>^>$5 






H ^ O O g 

S o c ct^ 
H ea o c3 

<noow 



o a ■^'-' 

S g 5 « « 

t: g g <; <( 



o 

o 
« 



0.-0 o'C ts 
O 3-S C3 < 



•d-d 

p5' 



j-d ro 
o £ t; '- t- 

O H 3 g.O 



p E-. 

2 w 



SSZZ;^: 2;fi;^c»S ^g: 



30. 



P.D. 34. 



^ 















^ 



^ 
^ 



o 
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•3i< 



•83BAi9g 



■aSBM9g Ai'BJJ 



Ost^rt-^OS ICOS-HOt^ MOOfMlOt^ 



C3 00 CD CO CO 
■<J1 CO -^ lO o> 



-* 00 CO CC CO 
00 lO CO <M CO 



Tl^cOOOt^iO OitMCOMt^ •^■^COt^-H 
CO OS t^ -<** CO OO t>- CD -* 00 OS O t^ CO 00 

lO lO -^ ■* OO U5001OCD00 lO lO CO CO ■*♦* 



•paAoniaj 



%uaQ 13^ 



•83BAiag 

paij'BajX JO pajwag 



•aS'BAiag Ai'By 



OSCD lOI'^O llll-H lOI 



OOC<l (M -^ 



cqoO COCO 



— CO 001— 
OOOS COCO 

CO -^ OO 00 



CO OO 00 
O t^Ol 

I • I • ■ 



•paAoniai 



%usQ ja J 



■aSBMag 
pa^BaJX JO paiwag 



•aSBAiag Mwjj 



i-< CO -^CO -^lO-^iOM -^COCOIM ^H lO 



coosoot^os c<ico(Mcoos co»ocoi— t— coo 

1-H — OOCOCD OO — OOO OiOOOC^ cqco 
COCD-^CO-^ WIO-'S^'^CO ■<*< Cq M (M t^ 10-* 



cDcooiocq osoocoot^ iciaoot— -^ coo 

lOt^t— t^T^ i« C^ ^-i CCI CO Cq (M OS ■* b- Cq CD 
CO00-^l£3t^ COOb*OSOO -^ '<4H (M »C OS COOS 



■paAoinaJ 



^nao ja J 



•aSBA^sg 
pa'jBaJx JO paiwsg 



•aSBMag MB^ 



t— cq (M CO CO -^cocoosoo CO lO 00 OS o coo 

1-^ CD ^^ (M CO .<** to Tt< »C ^H ^H CO CO CO -^ 



CO CO ^H CO ^H asE^OC<l-^ (M O O C<I CD cot* 
■* CO to -^ I— d »C «5 IC OO to "«* CO CO CD t>-CO 



M -^ 00 00 CO CQ OS cq 00 cq w cq 00 CO CO OO c^ 

lO CD W3 »C O iO C^ OS C<l O COCO-^Ot— t— CD 



•paAotaaj 



*nao la^ 



•asBAiag 
pa^BaJX JO paiwag 



•aSBiViag xlV\i 



O « 



OCO'tP '"^ o 



O0COI>>I>» OOcOiCCXJ- 



soot^t- ecocoos 



00 rJH CD «— ICO 



T*<OOOiOC 



iO(MCOCOO 



lOSCCiOOi OiCOO»-H05 



1-i as CDC 
O -^00 C 



1 CD I^OO CO C 



CD T-( CKl .— < 1-1 CO 1— I CC C 



'to CC CC CD t^ ■<*< 

1-1 t-H T-H (M 



^ c^ o o 

ri o3 ^ H P* 



C C C B fi 

c3 o3 ti ^ oj 



c^ c a q 

Cj H ^ ^ ' 



§ S 

S r- S ^ S' 



-^ Q QJ CO J 

g <1 O 3 <l 
fSOKWS 






HmHHH Hw 






"3-^ 

s.!" 



n.^ 



3 


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P.D. 34. 



31 



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a. 







BS 


Trickling filter has an 
area of 2.0 acres and 
a depth of 10 feet of 
stone from 1.5 to 3 
inches in size. 

One-half of filter used 
alternately. The av- 
erage rate of opera- 
tion was about 
1,347,000 gallons per 
acre per day. 

Period of sedimenta- 
tion averages about 
1.57 hours. 


s 

e 

■n 

a 

a 
a 


•S^BJ 


CO 


lO 


•^ 


■U930IVK 

ii^pfFh 


00 00 t^ 

00 «3 iO 


S 


■o 


Ed 
O 
(- 

X 

O 



H 

s 




o 


•paja^^iJ 


O 00 lO 
Oi CO -^f 


1 


to 


•paja^Hgufi 


-H 00 fJH 

CO N ocq 


■* 


?3 


O 
O 

a 


1 

05 


•sa^u^ij^ 


1 2j J « 1 1 
o o 


•sa^BJ^jN 


00 00 






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2 s 2: 

--I CO t>- 


1 


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o 

s 
s 
< 


a 
o 
g 
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ij 


•papuadsng 


O 00 N 

o 


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o 


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o 


1 


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■mox 


CO £M t^ 
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to 


s 


CO 


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S S CO 

CO --i tnci 


1 


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« 



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> 

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o 

ca 

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to 

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o 


■* 


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GO ^H TJH 

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2 


OJ 


p 

Q 

s 


■papuadsng 


00 o o 

to Oi C-] 
Til' lO ^ 




o 


•paAjossia 


CO (M t~ 

CO CO CO 


- 


1 


■IB^ox 


03 « OJ 


to 


1 








Settled sewage as 
applied to trick- 
ling filter. 

Effluent from trick- 
ling filter. 

Per cent removed 

Settled effluent from 

trickling filter. 


Per cent removed by 
tank. 

Per cent removed by 
trickling filter and 
settling tank. 



32 



P.D. 34. 



:i 






cq 



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•r^ o 



"^ o 



g-^ 



*0 



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c^a. 


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cs 


on 


s 


<u 


^ 


^ 




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■ai 


S 


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> 






C3 



<^;: 



o 

n 
■< 









has an 

res and 

feet of 

to 3 

ate of 

about 

ns per 

used 

naenta- 
ours. 






















E =S 03 OI.SjS O"^-^ S ->^ 








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(m" o--; ' 


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t^ CO o^ 




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33 



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34 P.D. 34. 

Table No. 5. — Average Results of Analyses of Monthly Samples of Effluent from 

Sand Filters. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



City or Town. 


Free 
Ammonia. 


Total 
Albuminoid 
Ammonia. 


Chlorine. 


Nitrogen as — 


Iron. 




Nitrates. 


Nitrites. 




Attlebobo 1 


.75 


.0712 


4.72 


1.3617 


.0125 


.032 


Brockton 2 


1.63 


.0704 


6.35 


1.3339 


.0178 


.476 


Clinton- ..... 


2.11 


.0821 


4.58 


.1114 


.0020 


1.327 


Concord '..... 


.08 


.0186 


4.21 


1.4735 


.0036 


.016 


Easthampton ' .... 


.06 


.0280 


3.32 


1.6997 


.0314 


.045 


Framingham^ (Imhoff) 


1.79 


.1100 


6.74 


1.0855 


.0326 


.346 


Framingham (Direct) . 


3.33 


.1124 


6.81 


.2527 


.0200 


1.054 




1.28 


.1220 


6.42 


.4558 


.0550 


.522 


Gardner (Gardner Area) ' . 


3.31 


.1750 


9.21 


.0737 


.0079 


1.105 


Gardner (Templeton Area) 2 


4.12 


.2179 


7.78 


.7400 


.0308 


.761 


Hopedale^ . . . . • 


1.30 


.0873 


4.27 


2.1293 


.0019 


.029 


Hudson ..... 


1.33 


.1085 


5.62 


1.5188 


.0168 


.223 




1.14 


.0898 


3.59 


.7018 


.0365 


.173 


Marion ' . 


1.07 


.0683 


3.75 


.2187 


.0287 


.404 


Marlborough 2 .... 


.91 


.0810 


6.86 


1.9043 


.0129 


.206 


Milford^ 


2.64 


.1119 


7.15 


.3645 


.0119 


.644 


Natick 


3.00 


.0950 


8.47 


.1797 


.0470 


.656 


North Attleborough 1 . 


.34 


.0285 


3.15 


.4447 


.0098 


.171 


Northbridgei .... 


.68 


.0625 


2.97 


.5610 


.0104 


.519 


Norwood 2 


1.15 


.0825 


9.42 


.1551 


.0115 


.550 


PmSFIELD* 


1.19 


.1875 


5.28 


.3011 


.0155 


.478 


Southbridge^ 


2.60 


.1148 


8.00 


.0564 


.0061 


1.088 


Spencer 1 

Stockbridge2 .... 


.75 


.0526 


4.81 


.1993 


.0007 


.780 


.31 


.0484 


2.12 


.2805 


.0301 


.091 


Westborough^ .... 


1.33 


.1099 


6.97 


.2310 


.0164 


.763 



1 Six samples. 

2 Regular samples from two or more underdrains m one average. 



' Four samples. 
* Eleven samples. 



Table No. 6. — Efficiency of Sand Filters. {Per Cent of Free and Albuminoid 

Ammonia removed.) 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



City or Town. 



Attleboro . 
Brockton 
Clinton . 
Concord 

Easthampton 

Framingham (Imhoff) 

Framingham (Direct) 

Franklin 

Gardner (Gardner Area) 

Gardner (Templeton Area) 



Hopedale 
Hudson . 
Leicester 
Marion . 
Marlborough 

Milford . 

Natick . 

North Attleborough 

Northbridge . 

Norwood 

PiTTSFIELD 

Southbridge . 
Spencer . 
Stockbridge . 
Westborough . ^ 



Free Ammonia. 



2.82 
3.51 
2.92 
2.88 
3.21 

3.67 
5.18 
2.60 
10.10 
5.44 

4.84 
4.20 
3.04 
1.97 
5.00 

4.89 
3.74 
2.07 
1.91 
3.10 

3.01 
5.70 
4.60 
1.89 
3.83 



.75 

1.63 

2.11 

.08 

.06 

1.79 
3.33 
1.28 
3.31 
4.12 

1.30 
1.33 
1.14 
1.07 
.91 

2.64 

3.00 

.34 

.68 

1.15 

1.19 

2.60 

.75 

.31 

1.33 






Total Albumi- 
noid Ammonia. 



.58 
.43 
.63 
.47 
.51 

.71 
1.70 

.29 
1.80 

.57 

.50 
.52 
.57 

.72 



.52 
.62 
.30 
.32 



.54 
.73 



.23 

.82 



W 



.0712 
.0704 
.0821 
.0186 
.0280 

.1100 
.1124 
.1220 
.1750 
.2179 

.0873 
.1085 



.0810 

.1119 
.0950 
.0285 
.0625 
.0825 

.1875 
.1148 
.0526 
.0484 
.1099 



0) Q 



Chlorine. 



4.95 
6.19 
5.07 
5.62 
5.93 

6.69 
7.08 
4.95 
12.36 
6.89 

4.61 
5.90 
3.20 
3.90 
9.67 

8.43 
9.00 
3.32 
2.35 
13.37 

6.09 
8.87 
6.44 
1.34 
4.50 



W 



4.72 
6.35 
4.58 
4.21 
3.32 

6.74 
6.81 
6.42 
9.21 

7.78 

4.27 
5.62 
3.59 
3.75 
6.86 

7.15 
8.47 
3.15 
2.95 
9.42 

5.28 
8.00 
4.81 
2.12 
6.97 



Rate of 
Operation 

with 
Even Dis- 
tribution 
(Gallons 
per Acre 
per Day).' 



59,000 



51,000 
85,000 



40,000 
54,000 



47,000 
51,000 

130,000 
44,000 

30,000 
49,000 
95,000 
60,000 
88,000 

101,000 
67,000 



61,000 



' See also Table No. 7. 



P.D. 34. 



35 






o 






0^ 



OQ 



f^ 



O 

pq 
<! 



Estimated 
Rate of 

Operation 
with 

Even Dis- 
tribution 
(Gallons 
per Acre 

per Day). 


59,000 

51,000 
85,000 


40,000 
54,000 

47,000 


51,000 
131,000 
44,000 
30,000 
49,000 


95,000 
60,000 
88,000 
101,000 
67,000 


r 


^ 1 


15.50 
37.00 
26.23 
4.28 
2.20 


(M ■»4< OO 
-HCMiOt^ 


OiOOOO 
O t^ OCO CO 


gg^Sg 


2 ' 


03C0(MC0 


ojoooxrq 


t^ CM -^-4 CM 


Estimated 

Average 

Quantity 

of Sewage 

per 

Connection. 


OiOCl-H 
coco t^ t>- 


1 ■*[- 1 CO 
05 C^l o 
CO(M lO 




-^CM^O 1 

t^ ^ ^ .^ 

oooo t*t>- 


1 ' 




^^ 

P 

S H 

w 


Average 
for Month 

of 

Minimum 

Flow. 


613,000 
2,098,000 
1,063,000 

264,000 


2,880,000* 
829,000 
111,000 

116,000 


326,000 
69,000 
467,000 
128,000 
371,000 


565,000 
678,000 
923,000 
3,846,000 
829,000 


O 1 

CO 


Average 
for Month 

of 

Maximum 

Flow. 


1,257,000 

5,179,000 

2,012,000 

527,000 


4,650,0003 

1,739,000 

247,000 

250,000 


627,000 
125,000 

1,912,000 
473,000 

1,055,000 


826,000 

731,000 

1,716,000 

4,386,000 

1,180,000 


o 

o 




oooo 1 
o o o ^ 
oo_oo 
co'ot-^in 

OrtCO_CO 
CO,-? 


3,310,000 

1.174,000 

175,000 

178,0006 


455,000 
98,000 
914,000 
280,0006 
617,000 


668,000 

718,000 

1,268,000 

4,172,000 

838,000 


oo 

gg 

co"o 
coxo 


Approxi- 
mate 
Number 
of House 

Con- 
nections. 


1,518 
8,843 
1,834 
513 
1,133 


2,979 
770 

2,313 
352 


1,011 
187 
2,472 
1,573 
1,507 


764 

852 

1,712 

5,880 


00 1 


Approxi- 
mate 
Length of 
Sanitary 
Sewers 
(Miles). 


35.18 
97.44 
24.55 
8.95 
20.84 


0001U3 

1 '1^1-: 


OOCO-*<CO-H 
»0003 05 (?CI 


CO-J<l>]^ 

C^ CO COO 


oco 

oeo 


CO -H CO 


CO CO "^ 05 O^ 


I^U^COO 
T-Irt C^CO 


Popula- 
tion, 
Census of 
1925. 


COC0050t~ 

coco— io«ra 


OQOinom 

cOOOt^rt 


O— •CO-H—I 
CO t^ CO 00 t- 
T-( c<i (n t^oo 


o-< — l^O 

CT3 lO lO t^OO 
t~0 — 00^ 


00 cq 




co-Hi>ooeo 


00rHCO^C^^ 


oso-i<com 


CO CM 
O 


o 

■« 
o 

6 




















North Attleborough 
Northbridge 
Norwood . 

PiTTSFIELD 

Southbridge 


3 H 
O O 








Attleboro 
Brockton . 
Clinton 
Concord 
Easthampton 


FiTCHBURG 

Framingham 
Franklin . 
Gardner . 
Hopedale . 


Hudson 
Marion 

Marlborough 
Milford . 
Natick 



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P.D. 34. 37 

Examination of Sewer Outlets Discharging into the Sea. 

Considerable progress has been made in the construction of the new outfall sewer 
for the city of Lynn. Plans were presented and approved by the Department 
during the year for deep sea outfall sewers at Marblehead and Gloucester and for 
the South Essex Sewerage District which comprises the cities of Salem, Peabody 
and Beverly, the town of Danvers, and certain pubhc institutions in Danvers and 
Middleton. 

Special examinations were made during the year in the vicinity of the outlet of 
the South Metropolitan Sewerage District, and many of the other main outlets 
have been inspected during the year. 

Water Supply of Municipalities in the County of Essex and in Adjacent 
Portions of the County of Middlesex. 

In accordance with the requirements of Chapter 39 of the Resolves of the year 
1926, the Department investigated the water supply needs and resources of the 
municipalities of the County of Essex and adjacent portions of the County of 
Middlesex and submitted a report to the Legislature on December 15, 1926, which 
was printed as House Document No. 211 of the year 1927. 

The report recommended a more complete investigation of the water supply 
needs of the cities in the Merrimack River valley, including the city of Lowell, and 
especially a study of the possibility of supplying the latter city with water from local 
sources. The investigation also included a, consideration of the needs of the mu- 
nicipalities in the southern portion of Essex County and recommended a continua- 
tion of the investigation which had not been completed within the time allowed. 

Neponset Valley Sewer. 

Under the provisions of Chapter 43 of the Resolves of 1926, the Department 
investigated during the year the desirability and probable cost of the extension of 
the South Metropolitan sewerage system to serve towns in the upper part of the 
valley of the Neponset River, and the report of the results of this investigation, 
together with plans and estimates of cost, was presented to the Legislature as 
required by the resolve and has been printed as House Document No. 212 of the 
year 1927. 

Water Supply and Sewerage of State Sanatoria. 

Plans and estimates were made by this Division during the year for improve- 
ments in the sewerage systems and sewage filters at the Lakeville, North Reading 
and Westfield State Sanatoria. 

The new water supply at the Lakeville Sanatorium constructed by this Division 
was practically completed at the end of the year. 

Special investigations have been made at the Cancer Hospital at Norfolk relative 
to water supply and sewage disposal. The sewerage system and sewage filter beds 
at this institution which had been constructed originally of inferior materials were 
very largely reconstructed under the supervision of this Division during the latter 
part of the year. 

Noisome Trades. 

In response to a petition relative to offensive odors arising from certain manu- 
facturing establishments in Everett, the Department held a hearing early in the 
year, and this matter has been under investigation throughout much of the year. 
Certain improvements have been effected which have afforded relief from the con- 
ditions causing the complaints. 

Investigations have also been made in the vicinity of the oil refinery at Braintree 
in response to numerous complaints relative to the escape of foul odors from that 
works. 

Investigations have also been made relative to offensive odors arising from certain 
piggeries. 

Shellfish. 

Under the provisions of Chapter 370 of the Acts of 1926 this Division has con- 
tinued the examinations of the shellfish-bearing areas along the coast. It has been 
found permissible to reduce slightly the bounds of the contaminated area in Pljon- 



38 P.D. 34. 

outh Harbor, but otherwise the extent of the contaminated areas remains as 
determined by the Department as a result of its investigations in 1925 under the 
provisions of Chapter 300 of the Acts of 1925. 

In accordance with Chapter 370, the Division has posted all of the contaminated 
areas, and representatives of the Division have assisted the Department of Con- 
servation, Division of Fisheries and Game, in the preparation and trial of cases of 
violation of the shellfish acts. 

The Division has also examined a great many requests for shellfish bed certifi- 
cates of which 650, including the renewal of about 200 of the 1925 certificates, have 
been issued. It has been necessary to recall five of these certificates because of 
violation of the shellfish laws. 



P.D. 34. 39 

Eeport of the Division of Water and Sewage 
Laboratories. 

H. W. Clark, Director. 

The work of this Division was greater by about 20 per cent during 1925 and 1926 
than during previous years and it is becoming increasingly difficult with the present 
force to satisfactorily handle the great amount of analytical work required of these 
laboratories. During 1926 its accomplishment was only made possible by the 
employment of a larger number of temporary assistants than usual and by retaining 
two of them until the end of the year. 

What can be called the strictly anal3d:ical work carried on by this Division at the 
Lawrence Experiment Station and in the State House laboratories has increased 
nearly threefold since the present Director was placed in charge thirty years ago 
and nearly 50 per cent during the last ten years. Notwithstanding this increase, 
the number of permanent employees in this Division has not been increased. That 
this greater amount of analytical work has been performed year after year has been 
due to (1) better laboratory equipment and systematizing of the work; (2) the em- 
ployment of a greater number of temporary assistants each year; and (3) the carry- 
ing out of less research work. This latter curtailment is a serious loss to the Di- 
vision and to the entire work of the Department upon water and sewage purification 
and many allied sanitary subjects. 

The work of this Division is closely connected with that of the Division of 
Sanitary Engineering of the Department in which the regular number of employees 
in thirty years has been increased greatly, and the greater amount of engineering 
work has been the main cause of the great increase in the work of this Division. 
Occasionally during the past few years it has been necessary to leave work undone 
that has been forwarded to these laboratories by the engineers. This condition 
demands relief and either the laboratory force must be increased or less work ex- 
pected of the Division. 

In pursuance of the work of the Division the numbers of samples shown in the 
following table were analyzed chemically, bacterially and microscopically during 
1926. The results of all the chemical analyses of public water supplies, rivers, 
sewage applied to and effluents from municipal sewage disposal areas, the work on 
which was done by this Division, are summarized in tables presented in the report 
of the Division of Sanitary Engineering. 

The research work of the Division is necessary in order that a clearer under- 
standing may be had of the many sanitary problems of the Department. During 
1926 it included work upon the bacterial purification of water, upon the removal of 
color from water by filtration, studies of the storage of water and the absorption of 
color from different materials found upon the site of artificial reservoirs, and upon 
the hydrogen ion control of Imhoff tanks, this latter being a subject of great interest 
at the present time on account of the great use of such tanks throughout the country 
and conditions sometimes arising in connection with their operation. Tanks of 
this kind are in operation at Fitchburg, Worcester, Framingham and elsewhere 
in Massachusetts in connection with the disposal of municipal sewage. Further 
studies in regard to household septic tanks were made as this is a subject of par- 
ticular interest to individuals or corporations whose homes, factories or other prop- 
erty can not be connected with municipal or other sewers, and studies of corrosion 
in connection with the use of brass and copper service pipes were also carried on. 
The activated sludge process of sewage disposal, originating at the Experiment 
Station in 1911 and 1912, and now adopted for the disposal of sewage by many 
large cities both in this country and abroad, was further experimented upon. Also, 
interesting studies were made of sand, trickling and contact fflters kept in operation 
at the Station for many years, the value of the results from these filters increasing 
the greater their period of operation, and they are also of interest to engineers, 
chemists, students and others visiting the Station and interested in sewage 
disposal of communities in Massachusetts or elsewhere. During the year a 



40 P.D. 34. 

continuation was made of the study of iodine in water supplies. The shellfish 
work of the Department called for the examination of 436 samples and during the 
year further studies were made in regard to the condition of shellfish held in markets, 
shellfish undergoing the process of "soaking," etc. In connection with the deter- 
mination of the condition and efficiency of municipal sewage filtration areas 1,062 
samples were examined and in studies of sewage purification and improvements of 
methods 1,400 samples were examined. In addition various wastes from oil works 
and other industrial plants were studied and methods of disposal developed, and 
much work was done upon private and camp water suppUes, the condition of 
swimming pools, the quality of ice, the pollution of rivers and the efficiency of 
municipal water purification plants. Bacterial studies of a large number of public 
water supplies to compare their bacterial condition with the bacterial standard of 
the U. S. Treasury Department were made and these studies, together with other 
work of the Division, necessitated the bacterial analysis of over four thousand 
samples. Much analytical work and field work on the special investigations of the 
Department such as the Essex County water supplies, Neponset Valley sewage 
disposal, etc., etc., was done, and in this connection about seven hundred samples 
were analyzed. As usual the Station and the State House laboratories were visited 
by many engineers, chemists and others during the year, and classes of students 
from several engineering and medical schools and colleges were instructed. 

The total number of samples examined by the Division during the year is shown 
in the following table : — ■ 

State House Laboratories. 

Samples from public water supplies : 

Surface waters 2,645 

Ground waters 1,182 

Samples from domestic wells, ice supplies, etc 510 

Samples from rivers .-.•.• ■ 1,211 

Samples in connection with special water supply investigations (Essex 

County, Lawrence and Methuen) 398 

Samples from sewage disposal works: 

Sewages 500 

Effluents 562 

Samples of wastes and effluents from factories 101 

Samples of sea waters 31 

Miscellaneous samples (partial analyses) 29 

Microscopical examinations 2,765 

Special examinations of water (including field work) for manganese, lead, 

alkalinity and acidity, dissolved oxygen, carbonic acid, copper, etc. . 1,436 

Lawrence Experiment Station. 
Chemical examinations on account of investigations concerning the dis- 
posal of domestic sewage and factory wastes, filtration and other treat- 
ment of water supplies, swimming pools, and the investigation of the 

Merrimack and other rivers . _ 2,243 

Mechanical and chemical examinations of sands 147 

Iodine determinations on public water supplies _ • 14 

Bacterial examinations of water supphes, rivers, sewage filter effluents, ice, 

swimming pools, etc • • ■ ^j^^^ 

Bacterial examinations in connection with methods of purification of sewage 

and water 1,081 

Bacterial examinations of shellfish and sea waters 365 

Iodine in Massachusetts Water Supplies. 
The examination of water supplies for iodine, started last year, was continued, 
determinations being made on ten additional supphes and repeated on two. The 
results follow: — 



P.D. 34. 



Iodine in Surface Waters. 



Iodine in Ground Waters. 



41 









Iodine 




Supply. 


1926. 


(Parts per 
Billion). 


Brook field .... 




March 12 


2.46 


Hadley .... 




March 19 


0.80 


Huntington .... 




March 29 


0.53 


Orange .... 




April 15 


0.20 


Williamsburg 




April 5 


1.10 



Acton . 

Chelmsford . 

Deerfield 

Duxbury 

Easthampton 

Provincetown 

Webster 



April 8 
March 3 
March 25 
May 4 
March 13 
June 2 
March 4 



0.20 
1.00 
0.96 
2.40 
0.82 
0.00 
4.11 



Bacterial Quality of Water Supplies. 
During the year about 3,700 bacterial analyses were made of the different water 
supplies, rivers, wells, springs, etc., of the State, and certain comparisons made of 
the bacterial quality of the public supplies with the U. S. Treasury standard. This 
standard as fixed in 1914 provides that not over one of five ten cubic centimeter 
portions examined shall show B. coli or a maximum of about 2 B. coli in one hun- 
dred cubic centimeters. The advisory committee on standards for drinking water 
supplied to the public by common carriers in interstate commerce in 1925 pro- 
posed a new requirement as to bacteriological quality, as follows: — 

" (1) Of all the standard (10 c.c.) 'portions examined in accordance with the pro- 
cedure specified below, not more than 10 per cent shall show the presence of or- 
ganisms of the B. Coli group. 

(2) Occasionally three or more of the five equal (10 c.c.) portions constituting a 
single standard sample may show the presence of B. Coli. This shall not be allow- 
able if it occurs in more than — ■ 

(a) Five per cent of the standard samples when twenty (20) or more samples 
have been examined; 

(b) One standard sample when less than twenty (20) samples have been ex- 
amined." 

In this work about eighty public supplies including that of the Metropolitan 
district have been examined. From certain of these supplies, samples have been 
taken frequently during the year but from others only occasionally. Of the 207 
samples of Metropolitan water (an impounded surface water) 90 per cent were of 
the required quality; of the Lawrence supply (a polluted river water filtered and 
then chlorinated) 702 examinations were made and 91 per cent passed the standard; 
of certain good ground water supplies, such as Duxbury, Hopkinton, Hyannis, 
Marion, Mattapoisett, Norton, Scituate, Shirley, Westwood, Weston and others, 
all the samples were of the required quality; of many surface water supplies 
all of the samples taken passed the standard, and all the samples from certain 
surface supplies of doubtful quality, such as Wakefield, but chlorinated on account 
of this, also passed the standard. Of the entire number of samples of public sup- 
plies examined 88 per cent were satisfactory according to this rigid test. It was 
apparent from this work, as would of course be expected, that the greater the 
number of samples collected the more definite was the amount of information 
obtained; that is, the supplies were definitely placed in one of two classes, — with 
those that would or those that would not pass the standard. 

Bacterial Methods. 

The standard methods of the American Public Health Association are used in the 
test for the presence of the coli-aerogenes group including "partial confirmation," 
using litmus lactose agar, however, for confirmation instead of endo or eosin 
methylene blue as recommended. This procedure has been used here for many 
years and has given satisfactory results. 

The statement in "Standard Methods of Water Analysis" that "our knowledge 



42 P.D. 34. 

is not sufficiently complete to warrant the adoption of any single test or group of 
tests," in differentiation of fecal from non-fecal members of the coli-aerogenes 
group is in accordance with the experience of these laboratories and for the present 
at least it is believed that any member of this group when found should be reported 
as B; coli, and in addition that streptococci when found on confirmation plates 
have the same significance as B. coli. It is impossible for this laboratory with the 
force engaged and when samples are coming in with great rapidity to carry out the 
complete confirmatory methods, and few laboratories do. These complete con- 
firmatory tests are, however, carried out with several hundred samples each year 
and the results have sho\vn year after year that 98 per cent of the samples partially 
confirmed are not changed by the complete tests. 

Two kinds of plates are made on all samples, a litmus lactose agar plate with 
24-hours' incubation at 37° C, and a nutrient agar plate incubated at 20° C. for 
four days, instead of two, as described in "Standard Methods." This had been the 
procedure of this laboratory for many years before there were any standard methods, 
and any change would involve more disadvantages than advantages. The litmus 
lactose agar plates are probably unnecessary as the same information is given by 
the four-day plates and the B. coli test. All media are made strictly in accordance 
with the standard methods and are adjusted very closely to a pH of 6.9. 

The Significance of Red Colonies on 24-Hour Counts on Litmus Lactose Agar Plates. 

All red colonies are counted as such without regard to their resemblance to 
typical B. coli. These plates are made from one cubic centimeter of water on a 
solid medium, while B. coli tests are made in one cubic centimeter and in five 10 
cubic centimeter portions in a liquid medium which is much more favorable to the 
development of attenuated bacteria. Consequently B. coli are often found in the 
ten cubic centimeter portions, and even occasionally in the one cubic centimeter 
portions, although no red colonies are found on the 24-hour plates, but this is not 
usually the case. In good waters a very small proportion of the red colonies is B. 
coli while in water of poorer quality the proportion is much higher as has been 
thoroughly proved by the work of the laboratories. 

Shellfish Studies. 
"Soaking.^' 

It is well known that salt water shellfish placed in contact with fresh water absorb 
water and plump up. The amount of this increase in volume under different 
conditions of temperature, time and volume of fresh water not being known the 
following experiments were made to obtain such data. 

Fifteen lots of clams, quahaugs and oysters bought in the local markets were 
shucked and measurements of the proportion of meat to shell- water made. After 
shucking, the shell- water was drained off and moisture determinations on the meat 
started at once. Practically all the shell- water drained readily, but if the shucked 
samples were allowed to stand somewhat more liquid was given off slowly for a 
considerable period. Moisture was determined by drying in the water-bath oven 
to constant weight, this requiring from three to four days. Usually about two 
hundred cubic centimeters of the shucked sample measured in a cylinder were 
added to a definite volume of fresh water and allowed to stand for a definite period. 
The water was then drained off as before, the volume of shellfish measured, and 
moisture determinations started, the temperature, time of soaking, etc., being 
determined. The moisture determinations were made in duplicate and it was noted 
that the un watered portions checked closely, while there was always more variation 
in the "soaked" portions; that is, different individual shellfish did not absorb the 
same proportion of water. The volume measurements were not as accurate as the 
moisture determinations because of the difficulty in preventing "open space" in the 
samples in the cylinders. The per cent of dry matter in unwatered oysters, that is, 
good oysters as bought in the shell, varied from 19.3 percent to 24.7 percent with 
an average of 21.0 percent; quahaugs varied from 19.5 percent to 21.4 percent 
with an average of 19.6 percent; clams varied from 19.5 percent to 24.0 percent with 
an average of 22.3 percent. 



P.D. 34. 43 

It was ascertained by numerous experiments that the volume of fresh water in 
contact with shellfish is the determining factor in the "plumping" although tem- 
perature and time are also factors. SUghtly more water is absorbed at 70° F. than 
at 35° F., and while some water is absorbed in a few minutes the process goes on for 
quite a number of hours. The longest period of soaking in these experiments was 
twenty hours and it was found that soaking in running water for twenty hours 
gave practically the maximum "plumping." The highest volume increase in clams 
was 71.9 percent; in oysters, 19.9 percent; and in quahaugs, 36.6 percent. It was 
also determined by experiments that the amount of water absorbed by the neck 
or by the stomach or soft portion of shellfish was practically the same; also that 
from one to five minutes ' washing of shucked shellfish in running fresh water may 
lower the dry matter from approximately 20 to 18 per cent, a decrease of 10 per 
cent. Experimental work also proved that the more salt the shell-water the greater 
the degree of "plumping" in contact with fresh water. 

Relation between Shellfish, B. Coli Score and Sea Water. 
An accompanying table gives a summary of the B. coh score of 1,037 samples of 
shellfish and of sea water from the locality from which these shellfish were _ ob- 
tained. These samples are arranged according to the score and further divided 
according to the number of B. coli in the corresponding sea water. Sea water 
samples are not necessarily representative of the prevaihng conditions of the water 
over the shellfish beds on account of the effect of tides and winds. This is es- 
pecially true of soft clams as the water samples are usually collected at low tide in 
shallow water and necessarily at some distance from where the clams are dug and 
an examination of the table indicates that it is apparently not feasible to set any B. 
coli standard for water over shellfish beds. 

Table showing Relation between Shellfish B. Coli Score and Number of B. Coli per 
One Hundred Cubic Centimeters in Sea Waters from the Same Locality. 

Soft Clams. 





OF Samples. 


Shellfish 
B. Coli 
Score. 


Percentage of Shellfish Samples 
Water containing — 


FOUND IN Sea 




B. Coli 1 
in 100 cc. 1 


10 B. Coli 
in 100 cc. 


1 100 B. Coli 
1 in 100 cc. 


1,000 B. Coli 
in 100 cc. 


397 
135 
150 




to23 
23 to 50 
over 50 


37.8 
11.1 
7.3 

Quahaugs 


36.3 
42.2 
25.3 


. 22.9 
28.9 
30.0 


3.0 
17.8 
37.3 


2 20 
52 . 
30 . 




to23 
23 to 50 
over 50 


60.0 
46.1 
33.3 

Oysters. 


25.0 
38.5 
40.0 


12.7 
13.5 
23.3 


2.3 
1.9 
3.3 


31 . 
5 . 
17 . 




to23 
23 to 50 
over 50 


61.3 
60.0 
23.5 


29.0 
40.0 
58.8 


6.5 
0.0 
17.7 


3.2 
0.0 
0.0 



Studies of the Growth of B. Coli. 

In connection with the 1925 shellfish work experiments showed that there was 
seldom an increase, and usually a decrease in the B. coli content of shell- water 
when stored for several days although other workers claimed to have noted large 
increases in number of B. coU in shellfish during storage and a number of experi- 
ments were made to determine whether or not there was any increase in B. coli in 
sewage and other media. 

A domestic sewage before and after settling and a fresh sewage were kept at 
20° C. and 37° C. and examined daily for B. coli. The number of B. coli tended to 
remain constant or to increase slightly in twenty-four hours and thenceforth to 
decrease rapidly to a small fraction of the original number, while the other bacteria 
present increased greatly for from one to three days and thereafter tended to slowly 
decrease but still remaining after four days at least as numerous as originally. 

Similar results were obtained when sewages were placed in raw milk, sterilized 



44 P.D. 34. 

milk, and sterilized shell- water at 37° C. In no case where B. coli were present 
with other bacteria was there any appreciable increase in the number of B. coli. 
This is in line with much previous work of this Division. 

Studies of the Origin and Characteristics of Color in Water and Colore 
Yielding Soils and Other Materials. 

One of the problems of the storage of water for domestic use is to so store it that 
it will improve in all respects rather than deteriorate. It is especially desirable 
from the consumers point of view to have a colorless water or at least one the color 
■of which is not noticeable. In modern water works engineering there are two 
divergent views in regard to the reduction of color. One group of water experts 
advocate quite thorough preparation of a reservoir bottom by removal of all, or 
practically all, organic matters so that the water stored in such a reservoir can not 
absorb color from organic matter of various kinds and nature. This may mean 
the removal of all soil to a certain depth or only the muck, peat, etc., from swampy 
areas. In many instances swampy and peaty areas on reservoir sites are covered 
with from six to eight inches of sand instead of attempting removal of peat, 
muck, etc. The second group, or school of water works experts, pay little attention 
to such reservoir site preparation, placing dependence for color removal upon 
iiltration with coagulants. The question of odor and organisms is also involved 
in this problem as a water stored in a reservoir, the bottom of which contains 
considerable organic matter of a certain kind, is more likely to be a good media for 
the growth of organisms with their characteristic odors than water stored in a 
cleaned reservoir. Such organisms and odor can, however, be removed by efficient 
filtration. Investigations and discussions of the color problem both from the point 
of view of storage and that of filtration have been made from time to time during 
the past thirty or more years by many workers along this line. 

During the past thirty or more years this Department has made continuous 
studies in regard to the effect of the cleaning or preparation of reservoir sites upon 
the water stored in such reservoirs, these studies made year after year being based 
upon analytical work in the laboratories showing color, organisms, ammonia, etc., 
and many long-continued investigations in regard to the removal of color from 
water by various methods of filtration have been made and the results published. 
The reservoir sites have been of various classes, such as large deep reservoirs cleaned 
before flooding, large deep reservoirs uncleaned, and small reservoirs cleaned and 
uncleaned. These studies have shown in a general way that it is an advantage to 
clean such reservoir sites but many conflicting data have been obtained which have 
prevented a clear summary of the results, this confusion and the varying results 
being due probably to the lack of actual knowledge of the material, soil, mucks, etc., 
at the bottom of these reservoirs and their color-yielding and other properties. In 
order if possible to clear up certain confusion existing in these respects and to ob- 
tain other color data, studies were begun again at the Experiment Station early in 
the present year and a summary of these studies to date is as follows : — - 

These studies or experiments were designed to show (1) the actual amount of 
color yielded by certain soils, peats, etc., under different conditions, both aerobic 
and anaerobic; (2) the relation of this color to the organic matter in each material; 
(3) the rapidity with which each would yield color; (4) the difference in rapidity 
under different conditions such as passage of water through or simply standing in 
and over these materials; (5) the effect of depth of water over muck, peat, etc.; 
(6) the acidity or alkalinity factor by pH determinations; (7) the action of light, 
etc., and many other questions. 

In the first place, materials from different locations and of the varying and char- 
acteristic nature of the materials often found at reservoir sites were collected for 
examination and experiment. These materials can be briefly described as fol- 
lows : — 

No. 1. Largely dead grass roots just below the live roots in a meadow. 

No. 2. Black muck from a similar meadow containing few roots or peaty matter. 

No. 3. "Old" peat thrown out during the construction of a canal through an 
Essex County swamp. 

No. 4. Peat from the same locality but rather "newer" than No. 3. 



P.D. 34. 



45 



No. 5. Peaty material from a salt marsh. 

No. 6. "New" peat from near the surface of a woody swamp containing roots 
and coarse fibrous matter. 

No. 7. Practically the same as No. 3. 

No. 8. Practically the same as No. 4 but both Nos. 7 and 8 from different 
localities. 

In order to show the color-yielding factor of each of these materials, weighed 
quantities of each were placed in two-quart glass percolators blackened to exclude 
sunlight. In the bottom of each percolator below the material studied was placed 
some mineral wool and sand to act as underdrains. The density of the different 
materials studied varied greatly but approximately eight inches in depth was placed 
in each percolator.- 

Analyses and the weights of each examined are shown in the following table in 
which the material number as described above and the percolator numbers cor- 
respond. 



















Per Cent. 


Grams. 


Material Number. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Nitrogen. 


Dry Peat 

in 

Percolators. 


Organic 

Matter in 

Percolators. 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
















65.6 1.81 

35.7 1.24 
89.4 2.45 
91.6 2.55 
26.4 0.61 
82.6 2.77 

90.2 2.00 

83.3 2.57 


189 124 
464 166 
160 143 
159 146 
485 128 
174 144 
143 129 
129 107 



Through these materials one hundred cubic centimeters of water were passed 
daily and the color of this water determined. A similar set of percolators similarly 
loaded with the various peats, etc., was also put into operation but in this set the 
percolators were kept full and the materials flooded while in the first set all, or 
practically all, of the water applied each day passed through and was drained from 
the material. These two experiments allowed the water to extract coloring and 
other organic matter under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions; that is, the 
effluents from the percolators drained daily contained 50 per cent or more of 
saturation with oxygen while no dissolved oxygen was ever found in the effluents 
from the percolators the material in which was kept flooded. The colors of the 
effluents of all were read daily and the iron and hydrogen ion concentration de- 
termined weekly. Average samples were also collected for complete analysis. 
A following table presents the record of the average daily color readings and the 
average of the samples collected for complete analysis, the first covering a period of 
three months and the second of two months. In this table the percolator numbers, 
1, 2, etc., represent the percolators drained daily, while IF and 2F, etc., represent 
the percolators in which the material was kept flooded, and it will be noticed that 
the colors obtained under the anaerobic conditions existing in the full percolators 
averaged very much higher than the colors of the effluents of the percolators through 
which the water passed more quickly and the material was always under aerobic 
conditions. 





















Color. 


Percolator Number. 


Average 
Daily. 


First Average 

Sample 

(3 Months). 


Average 
Daily. 


Second Average 

Sample 

(2 months). 


1 

IF 

2 

2F 

3 

3F 

4 

4F 

5 

5F 

6 

6F 

7F 

8F 


















0.64 
4.05 
0.16 
2.78 
2.88 
6.71 
4.83 

11.94 
0.45 

12.66 
0.41 
3.12 
3.79 
7.11 


0.63 
6.20 
0.25 
3.50 
2.60 
6.00 
4.70 
12.00 
0.45 
9.00 
0.43 
3.00 
4.30 
7.40 


0.46 
2.69 
0.12 
3.46 
2.44 
4.50 
3.03 
7.95 
0.36 
7.23 
0.50 
1.73 
2.71 
3.48 


0.47 
4.70 
0.14 
4.74 
2.20 
4.70 
3.70 
9.50 
0.30 
6.00 
0.50 
2.35 
2.65 
2.40 



46 P.D. 34. 

The time which the water remained in contact with each material in the flooded 
percolators was determined and found to vary from two and one-half days in 
percolator 2F to nine days in percolator 4F as shown in the following table. In 
the drained percolators, moreover, owing to the nature of each material and 
the volume of water held in its open space, the effluent collected each day was quite 
largely water which had been for at least twenty-four hours held in contact with 
these color-yielding materials. 



Percolatok 
Number. 


Number of Days Water was 
retained in Percolator. 


IF 

2F 

3F 

4F 

SF 

6F 

7F 

8F 


7 

2^ 

7 

9 

5 

5 

7 

5 



The results of the collection and storage of samples from the flooded percolators 
seemed to show that while the greatest amount of color was yielded under anaerobic 
conditions yet this color could be increased by oxidation. This was shown to be 
true by treating equal weights of color-yielding material in gallon bottles, aerated 
and unaerated, and, speaking broadly, the color increase under oxidizing condi- 
tions was twice that under unaerated conditions. It was shown clearly, moreover, 
by such experiments that oxidation of anaerobic extracts from fresh or freshly 
decaying organic matter develops more color than from such extracts from old 
organic matter such as peat although the total amount of organic matter in the two 
materials be about equal. 

The rapidity with which color is extracted from different materials varies 
greatly, and a following table shows approximately the length of time required for 
the color from each material experimented with to reach its maximum, and the 
length of time that the maximum continued before the extract with distilled water 
began to decrease in color. It is probable that treating the different materials in 
these percolators as has been described will extract color slowly and that even after 
several months (with some of the materials perhaps after several years) coloring 
matter can still be extracted when adding only one hundred cubic centimeters of 
distifled water daily. The pH determinations of the effluents from the percolators 
are perhaps only of interest to compare the extract from the different kinds of peat 
experimented with. This is on account of the fact that the pH of the applied dis- 
tilled water varied considerably and this variation was not noticed until the experi- 
ments had been continued for a considerable period. Pure distilled water free from 
CO 2 should have a pH of 7.0 but generally distilled water contains some free CO 2 
and in the absence of a buffering substance such as occurs in natural waters a small 
amount of this CO 2 has a great influence on the pH of the distilled water. The pH 
of the effluents of the flooded percolators was lower except in one instance than the 
effluents of the drained percolators, this being so as the effluents of the fuU perco- 
lators always contained more coloring and other organic matter than the effluents 
of the drained percolators and the coloring matter from peat is of an acid nature. 
As was to be expected the amount of iron in the effluents of the full percolators 
operated under anaerobic conditions was high but not high enough to be an impor- 
tant factor in the color of these effluents. A foUowing table presents the average 
analyses from both sets of percolators. In one instance the free ammonia is high 
on account of the decaying grass and roots, and an unexpected result was the pres- 
ence of nitrates as high in one instance as .48 part in 100,000. These experiments 
had been continued five months up to November 30. 1926. 



P.D. 34. 



47 



Average Chemical Analyses. 
Effluents from Percolators Filled with Peat. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



si 




Residue 
ON Evapo- 


Ammonia. | 




Nitrogen 

AS 








a 
o 




.o 








m 


B 

a 




ration. 




ALBUMINOID | 








3 

a 
g 




>, 


§1 
'eg 


a 


u'Z 




a 
o 










"H 


s 












6 










^ 


S," 


S 


J 


o 


3 




6 


"3 


i 


a 


6 
1 


'B 


a 


a 


a 

"3 


2§ 
-So 


o3 


1 


6 


o 
Eh 


2" 


1 


o 


a 


6 


g 


iS 


O 


2 


< 


O 


1 


.57 


12.8 


4.9 


.0049 


.0166 


.0133 


.29 


.358 


.0014 


.71 


.0332 


0.7 


6.4 


3.9 


IF 


5.60 


21.5 


13.8 


.5523 


.1352 


.0894 


.35 


.098 


.0000 


3.46 


2.4945 


4.8 


6.1 


5.6 


2 


.21 


8.2 


2.6 


.0034 


.0110 


.0087 


.18 


.035 


.0032 


.22 


.0234 


2.3 


6.8 


3.0 


2F 


4.00 


25.0 


9.3 


.3690 


.0800 


.0629 


.94 


.044 


.0004 


2.22 


2.1128 


8.1 


6.4 


5.9 


3 


2.44 


14.0 


7.2 


.0097 


.0430 


.0283 


.16 


.290 


.0052 


1.94 


.0669 


2.2 


6.6 


4.5 


3F 


5.48 


17.3 


9.4 


.1442 


.1102 


.0859 


.27 


.030 


.0000 


4.45 


.4765 


4.5 


6.4 


6.2 


4 


4.30 


19.2 


11.1 


.0221 


.0842 


.0634 


.50 


.349 


.0010 


3.51 


.1226 


1.0 


6.5 


6.5 


4F 


11.00 


22.9 


14.6 


.1795 


.1440 


.1252 


.27 


.010 


.0000 


7.40 


.4535 


4.7 


6.3 


6.2 


5 


.39 


202.3 


20.4 


.0398 


.0277 


.0236 


94.80 


.174 


.0041 


.49 


.0752 


3.0 


6.5 


9.8 


5F 


7.80 


234.9 


37.4 


.1923 


.2460 


.1792 


115.80 


.012 


.0000 


6.10 


1.9350 


16.0 


6.7 


3.8 


6 


.45 


15.9 


7.2 


.0000 


.0223 


.0156 


.57 


.481 


.0034 


.57 


.0226 


2.3 


6.8 


5.9 


6F 


2.74 


15.5 


8.2 


.1636 


.0593 


.0473 


1.93 


.023 


.0004 


1.93 


.4512 


4.6 


6.4 


5.4 


7F 


3.64 


13.8 


7.1 


.0543 


.0481 


.0416 


.29 


.033 


.0006 


3.12 


.2881 


2.6 


6.3 


4.0 


8F 


5.40 


16.7 


9.6 


.1007 


.1006 


.0712 


.20 


.010 


.0000 


3.34 


.4847 


2.5 


6.5 


5.0 



Color Studies with Deep Tanks. 

In addition to the percolator experiments, investigations were begun early in the 
year with deep tanks in which 2}/^ feet in depth of peat was placed and the remainder 
of the tank filled with water. For this purpose three tanks, 20 feet deep and 20 
inches in diameter, were used. In Tank No. 550 was placed 47 pounds dry weight 
of peat No. 6 which when treated in a flooded percolator gave an average color of 
3.12; in Tank No. 551 was placed 50 pounds of peat No. 3 which in the flooded per- 
colator gave an average color of 2.88; and in Tank No. 552 was placed 39 pounds 
of dry peat No. 4 which in the flooded percolator gave an average color of 11.94. 
Six inches of clean sand was placed over the peat in this last tank. Early in 
July these tanks were carefully filled with water and the surfaces of the tanks have 
always been exposed to the sun and air. 

These experiments were intended to duplicate as far as possible under experi- 
mental conditions sections of deep reservoirs with peaty bottoms. Until September 
7 one gallon of Alerrimack River water was added daily to each tank through a pipe 
reaching to just above the surface of the peat and color readings were made of the 
applied water and the water overflowing the top of the tank. This volume of 
water added daily would theoretically allow a storage period of applied water of 
about 350 days. As during the first two months there was no appreciable increase 
of color in the water in these tanks, after September 7 the practice of adding water 
containing dissolved oxygen to the bottom of the tanks daily was discontinued and 
they were allowed to stand filled for three weeks in order that if possible anaerobic 
conditions might occur in and above the peat. At the end of this period, however, 
dissolved oxygen was still present in the bottom water, and five gallons of water 
rich in organic matter and containing no dissolved oxygen was added directly above 
the peat. This water, however, absorbed oxygen from the layers above and the 
color of the effluent did not increase. It was then thought that color might have 
been extracted from the peat but not diffused in the water above, hence on Novem- 
ber 11a pipe was placed in the tank reaching to within an inch of the bottom and 
water equivalent to 1 foot in depth forced in under pressure. Considerable gas 
was given off from the peat and on November 15 this treatment was repeated. 
Following this the color in the two feet in depth of water above the peat increased 
from .46 to 1.35. The lack of color yield from the peat during the five months to 
the end of the year was unexpected although the conditions were so different from 
those under which the same material in the percolators were tested that only a 
fraction of the percolator yield of color was expected. If, however, the peats 
in the bottom of these tanks had yielded color as the same materials did in the 
percolators the colors of the waters in these tanks would have been 4.04, 7.66 and 



48 P.D. 34. 

14.5, respectively. The pH of the water in all three color tanks, Nos. 550, 551 
and 552, at all depths was 7.0. The temperatures of the water in the tanks were as 
shown in the table: — 











Temperature 


(D 


EGREES F.). 








Month. 




TOP 


OF TANK 




BOTTOM OF TANK. 




Average. 


1 Maximum. | 


Minimum. 


A 


verage 


1 Maximum. 


1 Minimum. 


July 

August 

September .... 

October 

4 months 


70 
69 
63 
58 
65 




81 
77 
71 
71 
81 




61 
60 
54 
50 
50 




66 
66 
60 
56 
62 




73 
72 
68 
68 
73 




60 
60 
50 

49 
49 



Extraction of Color from Peat htj Sodium Hydroxide. 
It has been the practice at the Experiment Station for the past ten years to re- 
move the stored coloring matter in the water filters of sand impregnated with ferric 
hydroxide by treatment of the sand with a dilute sodium hydroxide solution and it 
was thought that the same process applied to soil, peat, muck, etc., might give use- 
ful infoimation in regard to the total amount of coloring matter present. To test 
this, five-gram portions of the dry peats, etc., used in the percolator experiments 
were extracted with successive portions of a hot .5 per cent solution of sodium 
hydroxide until the solution was practically colorless and the extracts were made up 
to one gallon and the total color determined. These color determinations are shown 
in the following table. For comparison, the average colors of the "flooded" 
percolator effluents, reduced to the same weight of peat and volume of water, are 
also given. 



Peat Number. 






Color extracted by NaOH 
calculated on weight of — 


Color extracted in Full 

Percolators calculated on 

Weight of — 




Peat. 


Organic Matter 
Only. 


■p_„. Organic Matter 
^®'^*- Only. 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 












21.0 32.0 
22.0 61.5 
60.0 67.0 
74.0 80.7 
15.0 56.8 
43.0 52.0 
100.0 110.7 
50.0 62.8 


0.50 0.77 
0.09 0.26 
0.74 0.83 
1.19 1.29 
0.28 1.05 
0.27 0.33 
0.44 0.48 
0.72 0.87 



These results show, as might be expected, that the organic matter of different 
types of peat does not yield the same amount of coloring matter either to NaOH or 
to anaerobic treatment with water but peats Nos. 1, 5 and 6 which are apparently 
of most recent formation gave the least color to the NaOH treatment. 

The value of this method as an indication of the potential coloring matter of 
soils, peats, etc., can only be determined after a long period of operation of the 
percolators and comparison of extraction results. 

Filtration of Water. 
Color Removal Filters. 
During 1926 ten sand filters loaded or impregnated with ferric or aluminum 
hydroxide have been operated. Filters of this type originating at the Lawrence 
Experiment Station and fully described in previous reports, have been operated 
continuously since 1917. All of these filters have given the usual satisfactory 
results during the year and data in regard to four that are typical of all are given in 
the following tables. 

Constructional Data on Color Removal Filters. 



Filter No. 


Date 
Started. 


Tons Ferric 

or Aluminum 

Sulphate 

per Acre. 


Tons Ferric 

Hydroxide 

or Aluminum 

Hydroxide 

per Acre. 


Depth of 
Sand (Feet). 


Effective Size of 
Sand (mm.). 


488 
494 
496 
535 


May 14, 1917 
June 7, 1918 
Sept. 19, 1918 
Nov. 24, 1923 


64.5 34.5 
80.51 20.2 
27.0 14.4 
80.4 43.0 


4.0 
4.0 
4.0 
4.0 


.25 
.25 
.25 
.25 



1 Aluminum sulphate. 



P.D. 34. 



49 



Data on Operation of Color Removal Filters. 





AVER.^QE SINCE StART OF FILTERS. 




Filter 
No. 


GRAINS PER GALLON OF 
W.\.TER FILTERED. 


Number 
of Times 
Treated. 


Average 

Number of 

Days between 

Treatments. 


Average 
Color. 


Average 
Color, 
1926. 




Caustic 
Soda. 


Ferric or 
Aluminum 
Sulphate. 


Canal 
488 
494 
496 
535 


.45 
.43 
.14 
.43 


.06 
.09 
.03 
.36 


54 
50 
13 
10 


53 
52 
194 
631 


.39 
.14 
.16 
.08 
.11 


.37 
.14 
.14 
.07 
.12 



1 Calculated to five million rate. 

Average Chemical Analyses, 

[Parts In 100,000.] 





Color. 


Ammonia. 






Oxygen 

con- 
sumed. 


Iron, 


Alka- 
linity. 




Filter 
Number. 


Free. 


ALBUMINOID. 


AS — 


Carbon 
Dioxide. 




Total. 1 In Sol. 


Nitrates.! Nitrites. 




Canal 
488 
494 
496 
535 


.37 
.14 
.14 
.07 
.12 


.0112 
.0101 
.0114 
.0025 
.0055 


.0168 
.0089 
.0086 
.0054 
.0091 


.0115 


.019 
.022 
.023 
.026 
.027 


.0005 
.0008 
.0006 
.0001 
.0000 


.50 
.26 

.29 
.16 

.27 


.0700 
.0470 
.0530 
.0310 
.0337 


0.8 
1.1 
1.1 
1.2 
1.7 


0.3 
0,3 
0.3 
0.3 
0.6 



Average Bacterial Analyses. 



Filter 
Number. 


Bacteria per Cubic Centimeter. 


Per Cent op Bacteria removed. 


B. Coli 


4 Days 
20° C. 


24HRS. — 37°C. 


4 Days 
20° C. 


24 HRS. — 37° C. 


in 
100 cc. 




Total. Red. 


Total. 1 Red. 




Canal 
488 
494 
496 
535 


2,200 
150 
150 
47 
180 


290 
23 
14 
5 
14 


66 
4 
3 

1 
3 


93.4 
93.4 
97.8 
91.8 


92.0 
95.2 
98.3 
94.5 


93.9 
95.5 
98.5 
95.5 


4,300 

46 

78 

8 

54 



Mechanical Filtration of Water. 
During the year Filter No. 520, a complete small filter of the mechanial type, 
was operated at the comparatively low rate of 61 million gallons per acre daily. 
The phj^sical characteristics of the effluent were satisfactory but its B. coli content 
was greater than the U. S. Treasury standard of two in one hundred cubic centi- 
meters in about 30 per cent of all samples collected, averaging five for the year. 
This was, however, a reduction of the B. coli content of the river water applied of 
99.88 per cent. The effluent, moreover, did not satisfy the proposed modification 
of the U. S. Treasury standard which calls for an average of not more than one 
B. coli in one hundred cubic centimeters but aUows 5 per cent of the samples tested 
to contain six B. coli in one hundred cubic centimeters. In practically every 
sample tested where the present limit of two B. coli in one hundred cubic centi- 
meters was exceeded, more than six B. coli in one hundred cubic centimeters were 
found. These results confirm previous conclusions that the highly polluted Mer- 
rimack river water can not be satisfactorily purified by mechanical filtration alone. 

Average Bacterial Analyses. 
Merrimack River Water applied to Mechanical Filter No. 520. 



Bacteria per Cubic Centimeter. 


Per Cent of Bacteria removed. 


B. Coli 


4 Days 
20° C. 


24 HRS. — 37° C. 


4 Days. 
20° C. 


24 HRS. — 37° C. 


in 
100 cc. 


Total. 1 Red. 


Total. 1 Red. 





2,200 

Water after Coagulation and Sedimentation applied to Mechanical Filter No. 520. 

520 39 4 - - - 77 



56 



Effluent from Mechanical Filter No. 520. 

97.5 99.6 100. 



50 



P.D. 34. 



Lawkence City Filters. 



As usual this report presents here the data in regard to the operation during the 
past year of the sand filters of the city of Lawrence. This filter plant is the largest 
in the State and treats one of the most polluted waters used as the source of a public 
water supply in this country. The supply has been taken from the Merrimack 
River since 1875. Since 1893 the water has been filtered through slow sand filters 
and for the past nine years, chlorine has been added as an additional measure of 
safety. Two filters are in use, the older, 2.2 acres in area, is divided into three 
sections, one of which is covered. The second is .75 of an acre in area and is also 
covered. Another covered unit of .75 of an acre was completed early in 1926 but 
had not at the end of the year been in satisfactory operation and its effluent has 
been wasted. 

The average volume of water filtered daily during 1926 was 4,961,125 gallons. 
Liquid chlorine was applied at the pump-well at the average rate of 1.02 parts per 
million, and the bacterial quality of both the filtered and chlorinated water was 
better than during previous years. The results of analyses follow: — 

Average Bacterial Analyses. 

Merrimack River. — Intake of the Lawrence City Filters. 



Bacteria per Cubic 
Centimeter. 



4 Days 
20° C. 



24 HRS. — 37° C. 



Total. I Red. 



Per Cent of Bacteria 

REMOVED. 



4 Days 24 hrs. — 37 
20° C 



Total. 



Red. 



Per Cent op Samples containing 
B. CoLi. 



.001 
cc. 



.01 



0.1 



1.0 
cc. 



B.CoU 
in 
100 



5,700 



530 



40 



103 - - - 2 46 96 100 

Effluent from Lawrence City Filter (Old Filter) . 

50 5 1 99.1 99.1 99 - - 15 

Effluent from Lawrence City Filter {New Filter) . 

68 4 98.8 99.2 100 - - 8 

Mixed Effluents as pumped to the Distributing Reservoir. 

28 3 99.5 99.4 100 - - 7 

Water from the Outlet of the Distributing Reservoir after Chlorine Treatment 

62 6 99.1 98.9 100 - - 19 

Water from a Tap at Lawrence City Hall. 

33 3 99.4 99.4 100 - - 6 

Water from a Tap at the Lawrence Experiment Station. 

52 5 99.1 99.1 100 ^ -00 8 

Average Chemical Analyses. 
Merrimack River. — Intake of the Lawrence City Filters. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



6,700 



19 



Q 



Appearance. 



O 



Ammonia. 



ALBUMINOID. 



Nitrogen as- 



48 



50 



52 



52 



0.1 .36 .0164 .0201 .0134 .47 .019 .0007 

Effluent from Lawrence City Filter (Old Filter) 

0.0 .34 .0124 .0092 - .60 .033 .0001 

Effluent from Lawrence City Filter {New Filter) . 

0.0 .31 .0096 .0094 - .58 .031 .0006 .38 

Water from the Outlet of the Distributing Reservoir. 

0.0 .35 .0081 .0091 - .63 .030 .0002 .38 

Water from a Tap at Lawrence City Hall. 

0.0 .37 .0059 .0085 - .63 .034 .0001 .36 

Water from a Tap at the Lawrence Experiment Station. 

0.0 .35 .0043 .0076 - .62 .035 .0001 .36 



.0657 



36 . 1337 



.0750 



.1160 



1.4 



1.6 



1.5 



.1252 1.5 



.1117 1.5 



P.D. 34. 



51 



Treatment of Sewage. 



During the year groups of filters, tanks, etc., were in operation for research work 
in regard to sewage purification and to illustrate the different methods used. Sand, 
contact and trickling filters, and Imhoff, septic and activated sludge tanks were all 
in operation, their results studied and efforts made to add to and improve our 
knowledge of each process. 

Character of the Sewage used for Investigations upon Sewage Purification at the Law- 
rence Experiment Station. 
The following tables present the average analyses of sewage used during the year. 
"Regular sewage" is the average of the sewage as pumped to the Station; "settled 
sewage" is the sewage applied to all tanks and filters except Filters Nos. 1, 4 and 
9A, and is regular sewage after passing through Imhoff tanks and receiving a slight 
additional settling in a large tank supplying the various filters. 

Average Analyses. 
Regular Seivage. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



Ammonia. 


Kjeldahl Nitrogen. 


Chlorine. 


Oxygen 
consumed. 


Bacteria 


Free. 


ALBUMINOID. 


Total. 


In Solution. 


per Cubic 
Centimeter. 




Total. 1 In Solution. 





3.90 



3.93 



4.21 



.73 



.61 



1.28 

Settled Sewage. 

1.04 .69 



9.8 



8.7 



5.63 1,800,000 

4.47 1,880,000 



Sewage applied to Filters Nos. 1, 4. and 9 A. 

.60 .41 1.02 .74 9.6 3.91 1,800,000 



Average Solids. 
Regular Sewage. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



Unfiltered. 


Filtered. 


In Suspension. 


Total. 1 S?i-. 1 Fi-d. 


Total. Sti-. 1 Fixed. 


Total. 1 ^K. 1 Fixed. 



67.2 



51.4 



56.5 



32.7 



22.9 



34.5 48.2 



20.3 27. t 



19.0 



12.4 



6.6 



Settled Sewage. 

28.5 40.9 16.9 24.0 10.5 6.0 4.5 



Sewage applied to Filters Nos. 1, 4 and 9 A. 

27.5 29.0 47.1 21.4 25.7 9.4 



3.3 



Imhoff Tanks. 

During 1926 six two-story tanks of the Imhoff type were put into operation at 
the Station. Two of these tanks, Nos. 544 and 545, are constructed of concrete, 
20 feet deep, and are practically of the same capacity. The settling compartment 
in No. 544, however, has a capacity of 275 gallons and the digestion chamber 955 
gallons while in No. 545 the conditions are reversed, the settling compartment 
holding 715 gallons and the digestion chamber 357 gallons. They were constructed 
in this way to determine if when treating the same sewage the relative capacity of 
these divisions had any influence upon dige.stion without foaming, etc. Started 
March 1 an average volume of 1,330 gallons of sewage has been passed through 
each tank daily. This sewage receives an average theoretical retention of 1.5 hours 
in Tank No. 544 and of 3.75 hours in Tank No. 545. In each tank settleable solids 
have been removed from the sewage and accumulated in the digestion chambers 
at the rate of 800 pounds of dry matter per milhon gallons of sewage treated. In 
each tank fermentation began about six weeks after being put into operation and has 
been moderately active since that date. While a considerable scum has arisen in 
the gas vents and there has also been from time to time accumulation of fatty 



52 P.D. 34. 

matters on the surface of the setthng chambers yet no foaming has occurred. After 
two and one-half months the sludge began to improve rapidly and after three 
months' operation of the tanks was in good, stable, inodorous condition and con- 
tained about 12 per cent of dry matter. The average temperature of the sewage 
applied was 60° F. and the temperature at the top of the tank 65° F. and at the 
bottom, 57° F. So far there has been little difference in the work of these two 
tanks. 

The pH of the applied sewage has been consistently 6.8 as has the sludge in the 
digestion chamber of each tank, the lowest pH found being 6.5. The average 
alkalinity to methyl-orange of the liquid portion of the sludge from Tank No. 544 
has been 107 parts and from Tank No. 545, 116 parts. It is generally considered 
that a pH below 7 indicates acidity, that is, an excess of hydrogen ions over hydroxyl 
ions but the fact that the pH of the sludges from these tanks was consistently 6.8 
does not necessarily indicate that acid fermentation was taking place. All the 
alkalinity of the effluents was bicarbonate and there were 10 or more parts of free 
CO 2 present and only an organic acid weaker than carbonic acid could be present 
as it would at once be neutralized by the bicarbonates in the sludge. It is un- 
doubtedly true in these particular experiments that it was the free CO 2 that caused 
a pH below 7. Driving the CO2 from this liquid causes it to have a pH of 7.1. 
The pH of a substance like these sludges is the net result of the acid properties of 
the free CO2 and the basic properties of the bicarbonates. For instance, 10 parts 
of free CO 2 in distilled water would cause this water to have a pH well below 6 and 
100 more parts bicarbonate would give a pH well over 7. 

On July 3 four smaller two-story Imhoff tanks were started. These tanks were 
of galvanized iron, 14 feet deep and 20 inches in diameter, and with the digestion 
and settling compartments of equal size. Each tank was seeded at the beginning 
with 23^^ gallons of ripe sludge from Imhoff tanks Nos. 544 and 545 in order that 
digestion would be encouraged to start immediately. To each of these tanks 63 
gallons of sewage are passed daily and in addition sludge is applied daily to three of 
them at the rate of one gallon and to the fourth. No. 549, at the rate of two gallons 
daily. For several months all of these tanks had a pH of 6.8 and during this period 
no fermentation occurred and the sludge was exceedingly offensive. On October 
14 calcium oxide and sodium hydroxide were added in small portions to Tank No. 
547 until the pH of the sludge compartment was 7.4. In the same way sulphuric 
acid was added to Tank No. 548 until the pH was about 6. Increasing the pH of 
No. 547 to 7.4 has not, however, as yet caused fermentation or digestion and neither 
has this occurred in either of the remaining tanks. At the present time the applica- 
tion of sludge has been discontinued in order to give a period of ripening of the 
sludge within them. 

Operation of Household Septic Tanks. 

The purification of municipal sewage by so-called septic tanks began to be studied 
quite thoroughly nearly thirty years ago and many large tanks of this description 
were put in operation by different cities and towns in this country and abroad, 
especially in England. For municipal purposes the method has largely gone out 
of use as newer and more effective methods for the treatment and purification of 
sewage have been discovered and used. There seems to be a place, however, for 
this process in the disposal of small volumes of sewage from houses, factories, 
hotels, etc., and tanks treating such sewage appear to be efficient in most instances. 
In order to have data of our own on this subject covering the operation of such 
tanks through a series of years two small septic tanks were put in operation in June, 
1920, and have been continued up to date. These tanks are of concrete construc- 
tion and are designated as Tanks Nos. 507 and 508. The first is 4 feet long, 2 feet 
wide and 40 inches deep, with a sloping bottom and a capacity of 185 gallons; the 
second is constructed as the first but consists of two compartments and has a total 
capacity of 370 gallons. The sewage enters each tank through trapped inlets and 
discharges through a pipe reaching 15 inches below the surface of the sewage in the 
tank. A baffle is placed one- third of the distance from the inlet to the outlet and . 
reaches to within eight inches of the surface of the sewage and within ten inches of 
the bottom of the tank. A trapped outlet is provided for the escape of gas, and 
air is carefully excluded. The first tank receives fresh household sewage and the 



P.D. 34. 53 

second Lawrence city sewage, — a stale sewage. Both tanks are so operated that 
theoretically the sewage is held within each for two days. During their entire 
period of operation the effluents from both tanks have been remarkably clear, this 
being due not only to the deposition within them of a large part of the coarse sus- 
pended matter but also by the coagulation of the colloidal matter which when 
present causes effluents to appear cloudy and milky. 

The tanks were opened April 20, 1926, for examination and sludge measurements. 
Tank No. 507 contained 2 feet of sludge and the two compartments of No. 508 con- 
tained 2 feet and 15 inches, respectively, compared with about 13 inches in each 
tank when opened in 1924. The sludge in both tanks was black and inoffensive. 

Since these tanks were started in 1920, up to April, 1926, 69 per cent of the sus- 
pended organic matter deposited in Tank No. 507 has been destroyed and in Tank 
No. 508, 68 per cent. This is a somewhat lower proportion than was destroyed 
in the first four years. There has been little fermentation and comparatively little 
odor given off from these tanks during the year. The sludge from Tank No. 507 
contained 2.51 per cent of nitrogen, 8.9 per cent of fats and 43.9 per cent loss on 
ignition. The sludge from Tank No. 508 contained 2.31 per cent nitrogen, 10.7 
per cent of fats and 41.6 per cent loss on ignition. It is apparent from the sludge 
measurement that after six years of operation sludge is accumulating to such an 
extent that it will probably need removal in 1927. 

Average Analyses. 
Fresh Sewage applied to Closed Septic Tank No. 507. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



Ammonia. 


Kjeldahl Nithogen. 


Chlorine. 


Oxygen 
consumed. 


Bacteria 


Free. 


ALBUMINOID. 


Total. 


In Solution. 


per Cubic 
Centimeter. 




Total. 1 In Solution. 





.61 



1.89 



1.07 



4.99 



4.17 



Effluent from Closed Septic Tank No. 507. 

.30 .83 .51 7.8 



6.36 



3.59 



.48 

Regular Sewage applied to Closed Septic Tank No. 508. 

.73 .42 1.30 .72 8.5 5.07 



.30 



Effluent from Closed Septic Tank No. 508. 

.19 .54 .35 7.8 



2,100,000 



1,170,000 



2,350,000 



1,300,000 



Average Solids. 
Fresh Sewage applied to Closed Septic Tank No. 507. 

[Parts in 100,000.) 



Unfiutered. 


Filtered. 


In Suspension. 


Total. T^°u:°° 1 Fixed. 
Ignition. 1 


Total. T^°1!:°!? Fixed. 
Ignition. 


Total. 1 i^oss.on ^,^^^ 



49.0 



66.4 



44.0 



39.4 



22.3 



32.6 



23.3 



Effluent from Closed Septic Tank No. 507. 

26.7 41.7 17.2 24.5 7.3 



16.4 



5.1 



Regular Sewage applied to Closed Septic Tank No. 508. 

33.3 33.1 42.2 18.3 23.9 24.2 15.0 



17.8 



Effluent from Closed Septic Tank No. 508. 

26.2 38.6 14.4 24.2 5.4 



3.4 



6.9 



2.0 



Purification of Sewage by Aeration. 
Activated Sludge Process. 

Experiments on the aeration of sewage have been carried on at the Experiment 
Station continuously since 1912 and the results have been published in the annual 
reports of the Department. Activated sludge Tank No. 485, started in 1917, is 



54 



P.D. 34. 



still in operation. It consists of three compartments 75 inches deep, each holding 
230 gallons. The overflow from the last passes through two settling tanks of 600 
and 160 gallons capacity, allowing about seven hours sedimentation, and the 
settled sludge is pumped back to the first compartment practically every hour. 
The tank is operated at the rate of 7,500,000 gallons per acre daily and this volume 
could undoubtedly be doubled in a tank of twice the depth of Tank No. 485 and 
with as good results and with the use of no greater volume of air. As is the usual 
custom about 20 per cent by volume of sludge is retained in Tank No. 485, the sur- 
plus being pumped to waste from time to time. During the year this surplus was 
at the rate of 900 pounds dry sludge per million gallons of sewage treated. The 
sewage applied to this tank was first passed through Imhoff tanks Nos. 544 and 545 
and the main supply tank of the Station. By this preliminary treatment 873 
pounds of dry sludge per million gallons were removed or a total removal of sludge 
by the complete process of 1,773 pounds per million gallons. Filtros plates are 
used as air diffusers. The activated sludge examined during the year contained 
6.25 per cent of nitrogen and 6.4 per cent of fats. The effluent has been clear and 
stable. 

Average Analyses. 

Sewage applied to Activated Sludge Tank No. 485. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



Appearance. 


Ammonia. 


Kjeldahl 




Nitrogen 


13 

0) 

a 












Nitrogen. 


AS — 


















o 


3 




















o 


i 

o 


1 

C3 


3 

o 


1 
a 


a 
3 


1 


'B 




.2 « t-' 

§oa 


H 


O 


f^ 


H 


H 


O 


S 


S 


O 


m 



4.13 .67 



.41 



1.16 



.73 



9.5 



0,5 



.63 



Effluent from Activated Sludge Tank No. 485. 

2.38 .16 .13 0.28 .22 9.2 .34 .0205 



4.22 1,870,000 



440,000 



Sand, Trickling and Contact Filters. 
During the year three sand filters, eight trickling filters and one contact filter 
have been in operation. Two of the sand filters have now been receiving sewage 
for thirty-nine years and one for thirty-six years. One trickling filter has been in 
operation twenty-seven years (No. 135) and the remainder for approximately 
thirteen years, and the contact filter for twenty-five years. Statements in regard 
to the operation of these filters have been given in many reports. They are now 
operated to show factors in regard to period of operation with minimum attention, 
rates of operation that can be continued year after year without clogging, com- 
parative rates of each class, comparative purification and in the case of the trickling 
filters, results from different depths of filtering material. The average analyses 
for the year follow: — 

Average Analyses. 

Effluent from Filter No. 1. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



Temperature 
(Degrees F.). 


Ammonia. 


Chlorine. 


Nitrogen as — 


Oxygen 

con- 
sumed. 


Alka- 
linity. 


Bacteria 
per Cubic 


Applied. Effluent. 


F-e. 1 ^S^- 


Nitrates. Nitrites. 


Centimeter. 


53 52 


.6900 .0700 9.2 3.08 .0010 

Effluent from Filter No. 4. 


.55 


—2.2 


42,000 


53 53 


.0058 .0148 8.5 2.31 .0001 

Effluent from Filter No. 9 A. 


.28 


—1.5 


580 


53 53 


.3737 .0536 7.6 2.30 .0006 


.48 


—1.5 


14,500 



P.D. 34. 



55 



Albuminoid Ammonia in Sand from Filters Nos. 1, 4 o,nd 9A. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



Depth (Inches). 


Filter No. 


1. 


Filter 
No. 4. 


Filter No. 


3A. 




1920. 


1925. 


1926. 


1926. 


1920. 1 1925. 1 


1926. 


Average first 12 . 


112.2 


83.0 


86.4 


124.5 


92.3' 


42.2 


56.2 


18 


41,1 


68.2 


37.0 


38.3 


8.5 


22.4 


33.0 


24 . . . . . 


8.7 


20.8 


24.6 


14.0 


9.2 


8.7 


12.3 


36 


7.0 


11.3 


10.1 


13.2 


4.4 


5.9 


7.6 


48 


5.3 


11.4 


4.2 


13.7 


3.9 


5.6 


5.6 


60 


3.8 


6.1 


5.1 


10.9 


3.9 


4.2 


6.8 



> Nov. 26, 1920, one foot removed and washed. Replaced May 3, 1921. Albuminoid ammonia after washing 
53.4. 

Average Analyses} 
Effluents from Trickling Filters Nos. 135, J^52, 453, 4-54, 455, 473, 474 and 475. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





Quantity 

Applied.— 

Gallons 

per Acre 

Daily. 


Ammonia. 




a 


Nitrogen 


d s 

&g 


Bacteria 

per Cubic 

Centimeter. 


Filter 

Number. 


Free. 


albuminoid. 


AS — 




Total. 


In Sol. 


Nitrates. 


Nitrites. 


135 
452 
453 
454 
455 
473 
474 
475 


1,395,000 
753,000 
3,680,000 
1,700,000 
2,550,000 
914,000 
1,570,000 
2,500,000 


1.71 
2.34 
2.62 
2.27 
1.74 
2.42 
2.46 
2.07 


.38 
.45 
.45 
.39 
.34 
.40 
.38 
.40 


.24 
.29 
.29 
.26 
.21 
.27 
.25 
.25 


.64 
.78 
.78 
.66 
.60 
.72 
.68 
.71 


8.2 
8.2 
8.1 
7.9 
8.0 
8.0 
7.9 
8 


1.64 

1.02 

.46 

1.14 

1.45 

.78 

.60 

1.46 


.0225 
.1197 
.1109 
.0308 
.0282 
.0616 
.0754 
.0325 


2.64 
3.02 
2.84 
2.58 
2.43 
2.78 
2.65 
2.70 


255,000 
685,000 
700,000 
845,000 
565,000 
645,000 
800,000 
600,000 



• Average for two years, 1925 and 1926. 

Average Solids} 
Effluents from Trickling Filters Nos. 135, 452, 453, 454, 455, 473, 474 and 475. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



Filter 
Number. 


Unfiltered. 


Filtered. 


In Suspension. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


135 
452 
453 
454 
455 
473 
474 
475 


52.8 
53.8 
48.7 
48.5 
53.1 
47.9 
45.0 
53.6 


23.8 
22.4 
20.4 
20.5 
22.5 
20.1 
18.2 
23.7 


29.0 
31.4 
28.3 
28.0 
30.6 
27.8 
26.8 
29.9 


45,0 
42.2 
37.6 
39.3 
41.7 
38.1 
37.2 
44.2 


19.8 
16.0 
14.4 
15.4 
16.8 
15.9 
14.5 
19.6 


25.2 
26.2 
23.2 
23.9 
24.9 
22.2 
22.7 
24.6 


7.8 

11.6 

11.1 

9.2 

11.4 

9.8 

7.8 

9.4 


4.0 
6.4 
6.0 
5.1 
5.7 
4.2 
3.7 
4.1 


3.8 
5.2 
5.1 
4.1 
5.7 
5.6 
4.1 
5.3 



^ Average for two years, 1925 and 1926. 

Average Analyses} 
Efflu£ntfrom Contact Filter No. 175. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



Quantity 

Applied. — 

Gallons 

per Acre 

Daily. 


Ammonia. 


Kjeldahl 
Nitrogen. 


Chlorine. 


Nitrogen 


Oxygen 

con- 
sumed. 


Bacteria 


Free. 


albuminoid. 


AS — 


per Cubic 
Centi- 


Total. 


In Sol. 


; Nitrates. Nitrites. 


meter. 


267,000 


1.09 


.22 


.15 


.38 


8.0 


.93 


.0401 


1.70 


1,025,000 



1 Average for two years, 1925 and 1926. 



56 



P.D. 34. 



Average Solids} 
Effluent from Contact Filter No. 175. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



Unfiltered. 


Filtered. 


In Suspension. 


TotaL 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


40.1 


14.7 


25.4 


37.1 


13.3 


23.8 


3.0 


1.4 


1.6 



1 Average for two years, 1925 and 1926. 

Industrial Wastes. 

During the year a number of investigations have had to be made in regard to the 
treatment and purification of various industrial or other wastes and two of these 
can be briefly mentioned here. 

Laundry Wastes. 

In such laundries as we have examined, clothes are subjected to eight washes and 
rinses ; the first wash usually contains a small amount of caustic soda without soap 
and this is followed by two washes with soap and five rinses. There are of course 
variations but this is the general procedure. The water used is heated and the 
highest temperature noted has been 140° F. Neither the temperature nor the 
caustic and soap used appeared to have any great effect on the bacterial content of 
these wastes. Such laundries as we have examined used about 25,000 to 30,000 
gallons of water daily when in operation. The wastes can be clarified by acidifica- 
tion resulting in a bulky sludge difficult to handle. By this acid treatment bacteria 
are reduced about 97 per cent. The wastes are usually rich in coli and streptococci 
and the total bacteria present has averaged over 100,000 per cubic centimeter. 
Two small sand filters were operated for ten months. One of them received the 
strongest liquors after settling and was operated at a rate of from 25,000 to 50,000 
gallons per acre daily. This filter became clogged at the end of three months and 
six inches of the upper sand were removed. Following this it was operated without 
difficulty for seven months with the average waste from the laundry being examined. 
A second filter received the same wastes as the first but after being clarified by 
acidification and then made shghtly alkaline. The acid treatment removed about 
87 per cent of the fats of the raw waste. These fats were mostly soap but with some 
free fat present. This filter was operated at the rate of 50,000 gallons per acre 
daily. At the end of ten months the effluents of both filters were clear, well nitri- 
fied and low in organic matter, showing in each case bacterial purification of about 
90 per cent, and the filters were in good condition. 

Wastes from the Works of a Patent Medicine Company. 
This company, engaged in making patent medicines, produced a waste consisting 
of certain wood, bark, etc., mixed with alcohol. It was the custom of the company 
to wash out the tanks containing this waste and pass it into a neighboring swamp 
where objectionable conditions were produced. It was found by our examinations 
that operating in this way from sixty to seventy gallons of alcohol were wasted at 
each emptying, hence the company was advised not to wash the waste away but to 
shovel out the contents of the tanks, distill the waste or otherwise treat it for the 
recovery of alcohol, and then burn it. This would result in both a saving of 
alcohol and the abatement of the nuisance. 



P.D. 34. 57 

Keport of the Division of Food and Drugs. 

Hermann C. Lythgoe, Director. 

The Food and Drug Division of the Massachusetts Department of Public 
Health has been engaged during the year 1926 in the usual routine work of the 
enforcement of the milk, food, drug, cold storage, slaughtering, bakery and mat- 
tress laws; in the examination of samples submitted by poUce authorities and by 
other State Departments; as well as in the manufacture of arsphenamine. 

The inspectors collected and the analysts examined 6,923 samples of milk, 
2,464 samples of foods other than milk, and 103 samples of drugs. A summary 
of the analyses of these samples is shown in tables 2, 3, and 4. 

The Police Departments submitted 8,667 samples of liquor. A summary of 
these analyses will be found in table 5. Methanol suddenly appeared in the liquor 
samples submitted early in the Spring, varying in quantity from 1% to 8%. In 
all, 14 samples of such liquor were obtained during the year. 

There were 254 prosecutions, of which 15 were discharged and 3 were dismissed. 
The balance resulted in conviction. Of these prosecutions, 106 related to milk 
and milk products; 16 related to shellfish; 27 related to meats and meat prod- 
ucts; 10 related to maple products; 1 related to soft drinks; 2 related to eggs; 
3 related to false advertising in food; 2 related to adulterated drugs; 69 related 
to violations of the storage laws, most of which related to cold storage eggs; and 
6 related to violations of the slaughtering laws. There was one case each for 
violation of the bakery law; violation of the coal law; and obstruction of an 
inspector. 

During the year a special drive was made upon restaurants advertising cream 
and serving material either below the standard or else cream containing condensed 
milk. The usual seasonal investigation was made of the condition of hamburg 
steak and sausages, and a special investigation was made in the Spririg of the 
maple syrup shipped into Massachusetts from other states. In two instances 
persons residing without the Commonwealth were successfully prosecuted in State 
Courts for selling adulterated maple syrup. The usual examination of eggs was 
carried out in the Fall and it was found that the general public was not adverse to 
buying cold storage eggs provided they were sold as fresh eggs. The violations 
of the slaughtering laws were for illegal use of the inspection stamp; for slaughter- 
ing in the absence of the inspector; and for offering for sale unstamped meat. 
The complete list of cases with action thereon will be found in table 1. 

The inspectors examined 423 bakeries, the defects of which in practically all 
instances were referred to the local boards of health which were directed to require 
the bakeries to be cleaned up and put in conformance with the law. 

Practically all the soft drink factories in the state, except those located in Boston, 
have been examined for sanitary conditions as well as for the _ character of the 
material which was offered for sale. Two cases are pending against a factory for 
violating the sanitary food law and for operating a soft drink factory in violation 
of the regulations of the Department. These cases involve two different dates, 
upon one of which the factory was operating without the permit required by 
statute. 

Investigations were also made relative to the copper content of soft drinks. In 
a few instances copper was found. In each of these cases a careful investigation 
was made of the factory from which the material was obtained in order to prevent 
further contamination of the material being manufactured. The principal cause 
of the copper in this class of food was the use of copper utensils, together with 
unsanitation on the part of the manufacturer. Whenever these copper utensils 
were kept clean, no copper was found in the finished product. 

A carload of pears suspected of being sprayed with arsenic was held under 
seizure at the request of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and samples of 
the pears were submitted to the Department for analysis. In less than twenty- 
four hours the shipment was released by the Department of Agriculture as the 
pears did not show the presence of arsenic in quantities sufficient to warrant a 



58 P.D. 34. 

seizure. It is interesting to note that in this instance the Inspector of the Depart- 
ment got in touch with the consignee before the latter was aware that the car 
had arrived. 

Two lots of milk, representing milk from four different producers whose cows 
had not been tested for tuberculosis were examined for the presence of tubercle 
bacilli by inoculation into guinea pigs. These examinations were made by the 
Wassermann Laboratory and the tests were all negative. 

Two Inspectors were placed upon shellfish work in connection with the issuing 
of certificates for interstate shipment of shellfish. The expense of this work, other 
than the salary of one Inspector, was borne by the shellfish appropriation. 

The usual routine work was carried on relative to nominations for the position 
of inspector of slaughtering. Most of the nominees were renominees, of which 
only a few were disapproved. Many of the new nominees were incompetent and 
consequently were disapproved. In a few instances the local authorities com- 
plained to the Department of this action, but fortunately none of these incompe- 
tent men were approved. 

One case involving violation of the slaughtering laws deserves mention. The 
Inspector was a new appointee, who, after considerable difficulty, finally quahfied 
for the position. Apparently the butcher desired to "get something" on the In- 
spector, and he asked him to stamp the carcass of a calf which the Inspector had 
not seen killed. This the Inspector declined to do. After receiving information 
of this, the case was investigated by an Inspector of the Department, and it was 
found necessary to utilize the local slaughtering Inspector as a witness. Upon 
the witness stand he developed a severe case of "cold feet", stating that he was 
unable to hear certain conversation between the Inspector of this Department 
and a man who was unusually hard of hearing, and because of the absence of 
confirmation, the defendant was found not guilty. The Inspector, however, 
received a severe lesson and his work has been carried on in a satisfactory manner. 

In the inspection of cold storage, a number of requests were received for exten- 
sion of time on poultry. Business conditions seemed to warrant these extensions, 
which were accordingly granted. There were 130 requests for extension granted; 
23 requests were refused; and in 89 instances goods were ordered removed from 
storage at the end of twelve calendar months, no requests for extension being 
received on such goods. All extensions were granted because the goods were in 
proper condition for further storage. The list of goods upon which extensions 
were granted, and the list of goods upon which extensions were refused will be 
found in table 6. Tables 7 and 8 give the amount of food placed in storage during 
the year, and the amount of food on hand on the first day of each month of the 
year. 

The Arsphenamine Laboratory has made sufficient arsphenamine, sulpharsphe- 
namine, and ophthalmia prophylactic to supply the needs of the Department. 
The general tendency is towards an increase in the use of sulpharsphenamine, 
together with a decrease in the use of arsphenamine. The use of arsenicals has 
been showing a gradually increasing tendency. During the year the Department 
distributed the equivalent of 21,442 doses of arsphenamine of 0.6 gram each, and 
the equivalent of 24,999 doses of sulpharsphenamine of 0.76 gram each. 

During the year, three addresses were made, — one by Miss Berry before the 
Northeastern Section of the American Chemical Society on January 8, entitled 
"The Copper Content of Distilled Liquor on Sale in Massachusetts." This paper 
by Hermann C. Lythgoe, Blanchie 0. Berry, and Sydney H. Hall was published 
in the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal of May 27, 1926. Another address 
entitled "Cold Storage of Food in Massachusetts" was presented by Mr. Lythgoe 
at the Round Table Conference on Chemistry in the Future World's Affairs at 
the Institute of Politics in Williamstown on August 17. This paper was published 
in "Ice and Refrigeration" for October, 1926. The third address, entitled "Water, 
the Universal Adulterant" was presented by Mr. Lythgoe before the New Eng- 
land Health Institute in Concord, New Hampshire on September 27, 1926 and 
also before the American Specialty Grocers' Association in Providence, Rhode 
Island upon October 7. This paper was printed in "The Nucleus", a publication 
of the Northeastern Section of the American Chemical Society, in March, 1927. 



P.D. 34. 59 

Mr. Sydney H. Hall submitted to the Association of Official Agricultural Cheni- 
ists on October 19, a report upon the freezing point of milk and cream. This 
report is included in the Report of the Referee on Dairy Products and will be 
printed in the "Journal of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists" m 
1927. 

Table 1. — For Sale of Milk not of Good Standard Quality. 



Name. 
Alexander, Peter . 
Arapos, Angelos . 
Arruda, Augustus J. 
Arruda, Manuel . 
Barrett, James E. 
Bibeau, Eugene . 
Billington, Alpheus L 
Biron, Moise 
Blanehard, Herbert J. 
Bourgault, John . 
Bulcock, Thomas 
Butler, ,Iohn 
Buyakles, Theodore 
Chigos, George 
Chigos, George 
Cocoting, Nick 
Coussoule, Peter . 
Dempsey, Edward F. 
Deros, Samuel 
Fera, Robert 
Foisie, Nelson G. . 
Gill, Charles 
Goulima, John 
Gracie, John S. . 
Hall, Otto C. 
Hanos, Charles . 
Horsfall, Edmund R. 
Keeney, Delos C. 
King, John E. 
Kokkales, Charles 
Leit, Manuel C. . 
Luakas, Emanuel 
Marshall, Joseph 
Marshall, William H. 
Marshall, William H. 
Marteris, Charles 
Martha Lunch 
Mastera, John 
Moghabghab, Shafick 
Mullins, James 
Murray, George H. 
Pimental, Gill B. 
Purnelle, Raymond E. 
Richards, Onezime 
Ripley, William V. 
Salvador, Joseph S. 
Sexton, John 
Shannon, Claude E. 
Sieil, Brouislox 
Sinisalo, Andrew . 
Sorandis, Simon . 
Sotariow, Aeppokrotas 
Talbot, Ernest . 
Talbot, Joseph 
Tareises, Kyrikos 
Teixeira, John 
The Boulevard Restaurant & 

Coffee Pot Inc. 
Theodore, Charles 
Tuvman, Samuel 
Vigneault, Joseph A. 
Waldorf System Inc. 
Wong, Hong Ting 
Xenakis, James . 
Zahos, John 
Zahos, John 
Zenga, Chester M. 



Address. 
Worcester 
Worcester 
South Dartmouth 
New Bedford 
Williamstown 
Acushnet 
Stoughton 
New Bedford 
Baldwinsville 
Winchendon 
South Dartmouth 
North Fairhaven 
Holyoke 
Springfield . 
Springfield 
Salisbury 
Adams 
Williamstown 
Woburn 

West Springfield 
Stoneham 
Amesbury 
Cambridge . 
South Dartmouth 
Great Barrington 
Amesbury 
South Dartmouth 
Springfield 
Cambridge 
Newburyport 
Acushnet 
Stoneham 
Acushnet 
Chelsea 
Chelsea 
Worcester 
Worcester 
New Bedford 
Salisbury 
Springfield 
Norfolk Downs 
New Bedford 
Bridgewater . 
New Bedford 
Oak Bluffs . 
New Bedford 
Maynard 
Amesbury 
Holyoke 
Amesbury 
Springfield 
Stoughton 
Acushnet 
New Bedford 
Pittsfield 
Fairhaven 

Pittsfield 

Palmer . 

Springfield 

Leominster 

Fitchburg 

Provinoetown 

Springfield 

Salisbury 

Salisbury 

Cambridge 



Court. 
Worcester 
Worcester 
New Bedford 
New Bedford 
Williamstown 
New Bedford 
Stoughton 
New Bedford 
Gardner 
Winchendon 
New Bedford 
New Bedford 
Holyoke 
Springfield . 
Springfield . 
Newburyport 
Adams 
Williamstown 
Woburn 
Springfield . 
Woburn 
Amesbury 
Cambridge . 
New Bedford 
Great Barrington 
Amesbury 
New Bedford 
Springfield . 
Cambridge . 
Newburyport 
New Bedford 
Woburn 
New Bedford 
Chelsea 
Chelsea 
Worcester 
Worcester 
New Bedford 
Newburyport 
Springfield 
Quincy . 
New Bedford 
Brockton 
New Bedford 
Oak Bluffs . 
New Bedford 
Concord 
Amesbury 
Holyoke 
Amesbury 
Springfield 
Stoughton 
New Bedford 
New Bedford 
Pittsfield 
New Bedford 

Pittsfield 
Palmer . 
Springfield . 
Leominster . 
Fitchburg 
Provincetown 
Springfield 
Newburyport 
Newburyport 
Cambridge . 



Date 
Jan. 14, 1926 
Jan. 14 
Aug. 20 
Aug. 20 
Sept. 23 
Aug. 20 
Sept. 10 
Aug. 20 
Feb. 10 
June 15 
Aug. 20 
Aug. 20 
June 11 
Mar. 26 
June 22 
Aug. 21 
Nov. 5 
Oct. 28 
June 4 
Deo. 4 
July 9 
May 21 
Feb. 9 
Aug. 20 
Sept. 2 
May 21 
Aug. 2 
Nov. ^2 
Feb. 9 
Feb. 24 
Aug. 20 
July 9 

27 

19 

19 

14 

14 

20 

21 

12 
5 

20 

14 



Apr 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Aug. 
Aug 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Aug. 
Oct. 
Aug. 20 
Sept. 1 
Aug. 20 
Nov. 19 
May 28 
Mar. 5 
May 28, 
Dec. 10 
Sept. 10 
Aug. 20 
Aug. 20 
Oct. 1 
Aug. 20 

Oct. 1 
June 8 
Nov. 13 
Feb. 3 
Dec. 30 
Sept. 9 
Aug. 4 
Aug. 21 
Aug. 21 
Mar. 9 



1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1925 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1925 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 

1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1925 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 
1926 



Result. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. • 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. '' 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Discharged. 
Conviction. 
•Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction, i' 
Discharged. 
Conviction. 



For Sale of Milk froin which a Portion of the Cream had been removed. 



Converse Square Lunch, Inc. . 
Dempsey, Edward F. 
Hart, Noel W. . 
Nugent, George C. 
Santos, Manuel . 
Zander, Karl 



Maiden 
Williamstown 
Great Barrington . 
Gloucester 
North Dartmouth 
Stow . 



Maiden 
Williamstown 
Great Barrington 
Gloucester 
New Bedford 
Concord 



Dec. 15, 1925 
Oct. 28, 1926 
Oct. 15, 1926 
Sept. 21, 1926 
Aug. 27, 1926 
June 22, 1926 



Conviction. 

Conviction. 

Conviction. ' 

Conviction. 

Conviction. 

Conviction. 



1 Appealed. 



60 



P.D. 34. 



For Sale of Milk containing Added Water. 



Name. 


Address. 


Court. 


Date. 


Result. 


Allen, Shirley 


. New Bedford 


New Bedford 


. Aug. 20, 1926 


Conviction. 


Bennett, Matthew J. 


. Burlington . 


Woburn 


. Sept. 20, 1926 


Conviction. 


Bigelow, John 


. Harvard 


Clinton 


. Sept. 11, 1926 


Conviction. 


Bjorbacka, Charles' 


. Hubbardston 


Gardner 


. Sept. 10, 1926 


Conviction. 


Busby, Roy W. . 


. Great Barrington . 


Great Barrington . Sept. 2, 1926 


Conviction. 2 


Chaves, Carlos 


. Westport 


Fall River . 


. June 4, 1926 


Conviction. 


Dearth, Crawford 


. Ashland 


Framingham 


. Mar. 20, 1926 


Conviction. 


Dellegatta, Joseph 


. Waverley 


Waltham 


. Sept. 10, 1926 


Conviction. 


Diamond, Ruben 


. Medford 


Maiden 


. June 2, 1926 


Conviction. 


Dinsmore, Orville 


. Berlin . 


Clinton 


. June 30, 1926 


Conviction. * 


Dionne, George . 


. Pelham, N. H. 


Lawrence 


. Nov. 22, 1926 


Conviction. 


Dodge, Harold 


. North Beverly 


Salem . 


. Feb. 4, 1926 


Conviction. 2 


Elliott, John C. . 


. Ashby . 


Ayer . 


. Jan. 13, 1926 


Conviction. 


George, Howard F. 


. Salisbury 


Newburyport 


. Aug. 21, 1926 


Conviction. 


George, Howard F. 


. Salisbury 


Newburyport 


. Aug. 21, 1926 


Discharged. 


Govette, Wilson . 


. Plainville 


Attleboro 


. Nov. 30, 1926 


Conviction. 


Helfand, William . 


. North Dartmouth 


New Bedford 


. Sept. 14, 1926 


Conviction. 2 


Jenkins, Melvin H. 


. Bradford 


Lawrence 


. Nov. 22, 1926 


Conviction. 


Lewis, John 


. Westport 


Fall River 


. Sept. 15, 1926 


Conviction. 


Mendoza, John . 


Assonet 


Fall River 


. Jan. 27, 1926 


Conviction. - 


Oliver, Manuel . 


. New Bedford 


New Bedford 


. Aug. 6, 1926 


Conviction. 


Olivera, Antone C. 


. South Dartmouth 


New Bedford 


. Aug. 20, 1926 


Conviction. 


Pelotte, Hector J. 


. Dracut. 


Lowell . 


. Nov. 30, 1926 


Conviction. 2 


Songer, Paul 


. East Walpole 


Dedham 


. July 19,1926 


Conviction. 


Songer, Paul 


. East Walpole 


Dedham 


. July 19, 1926 


Conviction. 


Strike, James 


. Great Barrington 


Great Barrington . Oct. 15, 1926 


Conviction. 


Sylvia, Joseph 


. South Dartmouth 


New Bedford 


. Nov. 2, 1926 


Conviction. 




For Sale of Milk containing Foreign Substance. 




Hood & Sons, Inc., H. 


p. . Boston 


Roxbury 


. Aug. 5, 1926 


Conviction. - 


Jeppesen, Hans T. 


. Salem . 


Salem . 


. July 26, 1926 


Conviction. 


Jeppesen, Hans T. 


. Salem . 


Salem . 


. July 26, 1926 


Conviction. 


Stanhope, James 


. Pittsfield 


Pittsfield 


. Nov. 4, 1926 


Conviction. ^ 




Misuse of Milk Bottles 






Zander, Karl 


. Stow . 


Concord 


. June 22, 1926 


Conviction. 


1 


^or Sale of Cream not 


of Good Standard Quality. 




Arvanitis, Konstantine 


. Springfield . 


Springfield 


. May 13, 1926 


Conviction. 2 


Colocousis, Angel 


. Haverhill . . 


Haverhill 


. Apr. 8, 1926 


Conviction. 2 


Connos, Cristi 


. Chicopee 


Chicopee 


. Mar. 19, 1926 


Conviction. 


Couchiaftis, James G. 


. Springfield . 


Springfield 


. Mar. 26, 1926 


Conviction. 


Economidy, Anthony 


. Springfield . 


Springfield 


. Apr. 30.1926 


Conviction. 


Fera, Robert 


. West Springfield 


Springfield 


. Dec. 4, 1925 


Conviction. 


Fitzgerald, Thomas A. 


. Springfield . 


Springfield 


. May 13, 1926 


Conviction. 


Healey, Thomas J. 


. Lowell . 


Lowell . 


. Mar. 30, 1926 


Conviction. 


Karafotis, John . 


. Brockton 


Brockton 


. Apr. 21, 1926 


Conviction. 


Kyriax, John 


. Haverhill 


Haverhill 


. Apr. 8, 1926 


Conviction. 


Lampros, Samuel 


. Springfield . 


Springfield 


. Apr. 9, 1926 


Conviction. 


Ludden, William P. 


. Holyoke 


Holyoke 


. May 7, 1926 


Conviction. 


Marshall, William H. 


. Chelsea 


Chelsea 


. Oct. 19, 1926 


Conviction. 


Muswlowski, Albert 


. Chelsea 


Chelsea 


. Oct. 19, 1926 


Conviction. 2 


Panacy, John J. . 


. Brockton 


Brockton 


. Apr. 21,1926 


Conviction. 


Panis, Bazil J. 


. Cambridge . 


Cambridge 


. May 4, 1926 


Conviction. 


Panis, Bazil J. 


. Cambridge . 


Cambridge 


. May 4, 1926 


Conviction. 


Phillips, James D. 


. Cambridge . 


Cambridge 


. May 4, 1926 


Conviction. 


Phinney, William H. 


. North Adams 


North Adams 


. Apr. 1, 1926 


Conviction. 


Phinney, William H. 


. North Adams 


North Adams 


. Sept. 3, 1926 


Conviction. 


Phinney, William H. 


North Adams 


North Adams 


. Sept. 3, 1926 


Conviction. 


Schick, Charles . 


. Holyoke 


Holyoke 


. June 17, 1926 


Conviction. 


Thompson, Anthony J. 


. Quincy . 


Quincy . 


. May 5, 1926 


Conviction. 


Waldorf System Inc. 


. Springfield . 


Springfield 


. Mar. 26, 1926 


Conviction. 


Waldorf System Inc. 


. Chelsea 


Chelsea 


. Nov. 1, 1926 


Conviction. 


1 


"^or Sale of Cream coni 


aining Forei 


jn Substance. 




Brailey Creamery Inc. 


. Brockton 


Brockton 


. Apr. 21, 1926 


Conviction. 


Waldorf System Inc. 


. New Bedford 


New Bedford 


. June 2, 1926 


Conviction. 



For Sale of Adulterated or Misbranded Foods Other than Milk and Milk Products. 

Clams. 
[Contained added water.] 
Brooks, William D. . . Somerville . , Somerville . . Jan. 29, 1926 Dismissed. 

Brown, Rufus S. . . . Salisbury . . Lawrence . . Jan. 8, 1926 Conviction. 

Dorr & Company, Inc., 

Arthur E. . . . Norfolk Downs . Quincy. . . Jan. 5,1926 Conviction. 

Durbin, George . . . Medford . . Maiden . . Jan. 26,1926 Discharged. 

1 Sample collected and complaint made by Harry O. Knight, Inspector of Milk, Gardner. Analysis 
made by this Department. This was result of investigation first made by this Department. 
- Appealed. 
3 Fined $50; sentence suspended. 



P.D. 34. 61 

For Sale of Adulterated or Misbranded Foods Other than Milk and Milk Products — 

Concluded. 



Name. 
Keeley, Herbert W. 
Orriss, Harry R. . 
Rizzo, Angelo 
Smith, Bloomfield 

Sperry, Stephen . 
Titus, Harry W. . 
Vierra, Alphonse . 
White, Anthony . 



Clams — Concluded. 
Address. Court. 

Maiden . . Maiden 

Somerville . . Somerville 

Lawrence . . Lawrence 

North Reading Junc- 
tion . . . Maiden 
Lawrence . . Lawrence 
Wollaston , . Quincy. 
Somerville . , Somerville 
Somerville . . Somerville 

Hamburg Steak. 





Date. 


Result. 


. J3,n. 
. Jan. 
. Jan. 


26, 1925 

18, 1926 

8, 1926 


Discharged. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. » 


. Jan. 
. Jan. 
. Jan. 
. Jan. 
. Jan. 


26, 1926 

4, 1926 

5,1926 

21,1926 

18, 1926 


Discharged. 
Conviction, i 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 



[Selling, or offering for sale, meat containing sodium sulphite in violation of the regulations of the Depart- 
ment of Public Health.] 



Alpert, Nathan M. 


. Boston . . Boston 


. Feb. 12 


1926 


Conviction. 


Bielsky, Wigler . 


Boston . . Boston 


. Jan. 29, 


1926 


Conviction. 


Davidson, Alfred 


North Adams . North Adams 


. Mar. 16 


1926 


Conviction. 


Gillis, Harry 


Boston . . Boston 


. Jan. 29 


1926 


Conviction. 


Klein, William . 


Lynn . . . Lynn 


. Mar. 29 


1926 


Conviction. 


Kronick, Cyrus . 


North Adams . North Adams 


. Mar. 16 


1926 


Conviction. 


Levine, Abraham 


. Everett . . Maiden 


. June 29 


1926 


Conviction. 


Oxman, Isadore . 


. Springfield . . Springfield . 


. Apr. 30 


1926 


Conviction. 


Price, Max 


Boston . . Boston 


. July 30, 


1926 


Conviction. 


Shaw, Frank 


North Adams . North Adams 


. Mar. 16 


1926 


Conviction. 


Stuart, Bernard . 


Boston . . Boston 


. Jan. 15, 


1926 


Conviction. 


Tallent, Samuel . 


Springfield . . Springfield . 


. June 18, 


1926 


Conviction. 


United Butchers Inc. . 


Attleboro . . Attleboro , 


. Nov. 10, 


1926 


Conviction. 2; 


Vigghiany, Daniel 


North Adams . North Adams 


. Feb. 2 


1926 


Conviction. 


Weinberg, T. Jacob 


Springfield . . Springfield . 


. June 18, 


1926 


Conviction. 


Weinberg, Joseph 


Springfield . . Springfield . 
Maple Sugar. 


. Apr. 30, 


1926 


Conviction. 




[Contained cane sugar other than maple.] 






Drislane, Denis J. 


Lynn . . . Lynn . 


. Mar. 29, 


1926 


Conviction. 


Houle, J. Ernest . 


Manchester, N. H. Lowell . 


. July 16, 


1926 


Conviction. 


Jackson, Mark A. 


Orange. . . Orange. 

Maple Syrup. 
[Contained cane sugar other than n 


. July 14, 
laple.] 


1926 


Conviction. 2 


Gauvremont, George . 


Central Falls, R. I. . Lowell . 


. June 21, 


1926 


Conviction. 


Gauvremont, George . 


CentralFalls, R. I.. Lowell. 


. June 21, 


1926 


Conviction. 


Gauvremont, George . 


Central Falls, R. I. . Lowell . 


. June 21, 


1926 


Conviction. 


Gauvremont, George . 


Central Falls, R. I. . Lowell . 


. June 21, 


1926 


Conviction, 


Gauvremont, George . 


Central Falls, R. I. . Lowell . 


. June 21, 


1926 


Conviction, 


Houle, J. Ernest . 


Manchester, N. H. Lowell . 


. July 16, 


1926 


Conviction. 


Houle, J. Ernest . 


Manchester, N. H. . Lowell . 

Oysters. 
[Contained added water.] 


. July 16, 


1926 


Conviction. 


Sperry, Stephen . 


Lawrence . . Lawrence 

Sausage. 
[Contained starch in excess of 2 per 


. Jan. 4, 

cent.] 


1926 


Conviction. 


Battye, Louis 


Lowell . . . Lowell . 


. Feb. 15, 


1926 


Conviction. 


Bourgault, John . 


Winchendon . Winchendon 


. Jan. 28 


1926 


Conviction. 


Epstien, Phillip . 


Boston . . Boston 

Sausage. 


. Jan. 15, 


1926 


Conviction. 


[Contain 


ed a compound of sulphur dioxide not 


properly labeled.] 




Alpert, Nathan M. 


Boston . . Boston 


. Feb. 12, 


1926 


Conviction. 


Beauchamp, Ovila 


Holyoke . . Springfield . 


. Mar. 26, 


1926 


Conviction. 


Beauchamp, Ovila 


Holyoke . . Springfield . 


. Mar. 26, 


1926 


Conviction. 


Jacobson, Max 


Holyoke . . Holyoke 


. Mar. 5, 


1926 


Conviction. 


Mairenberg, Morris 


Boston . . Boston 


. Mar. 19, 


1926 


Conviction. 


Wiesman, Benjamin 


Boston . . Boston 

Scallops. 
[Contained added water.] 


. Mar. 19, 


1926 


Conviction. 


Baxter, Joseph F. 


Chatham . . Harwich 


. Feb. 19, 


1926 


Conviction. 


Kelly, Aaron 


West Dennis . Harwich 


. Jan. 29, 


1926 


Conviction. * 


Robbins, Robert W. . 


Chatham . . Harwich 

Soft Drinks. 
[Contained benzoic acid.] 


. Jan. 22, 


1926 


Conviction. 


Lowell, George W. 


Brighton . . Brighton 


. Oct. 7. 


1926 


Conviction. 


iCont 


nued for sentence. 


2 Appealed. 







62 



Name. 
Gray Company, E. E. 
Pepe, James 



Nichols, Louis 
Shapiro, Theodore 



Kohr, Lester 



For Sale of Decomposed Food. 



Eggs. 



Address. 
Framingham. 
Lawrence 



Lawrence 
Haverhill 



Court. 
Framinghana . 
Lawrence 



P.D. 34. 



Date. Result. 

Jan. 15, 1926 Conviction. 
Mar. 10, 1926 Conviction. 



Sausage. 



Lawrence 
Haverhill 



Jan. 8, 1926 
May 14, 1926 



Conviction. 
Conviction. 



False and Misleading Advertising. 



Frozen Custard. 



Concessionaire 
from New York . 



Brockton 



Oct. 7, 1926 Conviction. 



Goldman, Charles 



Eggs. 
[Sale of eggs which were not fresh as fresh eggs.] 



Lowell , 



Lowell . 



Mar. 22, 1926 Conviction, i 



Van Dyk Company, James . Springfield 



Maple Syrup. 

. Springfield 



. July 30, 1926 Conviction. 



For Sale of Drugs Deficient in Strength. 
Sw;eet Spirit of Nitre. 



Clemons, Raymond F. 
Essex Drug Company , 



North Adams 
Boston 



North Adams 
Boston 



Mar. 26, 1926 
May 20, 1926 



Conviction. 
Conviction. 



For Violation of the Laws relative to Cold Storage. 



Selling Cold Storage Eggs ■without Marking the Container. 



Abounader, Joseph J. 


. Lawrence 


. Lawrence 


. Jan. 


4, 1926 


Conviction. 


Abramson, Samuel 


. Maiden 


. Maiden 


. Jan. 


26, 1926 


Conviction. 


Angelo, Frank 


. Lawrence 


. Lawrence 


. Nov 


22, 1926 


Conviction. 


Assaly, George 


. Medford 


. Maiden 


. Jan. 


26, 1926 


Conviction. 


Atter, Joseph 


. Gardner 


. Gardner 


. Feb. 


10, 1926 


Conviction. 


Audette, Philias . 


. Lowell . 


. Lowell . 


. Jan. 


5, 1926 


Conviction. 


Benbevengo, John 


. Lawrence 


. Lawrence 


. Mar 


10, 1926 


Conviction. 


Berkson, Abraham 


. Charlestown 


. Charlestown 


. Nov 


15, 1926 


Conviction. 


Bigos, Joseph 


. Lowell . 


. Lowell . 


. Nov 


12, 1926 


Conviction. 


Bologna, Charles . 


. Haverhill 


. Haverhill 


. Jan. 


18, 1926 


Conviction. 


Boschetti, Dominic 


. North Adam 


3 . North Adam 


3 . Feb. 


2, 1926 


Conviction. 


Bourgault, John . 


. Winchendon 


. Winchendon 


. Jan. 


28, 1926 


Conviction. 


Broady, Max 


. Lowell . 


. Lowell . 


. Nov 


12, 1926 


Conviction. 


Casey, Edward 


. Gardner 


. Gardner 


. Feb. 


10, 1926 


Conviction. 


Cetlin, Charles 


Newburyport 


. Newburyport 


. Jan. 


19, 1926 


Discharged. 


Cook, Everett C. . 


. Danvers 


. Salem . 


. Jan. 


7, 1926 


Conviction. 


Corey, William . 


. Lawrence 


. Lawrence 


. Mar 


10, 1926 


Conviction. 


Cutler, Morris G. 


. Shirley 


. Ayer . 


. Jan. 


25, 1926 


Conviction. 


Duby, Ernest 


. North Adams 


. North Adams 


. Feb. 


2, 1926 


Conviction. 


Espanilo, Manuel 


Lawrence 


. Lawrence 


. Nov 


22, 1926 


Conviction. 


Fagundes, Frank C. 


. Lowell . 


. Lowell . 


. Nov. 


12, 1926 


Dismissed. 


Fantini, Rinaldo . 


. Haverhill 


. Haverhill 


. Jan. 


18, 1926 


Conviction. 


Gilbert, Arthur . 


. Charlestown 


. Charlestown 


. Nov. 


15, 1926 


Conviction. 


Goodreau, Michael H. 


. Lawrence 


. Lawrence 


. Jan. 


4, 1926 


Conviction. 


Gventer, Ralph . 


. Maiden 


. Maiden 


. Jan. 


26, 1926 


Conviction. 


Hajjar, Mihil 


. Lawrence 


. Lawrence 


. Jan. 


4, 1926 


Conviction. 


Halstead, George. 


. Lowell . 


. Lowell . 


. Jan. 


5, 1926 


Conviction. 


Hart, Daniel 


. Peabody 


. Peabody 


. Jan. 


6, 1926 


Conviction. 


Karos, Michael . 


. Haverhill 


. Haverhill 


. Jan. 


18, 1926 


Conviction. 


Keucevitch, Alexander 


. Haverhill 


. Haverhill 


. Jan. 


18, 1926 


Conviction. 


Kirby, Patrick H. 


. Danvers 


. Salem . 


. Jan. 


7, 1926 


Conviction. 


Kirzmir, Benjamin 


. Everett 


. Maiden 


. Jan. 


26, 1926 


Conviction. 


Klein, Isadore 


. Haverhill 


. Haverhill 


. Jan. 


18, 1926 


Conviction. 


Kroll, Paul 


. Lowell . 


. Lowell . 


. Feb. 


15, 1926 


Conviction. 


Lapier, Joseph 


. Leominster 


. Leominster 


. Feb. 


3, 1926 


Conviction. 


Lemire, Edward . 


. Winchendon 


. Winchendon 


. Jan. 


28, 1926 


Conviction. 


Levickas, Jos. M. 


. Lawrence 


. Lawrence 


. Jan. 


4, 1926 


Conviction. 


Mazakowska, Aleck 


. Lowell . 


. Lowell . 


. Jan. 


5, 1926 


Conviction. 


Melnicki, Andrew 


. Lawrence 


. Lawrence 


. Feb. 


12, 1926 


Conviction. 


Miller, Harry 


. Lynn . 


. Lynn . 


. Feb. 


16, 1926 


Conviction. 


Miller, Max 


. Haverhill 


. Haverhill 


. Jan. 


18, 1926 


Discharged. 


Molcheau, Charles 


. Lawrence 


. Lawrence 


. Feb. 


12, 1926 


Conviction. 


Neketuk, Michael 


. Lawrence 


. Lawrence 


. Nov. 


22, 1926 


Conviction. 


Nicholopoulous, Geo. 


. Salem . 


. Salem . 


. Feb. 


4, 1926 


Conviction. 


Novick, Abram . 


. Lowell . 


. Lowell . 


. Jan. 


5, 1926 


Conviction. 


Owen, Paris 


. Gardner 


. Gardner 


. Feb. 


10, 1926 


Discharged. 






' Appealed. 









P.D. 34. 

For Violation of the Laws relative to Cold Storage — Concluded. 
Selling Cold Storage Eggs without Marking the Container — Concluded. 



63 



Name. 
Paglia, Ralph 
Pankevich, Benjamin 
Patturnito, Dominico 
Provchard, John . 
Ready, John 
Rounine, Augustine 
Sail, Abraham 
Sarkka, Alpin 
Savicki, Stephen . 
Shapiro, Morris . 
Slauenwhite, Finnis S. 
Smith, Ralph 
Taraski, Wallace O. 
Thomas Sylvian . 
Tolios, James 
Tolios, James 
Travaglini, Alesandro 
Tucco, Nicholas . 
Wein, Osher 
"Winter, Reuben L. 
Yuromskas, Bolis 
Zoumas, Aleck 



Address. 
Leominster 
Haverhill 
Lawrence 
Haverhill 
Winchendon 
Lowell . 
Lynn . 
Gardner 
Lowell . 
Charlestown 
Lynn . 
Charlestown 
Lowell . 
Shirley 
Peabody 
Peabody 
Winchendon 
Haverhill 
Newburyport 
Shirley 
Lawrence 
Lawrence 



Court. 
Leominster 
Haverhill 
Lawrence 
Haverhill 
Winchendon 
I^owell . 
Lynn . 
Gardner 
Lowell . 
Charlestown 
Lynn . 
Charlestown 
Lowell . 
Ayer 
Peabody 
Peabody 
Winchendon 
Haverhill 
Newburyport 
Ayer . 
Lawrence 
Lawrence 



Date. 
Feb. 3, 1926 
Jan. 18, 1926 
Mar. 10, 1926 
Jan. 18. 1926 
Jan. 28, 1926 
Nov. 30, 1926 
Mar. 13, 1926 
Feb. 10, 1926 
Jan. 5, 1926 
Nov. 15, 1926 
Feb. 16, 1926 
Nov. 15, 1926 
Feb. 15, 1926 
Jan. 25, 1926 
Jan. 7, 1926 
Jan. 7, 1926 
Jan. 28, 1926 
Jan. 18, 1926 
Jan. 19, 1926 
Jan. 25, 1926 
Nov. 22, 1926 
Nov. 22, 1926 



Result. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction, i 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 



Retailing Cold Storage Goods without Displaying a Sign Marked "Cold Storage 

Goods Sold Here." 
Foihb, Morris . . . Charlestown . Charlestown . Nov. 15, 1926 Conviction. 



Rising, Frank C. 



For Violation of the Laws relative to Slaughtering. 
Illegal Use of Stamp. 
. West Springfield . Springfield . . Mar. 3, 1926 Conviction. 



Slaughtering or Authorizing Slaughtering in the Absence of Inspector. 
Budnick, Ezreal . . . Boxford . . Haverhill . . May 14, 1926 Discharged. 



Keller, Joseph 
Scibelli, Andrew 



Lowell . 
Agawam 



Lowell 
Westfield 



May 21, 1926 Discharged. 
Mar. 9, 1926 Conviction. 



Selling, Offering for Sale, or having in Possession with Intent to Sell, Unstamped 

Meat. 



Dumaine, Wilfred 
Kellar, Joseph 



Rautz, Samuel . 
Boston, Willard J. 2 
Maderos, Manuel 



Westport 
Lowell . 



Fall River 
Lowell . 



Aug. 12, 1926 Conviction. 
May 21, 1926 Discharged. 



For Violation of the Bakery Law. 

. Beverly . . Salem . . . Feb. 12, 1926 Conviction, i 

For Violation of the Coal Law. 

. Maiden . . Roxbury . . Jan. 26, 1926 Conviction, i 

Obstruction of an Inspector. 

. Dartmouth . . New Bedford . Aug. 6, 1926 Conviction. 

Table 2. — Summary of Milk Statistics.^ 









Total Samples. 


Samples not declared Adulterated. 




Number 

of 
Samples. 


AVERAGE. 


Number 

of 
Samples. 




A.VERAGE 






Total 

SoHds. 


Fat. 


Solids 
not 
Fat. 


Total 
SoHds. 


Fat. 


Solids 
not 

Fat. 


December 


358 


12.23 


3.73 


8.50 


326 


12.33 


3.77 


8.56 


January . 






295 


12.33 


3.82 


8.51 


288 


12.37 


3.85 


8.52 


February 






169 


12.24 


3.69 


8.55 


165 


12.26 


3.72 


8.54 


March 






486 


12.23 


3.71 


8.52 


479 


12.25 


3.72 


8.53 


April 






677 


12.33 


3.69 


8.64 


667 


12.36 


3.72 


8.64 


May 






683 


12.22 


3.60 


8.62 


651 


12.31 


3.66 


8.65 


June 






689 


12.43 


3.74 


8.69 


668 


12.46 


3.75 


8.71 


July 






809 


12.10 


3.56 


8.53 


775 


12.13 


3.. 58 


8.54 


August . 






643 


12.18 


3.71 


8.48 


610 


12.24 


3.76 


8.48 


September 






475 


12.44 


3.81 


8.63 


457 


12.54 


3.87 


8,67 


October . 






805 


12.24 


3.68 


8.56 


765 


12.18 


3.68 


8.50 


November 






691 


12.44 


3.75 


8.69 


651 


12.57 


3.81 


8.76 


Average for Year . 


6,780 


12.28 


3.71 


8.57 


6,502 


12.33 


3.74 


8.59 



1 Appealed. 

2 Prosecuted by City of Boston Sealer of Weights and Measures; analytical work done by this De- 
partment. 

3 Includes only samples collected by inspectors of the department. 



64 



Table 3. — Food Samples collected during 1926. 



Butter 

Canned goods 

Chocolate . 

Cheese 

Clams 

Coffee 

Confectionery 

Cream 

Cream of Tartar 

Dried fruits 

Eggs . 

Flavoring extracts 

Foreign substance in milk bottles 

Honey 

Jam . 

Jelly . 

Ice cream 

Lime juice 

Linseed oil 

Maple sugar 

Maple syrup 

Meat products: 

Hamburg 

Kiszki 

Mince meat 



Sheep plucks 
MOk cocoa . 
Molasses 
Noodles 
Oleomargarine 
Olives 
Olive oil 
Orange juice 
Oysters 
Peanut butter 
Pears 
Scallops 
Soft drinks . 
Sugar 
Vinegar 

Paint 1 



uine. 


Adulterated 


14 


16 


8 


13 


1 


— 


2 


- 


30 


82 


1 


- 


4 


— 


199 


85 


2 


_ 


4 


5 


187 


246 


1 


- 


— 


1 


1 


— 


— 


1 


2 


1 


13 


2 


3 


- 


2 


— 


57 


14 


58 


27 


41 


33 


1 


— 


1 


— 


691 


32 



3 

2 

15 

5 

5 

6 

12 

33 

412 

25 

2 

1,844 



1 
1 

5 
14 

1 

2 

23 



14 
1 
5 



625 



P.D. 34. 



Total. 

30 

21 

1 

2 

112 

1 

4 

284 

2 

9 

433 

1 

1 

1 

1 

3 

15 

3 

2 

71 

85 

74 
1 
1 
723 
1 
1 
1 
5 

17 
2 

16 
7 

28 
6 

12 

33 

426 

1 

30 

2 

2,469 



Table 4. — Drug Samples Collected during 1926. 



Citrate of magnesia 
Alcohol 

Hydrogen peroxide 
Lime water 
Prescriptions 
Proprietary drugs 
Spirit of camphor 
Spirit of nitrous ether 
Tincture of iodine 
Police samples: 
Paregoric 



Genuine. 


Adulterated 


1 


_ 


2 


' — 


2 


— 


12 


2 


1 


— 


— 


"4 


2 


— 


48 


22 


5 


- 


2 


- 


75 


28 



Total. 

1 
2 
2 

14 
1 
4 
2 

70 
5 



103 



Table 5. — 


Summary of Liquor Sampl 


es examined during 1926. 




Cities 
AND Towns. 


Beer. 


Cider. 


Wine. 


Dis- 
tilled 

Spirits. 


Ex- 
tracts. 


Alco- 
hol. 


Miscel- 
laneous. 


1926 
Total. 


1925 
Total. 


1924 
Total. 


Amesbury . 


21 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


22 


11 


6 


Arlington 






2 


- 


18 


13 


- 


4 


- 


37 


10 


1 


Avon . 






23 


- 


2 


11 


- 


- 


- 


36 


20 


4 


Beverly 






14 


1 


IS 


5 


- 


7 


- 


42 


46 


31 


Boston 






196 


2 


165 


1,593 


1 


338 


129 


2,424 


2,913 


2,307 


Braintree 






6 


- 


12 


3 


- 


4 


- 


25 


21 


14 


Cambridge 






64 


1 


72 


354 


- 


39 


40 


570 


499 


494 


Chelsea 






6 


- 


1 


10 


- 


12 


- 


29 


20 


21 


Chicopee 






17 


- 


1 


1 


- 


- 


2 


21 


26 


10 


Everett 






8 


- 


20 


41 


- 


2 


1 


72 


52 


43 


Fall River 






40 


- 


17 


100 


_ 


- 


9 


166 


174 


156 


Fitchburg 






46 


- 


23 


24 


- 


17 


- 


110 


81 


52 



1 Submitted by Department of Public Welfare. 



P.D. 34. 
Table 5. 



65 



■Summary of Liquor Samples examined during 1926 — Concluded. 



Cities 
AND Towns. 


Beer. 


Cider. 


Wine. 


Dis- 
tilled 
Spirits. 


Ex- 
tracts. 


Alco- 
hol. 


Miscel- 
laneous. 


1926 
Total. 


1925 
Total. 


1924 
Total. 


Framingham 


5 


- 


11 


5 


- 


- 


- 


21 


19 


6 


Gardner 


4 


- 


1 


9 


- 


8 


- 


22 


40 


7 


Gloucester . 


12 


2 


26 


29 


- 


26 


6 


101 


110 


42 


Greenfield 


6 


4 


- 


17 


- 


- 


- 


27 


107 


8 


Haverhill 


64 


1 


8 


12 


_ 


2 


3 


90 


62 


22 


Holyoke 


20 


2 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


23 


10 


10 


Lawrence 


82 


- 


12 


99 


- 


28 


20 


241 


255 


209 


Leominster 


24 


- 


18 


12 


- 


14 


- 


68 


22 


31 


Lowell . 


328 


2 


23 


278 


- 


23 


42 


696 


669 


531 


Lynn . 


17 


2 


32 


218 


2 


58 


26 


355 


460 


287 


Maiden 


73 


- 


23 


137 


- 


36 


3 


272 


358 


223 


Marlborough 


53 


4 


31 


46 


- 


7 


13 


154 


42 


110 


Medford 


4 


- 


- 


45 


- 


3 


- 


52 


34 


112 


Methuen 


17 


- 


2 


13 


- 


- 


- 


32 


7 


- 


Middleton . 


23 


1 


5 


8 


- 


2 


1 


40 


14 


4 


Milford 


17 


1 


10 


9 


- 


2 


1 


40 


48 


28 


Newburyport 


6 


2 


4 


8 


- 


14 


1 


35 


32 


12 


Newton 


4 


- 


2 


12 


- 


2 


1 


21 


18 


3a 


Norwood 


4 


- 


4 


13 


- 


2 


- 


23 


14 


3* 


Orange 


11 


- 


9 


5 


- 


- 


- 


25 


34 


a 


Peabody 


12 


- 


1 


46 


- 


2 


4 


65 


84 


34 


Pittsfield 


15 


1 


9 


5 


- 


5 


1 


36 


60 


1ft 


Quincy 


6 


1 


23 


24 


- 


11 


1 


66 


89 


43^ 


Randolph 


6 


- 


3 


8 


- 


3 


- 


20 


18 


19- 


Revere 


6 


- 


7 


37 


- 


16 


2 


68 


41 


27 


Rockland 


5 


- 


1 


9 


- 


1 


4 


20 


12 


13 


Salem . 


24 


- 


12 


37 


- 


37 


1 


111 


156 


193 


Salisbury 


11 


3 


3 


8 


- 


5 


_ 


30 


32 


2& 


Somerville . 


4 


- 


5 


47 


- 


6 


2 


64 


189 


162 


Springfield . 


73 


- 


33 


229 


- 


15 


2 


352 


260 


20& 


Stoughton . 


10 


- 


2 


8 


- 


10 


- 


30 


2 


12 


Taunton 


14 


- 


9 


37 


- 


- 


9 


69 


53 


22 


Wakefield . 


6 


- 


26 


40 


- 


9 


2 


83 


63 


76 


Walpole 


1 


- 


49 


16 


- 


11 


- 


77 


56 


25 


Waltham 


1 


- 


17 


22 


- 


19 


4 


63 


62 


41 


Watertown . 


2 


- 


21 


15 


- 


1 


_ 


39 


20 


20 


Webster 


8 


- 


- 


10 


- 


1 


1 


20 


22 


7 


West Springfield . 


7 


- 


1 


17 


- 


1 




26 


15 


5 


Westford 


13 


1 


- 


3 


1 


3 


2 


23 


82 


15 


Woburn 


3 


- 


5 


30 


- 


2 


_ 


40 


47 


17 


Department of 






















Public Safety . 


320 


12 


101 


392 


- 


54 


40 


919 


621 


189 


Miscellaneous 


152 


22 


59 


236 


3 


62 


20 


554 






Totals . 


1,916 


65 


956 


4,406 


7 


924 


393 


8,667 


9,454 


6,799 



Table 6. — Requests for Extension of Time granted on Goods in Cold Storage from 
December 1, 1925, to December 1, 1926. 

[Reason for such extension being that goods were in proper condition for further storage.] 



Article. 

Eggs (broken-out) 

Eggs . 

Eggs . 

Egg whites 

Egg whites 

Egg whites 

Egg whites 

Egg whites 

Egg yolks 

Egg yolks 

Egg yolks 

Egg yolks 

Egg yolks 

Egg yolks 

Egg yolks 

Egg yolka 

Egg yolks 

Egg yolks 

Butter 

Butter (unsalted) 

Butter 

Butter 

Butter 

Broilers 

Broilers 



Weight 


Placed 


in 


Extension 


(Pounds) . 


Storage. 


granted to — 


30,000 


Aug. 


11, 


19251 


Aug. 


31, 


1926 


16,410 


Aug. 


24, 


1925' 


Aug. 


25, 


1926 


931 


July 


13, 


1925 


Sept. 


13, 


1926 


7,750 


May 


19, 


1925 


June 


1, 


1926 


833 


July 


22, 


1925 


Sept. 


22, 


1926 


2,580 


July 


18, 


19251 


June 


16, 


1926 


12,930 


Aug. 


11, 


19251 


Aug. 


11, 


1926 


240 


Apr. 


14, 


1925 


June 


14, 


1926 


720 


Aug. 


11, 


19251 


Aug. 


11, 


1926 


5,340 


Aug. 


24, 


19251 


Aug. 


25, 


1926 


1,600 


July 


24, 


1925 


Sept. 


24, 


1926 


2,730 


July 


21, 


1925 


Oct. 


12, 


1926 


1,590 


July 


22, 


1925 


Oct. 


12, 


1926 


5,790 


July 


24, 


1925 


Oct. 


12, 


1926 


3,390 


July 


25, 


1925 


Oct. 


12, 


1926 


3,750 


July 


27, 


1925 


Oct. 


12, 


1926 


2,580 


July 


28, 


1925 


Oct. 


12, 


1926 


2,310 


July 


29, 


1925 


Oct. 


12, 


1926 


3,000 


July 


7, 


1925 


Sept. 


17, 


1926 


7,750 


June 


19, 


1925 


Aug. 


15, 


1926 


1,449 


May 


20, 


1925 


Aug. 


20, 


1926 


3,200 


July 


8, 


1925 


Sept. 


8, 


1926 


4,410 


July 


20, 


1925 


Oct. 


1, 


1926 


3,092 


Dec. 


11, 


1924 


Feb. 


10, 


1926 


1,431 


Dec. 


30, 


1924 


Feb. 


28, 


1926 



Name. 

Fairmont Creamery Co. 
Henningsen Brothers. 
Keith, H. J., Co. 
Keith, H. J., Co. 
Keith, H. J., Co. 
Henningsen Brothers. 
Henningsen Brothers. 
Lewis, Mears Co. 
Henningsen Brothers. 
Henningsen Brothers. 
Keith, H. J. ,Co. 
Titman Egg Co. 
Titman Egg Co. 
Titman Egg Co. 
Titman Egg Co. 
Titman Egg Co. 
Titman Egg Co. 
Titman Egg Co. 
Covitz, M., & Son. 
Fairmont Creamery Co. 
Lewis, Mears Co. 
Lewis, Mears Co. 
Stone, Charles H., Co. 
Quinn, Peter & Sons. 
Quinn, Peter & Sons. 



1 Imported. Original date of storage unknown. 



66 P.D. 34. 

Table 6. — Requests for Extension of Time granted on Goods in Cold Storage from 



December 1, 1925, to December 1, 1926 — Continued. 



Article 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

■Chickens 

■Chickens 

Clhickens 

■Chickens 

'Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Ducks . 

Geese . 

Geese . 

Geese . 

Geese . 

Geese . 

Geese . 

Geese . 

Geese . 

Geese . 

Turkeys 

Bear meat 

Bear meat 

Bear meat 

Bear meat 

Bear meat 

Bear meat 

Bear meat 

Bear meat 

Bear meat 

Bear meat 

Moose meat 

Moose meat 

Beef hips 

Beef livers 

Beef livers 

Beef tenderloins 

Bass, sea 

Bass, striped 



Weight 


Placec 


in 


Extension 


(Pounds). 


Storage. 


granted to — - 


12,348 


Nov. 


7 


1925 


Jan. 


30 


1927 


9,861 


Nov. 


16 


1925 


Jan. 


30 


1927 


4,457 


Nov. 


11 


1925 


Feb. 


1 


1927 


16,322 


Nov 


11 


, 1925 


Feb. 


1 


1927 


2,770 


Nov. 


23 


1925 


Feb. 


1 


1927 


135 


Dec. 


1 


1924 


Mar. 


1 


1926 


3,025 


Dec. 


1 


1924 


Mar. 


1 


1926 


1,092 


Dec. 


6 


1924 


Mar. 


1 


1926 


1,126 


Dec. 


6 


1924 


Mar. 


1 


1926 


1,258 


Dec. 


6 


1924 


Mar. 


1 


1926 


157 


Dec. 


29 


1924 


Jan. 


29 


1926 


500 


Dec. 


29 


1924 


Feb. 


28 


1926 


1,296 


Dec. 


29 


1924 


Feb. 


28 


1926 


1,558 


Oct. 


23 


1925 


Jan. 


1 


1927 


2,503 


Nov. 


16 


1925 


Jan. 


16 


1927 


5,942 


Nov. 


21 


1925 


Jan. 


1 


1927 


6,580 


Dec. 


15 


1925 


Feb. 


15 


1927 


7,260 


— 




_ 


1 Jan. 


9 


1926 


645 


Dec. 


4 


1924 


Mar. 


1 


1926 


579 


Dec. 


5 


1924 


Jan. 


5 


1926 


700 


Dec. 


5 


1924 


Apr. 


5 


1926 


788 


Dec. 


5 


1924 


Jan. 


5 


1926 


827 


Dec. 


5 


1924 


Apr. 


5 


1926 


1,008 


Dec. 


5 


1924 


Mar. 


5 


1926 


1,181 


Dec. 


5 


1924 


Mar. 


5 


1926 


1,186 


Dec. 


6 


1924 


Mar. 


1 


1926 


1,800 


Dec. 


6 


1924 


Jan. 


6 


1926 


1,834 


Dec. 


6 


1924 


Mar. 


1 


1926 


1,902 


Dec. 


6 


1924 


Mar. 


1 


1926 


1,988 


Dec. 


6 


1924 


Jan. 


6 


1926 


4,405 


Dec. 


6 


1924 


Mar. 


1 


1926 


155 


Dec. 


8 


1924 


Mar. 


1 


1926 


1,120 


Dec. 


8 


1924 


Mar. 


1 


1926 


1,623 


Dec. 


8 


1924 


Apr. 


8 


1926 


2,814 


Dec. 


8 


1924 


Apr. 


8 


1926 


1,733 


Dec. 


17 


1924 


Mar. 


17 


1926 


1,127 


Dec. 


18 


1924 


Apr. 


5 


1926 


1,495 


Dec. 


18 


1924 


Mar. 


18 


1926 


3,212 


Dec. 


18 


1924 


Mar. 


18 


1926 


1,157 


Dec. 


19 


1924 


Mar. 


19 


1926 


2,008 


Dec. 


19 


1924 


Mar. 


19 


1926 


3,961 


Dec. 


19 


1924 


Apr. 


20 


1926 


259 


Dec. 


27 


1924 


Mar. 


27 


1926 


1,209 


Dec. 


30 


1924 


Mar. 


30 


1926 


588 


Dec. 


31 


1924 


Mar. 


31 


1926 


939 


Dec. 


31 


1924 


Mar. 


31 


1926 


1,347 


Jan. 


6 


1925 


Apr. 


6 


1926 


1,706 


Jan. 


6 


1925 


Apr. 


6 


1926 


4,691 


Dec. 


27 


1924 


Mar. 


1 


1926 


120 


Dec. 


11 


1924 


Feb. 


11 


1926 


960 


Dec. 


11 


1924 


Feb. 


11 


1926 


1,368 


Dec. 


1 


1924 


Jan. 


1 


1926 


645 


Nov. 


26 


1924 


Dec. 


26 


1925 


3,025 


Nov. 


26 


1924 


Dec. 


26 


1925 


134 


Nov. 


28 


1924 


Jan. 


15 


1926 


141 


Nov. 


26 


1924 


Jan. 


15 


1926 


495 


Nov. 


26 


1924 


Jan. 


15 


1926 


1,680 


Nov. 


26 


1924 


Jan. 


15 


1926 


453 


Dec. 


2 


1924 


Jan. 


2 


1926 


1,993 


Dec. 


2 


1924 


Jan. 


2 


1926 


3,737 


Dec. 


5 


1924 


Jan. 


5 


1926 


1,047 


Jan. 


5 


1925 


Mar. 


15 


1926 


49 


Oct. 


26 


1925 


Dec. 


26 


1926 


31 


Nov. 


14 


1925 


Jan. 


14 


1927 


34 


Nov. 


14 


1925 


Jan. 


14 


1927 


197 


Nov. 


19 


1925 


Jan. 


19 


1927 


44 


Oct. 


21 


1925 


Dec. 


21 


1926 


70 


Oct. 


21 


1925 


Dec. 


21 


1926 


90 


Oct. 


23 


1925 


Dec. 


26 


1926 


13 


Nov. 


6 


1925 


Jan. 


6 


1927 


55 


Nov. 


6 


1925 


Jan. 


6 


1927 


58 


Nov. 


11 


1925 


Jan. 


11 


1927 


76 


Oct. 


21 


1925 


Dec. 


21 


1926 


272 


Nov. 


13 


1925 


Jan. 


13 


1927 


877 


Nov. 


17 


1925 


Dec. 


17 


1926 


18,637 


Nov. 


13 


1924 


May 


31 


1926 


1,815 


Dec. 


7 


1925 


Jan. 


7 


1927 


740 


Apr. 


15 


1925 


June 


1 


1926 


170 


June 


15 


1925 


June 


19 


1926 


115 


June 


6, 


1925 


June 


24 


1926 



Name. 

Adams, Chapman Co. 

Adams, Chapman Co. 

Alley, Greene & Pipe Co. 

Alley, Greene & Pipe Co. 

Alley, Greene & Pipe Co. 

Burr, S. L., Co. 

Burr, S. L., Co. 

Burr, S. L., Co. 

Burr, S. L., Co. 

Burr, S. L., Co. 

Burr, S. L., Co. 

Burr, S. L., Co. 

Burr, S. L., Co. 

First National Stores, Inc. 

First National Stores, Inc. 

Hosmer, F. H., & Co. 

Hosmer, F. H., & Co. 

Hosmer, F. H., & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Littlefield, J. F., & Co. 

Weston-Thurston Co. 

Weston-Thurston Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Bartlett Varney & Co. 

Bartlett Varney & Co. 

Kimball, J. F., & Co., Inc. 

Kimball, J. F., & Co., Inc. 

Kimball, J. F., & Co., Inc. 

Kimball, J. F., & Co., Inc. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. \.-:, . 

Lamson & Co. 

Moulton, Ed-svin H., Co. 

Batchelder & Snyder Co. 

Batchelder & Snyder Co. 

Batchelder & Snyder Co. 

Batchelder & Snyder Co. 

Batchelder & Snyder Co. 

Batchelder & Snyder Co. 

Batchelder & Snyder Co. 

Batchelder & Snyder Co. 

Batchelder & Snyder Co. 

Batchelder & Snyder Co. 

Batchelder & Snyder Co. 

Batchelder & Snyder Co. 

First National Stores, Inc. 

Morris & Co. 

Fletcher, J. V., Co. 

Swift & Co. 

Foley, M. F., Co. 

Dorr, Arthur E., & Co., Inc. 



1 Date of deposit unknown. 



P.D. 34. 67 

Table 6. — Requests for Extension of Time granted on Goods in Cold Storage from 

December 1, 1925, to December 1, 1926 — Concluded. 

Weight Placed in Extension 

Article. (Pounds). Storage. granted to — Name. 

Bass, striped ... 173 June 10, 192.5 June 24, 1926 Dorr, Arthur E., & Co , Inc 

Butterfish .... 287 June 16, 192.5 July 16, 1926 Foley, M F., Co 

Butterfish .... 8,476 Sept. 16, 1925 Dec. 16, 1926 Rowe & Sullivan. 

Butterfish .... 978 Sept. 22, 1925 Oct. 22, 1926 Rowe & Sullivan. 

Devilfish .... 160 Feb. 16, 1926 i Dec. 31, 1926 Mantia, S., & Co. 

Eels 2.50 Aug. 14, 1926 > Nov. 14, 1926 Corso Brothers. 

Eels 300 Apr. 3, 1926 » Dec. 18, 1926 Tocco, Joseph. 

Halibut .... 3,414 Jan. 13, 1926 2 Sept. 13, 1926 Batchelder & Snyder Co. 

Halibut .... 400 Nov. 3, 1925 Jan. 1, 1927 Harding, F. E., Co. 

Halibut .... 655 Oct. 22, 1925 Nov. 22, 1926 Henry & Close. 

Mackerel .... 980 June 25, 1925 Aug. 25, 1926 Dorr, Arthur E., & Co , Inc 

Mullets .... 1,025 Nov. 5, 1925 Dec. 18, 1926 Corso Brothers. 

Mullets .... 1,140 Nov. 30, 1925 Dec. 18, 1926 Corso Brothers. 

Mullets .... 3,450 Mar. 19, 1925 Jan. 19, 1927 Russo & Sons. 

Mullets .... 2,700 Oct. 31, 1925 Dec. 31, 1926 Russo & Sons. 

Mullets .... 630 Nov. 6, 1925 Jan. 6, 1927 Russo & Sons. 

Salmon, silver . . . 3,000 Dec. 28, 1925 = Oct. 28, 1926 Batchelder & Snyder Co. 

Sardine herrings . . . 4,782 Oct. 14, 1925 Dec. 1, 1926 Booth Fisheries Co. 

Sardine herrings . . . 4,088 Oct. 15, 1925 Dec. 1, 1926 Booth Fisheries Co. 

Smelts .... 225 Apr. 30, 1926 2 Dec. 30, 1926 Corso Brothers. 

Smelts .... 500 Apr. 16, 1926 2 Dec. 16, 1926 Tocco, Joseph. 

Smelts .... 1,266 Oct. 23, 1925 Dec. 1, 1926 Zizzo, F. & L 

Sole 2,750 Mar. 26, 1925 Apr. 26, 1926 Hunt, Cassius & Co. 

Swordfish .... 507 Mar. 30, 1926 1 Oct. 30,1926 Goodspeed, L. B., & Co. 

Swordfish .... 1,772 July 29, 1925 Dec. 1, 1926 Schermerhorn Fish Co. 



Table 7. — Requests for Extension of Time not granted on Goods in Cold Storage 
from December 1, 1925, to December 1, 1926. 



Article. 

Eggs (broken-out) 

Egg yolks 

Butter 

Butter 

Butter 

Butter 

Butter 

Butter 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Geese . 

Beef tenderloins 

Beef tenderloins 

Eels . 

Eels . 

Eels 

Eels . 

Eels . 

Mullets 



Weight 


Placed 


in 


(Pounds.) 


Storage. 


9,280 


July 


19, 


1925 


3,900 


Aug. 


24. 


1925 


- 


Oct. 


26, 


1925 


16,055 


July 


1, 


1925 


6,615 


July 


14, 


1925 


256 


June 


22, 


1925 


14,818 


Aug. 


21, 


1925 


12,524 


Aug. 


28, 


1925 


9,318 


Oct. 


23, 


1925 


1,210 


Oct. 


24, 


1924 


1,732 


Oct. 


24, 


1924 


346 


Dec. 


2, 


1924 


5.57 


Dec. 


2, 


1924 


1,100 


Dec. 


6, 


1924 


2,664 


Dec. 


1, 


1924 


50 


June 


6, 


1925 


86 


June 


6. 


1925 


20 


- 




- 


41 


— 




_ 


60 


— 




_ 


200 


Sept. 


2, 


1925 


75 


Sept. 


11, 


1925 


6,200 


Nov. 


2, 


1925 



Name. 

Keith, H. J., Co. 

Henningsen Brothers. 

Flynn's Market. 

Haire, William J. 

Hathaway, C. F., & Sons, Inc. 

Lewis, Mears Co. 

Lewis, Mears Co. 

Lewis, Mears Co. 

Hosmer, F. H., & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Lamson & Co. 

Kadish, R. 

Kadish, R. 

Tocco, Joseph 

Tocco, Joseph. 

Tocco, Joseph. 

Tocco, Joseph. 

Tocco, Joseph. 

Mantia, S., & Co. 



Table 8. — - Articles which had been in Cold Storage longer than Twelve Months and 
on which no Requests for Extensions had been made, ordered removed from 
December 1, 1925, to December 1, 1926. 



Article 

Butter 

Butter 

Broilers 

Broilers 

Broilers 

Broilers 

Broilers 

Broilers 

Capons 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 



Weight 


Placed in 


(Pounds). 


Storage. 


48 


July 16, 1925 


910 


July 11. 1925 


220 


Nov. 29, 1924 


625 


Dec. 6, 1924 


76 


Dec. 2, 1924 


70 


Feb. 13, 1925 


320 


Sept. 2. 1925 


200 


Dec. 8. 1924 


146 


Mar. 4, 1925 


296 


Oct. 12, 1925 


2,907 


Jan. 2, 1925 


960 


Dec. 27, 1924 



Name. 

Cummington Creamery Co. 
Lowney, The Walter M., Co. 
Burr, S. L., Co. 
Burr, S. L., Co. 
Eastman, Frank B. 
Quinn, Peter & Sons. 
Robbins, Nathan, Co. 
Strong, Marson Co. 
Hosmer, F. H., & Co. 
Hosmer, F. H., & Co. 
Hosmer, F. H. & Co. 
Lawrence, H. L., Co. 



1 Date of deposit unknown. 



2 Received frozen and undated. 



68 P.D. 34. 

Table 8. — Articles which had been in Cold Storage longer than Twelve Months and 

on which no Requests for Extensions had been made, ordered removed from 

December 1, 1925, to December 1, 1926 — Concluded. 



Article 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Chickens 

Ducks 

Poultry 

Turkeys 

Turkeys 

Turkeys 

Bear meat 

Deer meat 

Venison 

Venison 

Venison 

Raccoon 

Beef . 

Beef . 

Beef . 

Beef . 

Beef ends 

Beef hips 

Beef loins 

Beef loins 

Beef rounds 

Beef rumps 

Beef sirloins 

Beef tenderloins 

Beef tenderloins 

Beef tongues 

Lamb . 

Calves' livers 

Calves' livers 

Calves' livers 

Pork . 

Veal cutlets 

Miscellaneous meats 

Eels . 

Eels, sand 

Eels . 

Eels . 

Eels . 

Eels . 

Eels . 

Eels . 

Eels . 

Eels . 

Halibut 

Halibut 

Mackerel 

Mackerel 

Mullets 

Pollock 

Sardine herrings 

Sardine herrings 

Scallops 

Smelts 

Smelts 

Smelts 

Smelts 

Swordfish 

^wordfish 

Whiting 

Whiting 



Weight 


Placed 


in 


(Pounds). 


Storage. 


169 


Oct. 


12, 


1925 


191 


Oct. 


12, 


1925 


193 


Oct. 


12, 


1925 


215 


Oct. 


12, 


1925 


226 


Oct. 


12, 


1925 


245 


Oct. 


12, 


1925 


253 


Oct. 


12, 


1925 


284 


Oct. 


12, 


1925 


291 


Oct. 


12, 


1925 


351 


Oct. 


12, 


1925 


336 


Dec. 


5, 


1924 


43 


Nov. 


22, 


1924 


75 


Jan. 


15, 


1925 


40 


Sept. 


14, 


1925 


59 


Nov. 


22, 


1924 


646 


Oct. 


6, 


1925 


2,062 


Oct. 


28, 


1924 


11,582 


Oct. 


28, 


1924 


144 


Nov. 


28, 


1924 


130 


July 


16, 


1925 


1,911 


Nov. 


28, 


1924 


77 


Jan. 


30, 


1925 


43 


Dec. 


27, 


1924 


94 


Nov. 


24, 


1924 


8 


Nov. 


14, 


1925 


64 


Nov. 


28, 


1924 


47 


Nov. 


10, 


1924 


30 


Dec. 


8, 


1924 


50 


July 


28, 


1925 


320 


Dec. 


5, 


1924 


202 


Nov. 


29, 


1924 


375 


Nov. 


11, 


1924 


120 


July 


23, 


1925 


1,440 


July 


10, 


1925 


483 


Oct. 


14, 


1925 


65 


Nov. 


13, 


1924 


65 


July 


24, 


1925 


1,650 


Dec. 


20, 


1924 


348 


July 


24, 


1925 


100 


July 


24, 


1925 


55 


Nov. 


12, 


1925 


110 


Nov. 


6, 


1924 


50 


July 


23, 


1925 


389 


Sept. 


9, 


1925 


41 


May 


26, 


1925 


41 


May 


29, 


1925 


100 


Sept. 


21, 


1925 


110 


July 


9, 


1925 


60 


Sept. 


11, 


1925 


180 


Sept. 


21, 


1925 


300 


Nov. 


28, 


1924 


100 


Aug. 


14, 


1925 


150 


Aug. 


15, 


1925 


41 


May 


27, 


1925 


80 


Aug. 


6, 


1925 


175 


Aug. 


12, 


1925 


180 


Aug. 


IS, 


1925 


250 


Aug. 


26, 


1925 


800 


Sept. 


4, 


1925 


1,000 


May 


5, 


1925 


152 


Aug. 


1, 


1925 


150 


June 


2, 


1925 


1,200 


Oct. 


31, 


1925 


185 


Nov. 


21, 


1924 


785 


Nov. 


2, 


1925 


1,000 


Nov. 


2, 


1925 


64 


Dec. 


11, 


1924 


220 


Oct. 


22, 


1925 


68 


Jan. 


14, 


1925 


820 


Apr. 


30, 


1926 


210 


Dec. 


13, 


1924 


751 


July 


20, 


1925 


663 


Aug. 


5, 


1925 


880 


June 


18, 


1925 


150 


Oct. 


30, 


1925 



Name. 

Lepman, H. & J. 

Lepman, H. & J. ^ 

Lepman, H. & J. 

Lepman, H. & J. 

Lepman, H. & J. 

Lepman, H. & J. 

Lepman, H. & J. 

Lepman, H. & J. 

Lepman, H. & J. 

Lepman, H. & J. 

Page Brothers. 

Ruff, A. 

Sage, E. R., Co. 

Soracco, Thomas. 

Strong, Marson Co. 

Swift Beef Co. 

Wheeler, T. H., Co. 

Wheeler, T. H., Co. 

Armour & Co. 

Boynton-Boston, Inc. 

Boynton-Boston, Inc. 

Keeney, F. A. 

Ruff, A. 

Turco, George. 

Baker, D. M. 

Bigelow, Nelson. 

Nesmith, F. H. 

Phillips, Dr. G. L. 

Turco, George. 

Massachusetts Industrial School for Girls. 

Kurland, A. 

Kurland, A. 

Stellar, R. 

Boynton-Boston, Inc. 

Quigley, M. J., & Son. 

Boynton-Boston, Inc. 

Boynton-Boston, Inc. 

Webster Packing Co. 

Boynton-Boston, Inc. 

Boynton-Boston, Inc. 

Kadish, R. 
1 Morris & Co. 

Kurland Brothers. 

Stollar, R. 

Armour & Co. 

Boynton-Boston, Inc. 

Boynton-Boston, Inc. 

Osgood, C. H. 
I Morris & Co. 

Boynton-Boston, Inc. 

Cefalu, Joseph. 

Cefalu, Joseph. 

Cefalu, Joseph. 

Cefalu, Joseph. 

Cefalu, Joseph. 

Tocco, Joseph. 

Tocco, Joseph. 

Tocco, Joseph. 

Tocco, Joseph. 

Tocco, Joseph. 

Dorr, Arthur E., & Co., Inc. 

First National Stores, Inc. 

Bank's Fish Market. 

Schermerhorn Fish Co. 

Mantia, S., & Co. 

Baker, A. G. 

Ferraria, Tony. 

Ferraria, Tony. 

Arrington, H. R. 

Cefalu, Joseph. 

Corso & Cannizzo. 
' Mantia, S., «& Co. 

Tribuna-Magri Co. 

Atwood & Co., Inc. 

Atwood & Co., Inc. 

Cannizzo, Joseph. 

Cefalu, Joseph. 



1 Date of deposit unknown. 



2 Received frozen and undated. 



P.D. 34. 

Table 9. — Summary. 
Requests for extension of time granted 

Eggs . 

Butter . 

Poultry 

Game . 

Meat . 

Fish . 

Requests for extension of time not granted 
Eggs . 
Butter . 
Poultry 
Meat . 
Fish . 



18 
5 

64 

12 
4 

27 



69 



130 



23 



Articles ordered removed from storage (no requests made) 
Butter . 
Poultry 
Game . 
Meat . 
Fish . 



89 



2 
33 

6 
21 

27 



70 



P.D. 34. 



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72 P.D. 34. 

Eepoet of Division of Communicable Diseases. 

Clarence L. Scamman, Director, 

The functions of the division may be roughly outlined as being carried on by 
(a) an epidemiological staff, (6) a venereal disease staff, (c) a bacteriological lab- 
oratory and {d) a field force of seven District Health Officers, the direct repre- * 
sentatives of the Commissioner in their respective districts, but included in the 
personnel of the division for administrative purposes. 

This year the cases of communicable disease show an increase over the number 
reported last year, the figures being 100,455 and 93,082, respectively. This increase 
has been due to an unusually high incidence of measles and influenza in the first 
four months of the year and continued high prevalence of chicken pox, mumps, 
scarlet fever and whooping cough throughout the year. Of the 38 reportable 
diseases represented by 100,455 cases, there is a specific preventive or curative 
measure in seven, namely: diphtheria, ophthalmia neonatorum, rabies, smallpox, 
syphilis, tetanus and typhoid fever. This group of diseases, however, represents 
less than 8% of the total cases reported. In measles, scarlet fever and whooping 
cough there is promise of specific immunizing measures which may be applied 
popularly toward their prevention. With the majority of the balance of the re- 
portable diseases, there is little to be said in the direction of specific prevention. 
Curative sera, or vaccines, have been developed for some diseases which, if given 
early, will unquestionably save lives. For such diseases as anterior poliomyelitis, , 
chicken pox, german measles, gonorrhea, influenza, mumps and pneumonia, con- 
trol lies for the present as it has in the immediate past in isolation and education. 
The transmission of almost all the communicable diseases takes place by the route 
that infected body discharges take from the patient, or carrier, to the uninfected 
individual according to Hill. Obviously then persons, not things, spread disease. 
When this single fact has become a part of the general knowledge of the public, 
control of communicable disease by isolation will be more a fact and less a fiction. 

Having in mind the variety of administrative methods for the control of com- 
municable disease, the Massachusetts Association of Boards of Health on October. 
28, 1926, adopted a set of minimum quarantine requirements which if accepted 
by the cities and towns in the Commonwealth will at least give less variation in 
these procedures than has been the rule in the past. Similar minimum require- 
ments were adopted by the Department and will be mailed to the local boards of 
health early in the coming year. 

Anterior Poliomyelitis. — There were 245 cases reported for the year. The 
case rate for 1926 was 5.8 per 100,000 population, which is not appreciably higher 
than the average case rate for the five years 1921-25. The incidence of the disease, 
however, in Springfield and Worcester compared with the rest of the state has been 
unusually high. The morbidity rates for the two cities taken together being 
22.4 per 100,000 population. From June to October the Department, with the 
cooperation of the Harvard Infantile Paralysis Commission, made a special epi- 
demiological study of this disease but no new facts were brought out in regard to 
the method of its spread. 

Diphtheria. — The decline in diphtheria prevalence began in the fall of 1924 
and has continued through 1925 and 1926. The reported number of cases this 
year being 3,401, which gives a case rate of 80.6 per 100,000 population; this 
rate is lower by far than any similar rate in the last twenty-five years. The death 
rate (5.8) is showing a very definite decline and is lower this year than any year 
in the history of the Department. The fatality rate this year is 7.1. The fatality 
rate during the last twenty-one years has been dropping at approximately a rate 
of one tenth per cent a year. Some of the decrease in diphtheria incidence is due 
to the increased use of immunization by means of toxin-antitoxin, but it is not 
likely that the decrease is due to immunization alone. In fact, there is enough 
increase in the prevalence of diphtheria in the last two months of the year to 
warrant the assumption that in 1927 the reported incidence will be greater than 
in 1926. 



P.D. 34. 73 

Influenza. — The incidence of this disease for the year with 2,194 cases Ls higher 
than for any previous year since 1923 when 2,466 cases were reported. The in- 
crease for the year is accounted for by the unusual prevalence of the disease' in 
the months of March and April. Although outbreaks of the disease have been 
reported from Europe and in some of the southern and western states in December, 
there has been little increase in the reported incidence of the disease for the same 
period in this state. 

Smallpox. — The only cases of smallpox occurring for the twelve months of the 
year were reported from Upton in April; there were no deaths. The disease was 
contracted in Florida. Although the incidence of this disease for the last few years 
has been extremely low within the Commonwealth, compared with its widespread 
prevalence throughout the Union, it will continue to be a relatively rare disease 
with us only so long as the vaccination law is enforced, and no longer. 

Typhoid Fever. — 547 cases and 61 deaths from this disease were reported for 
the year, fewer than have ever been recorded in any previous year. An irreducible 
minimum in the incidence of this disease will be reached only when persons sus- 
pected of having the disease (convalescents, .known carriers and those persons 
with a past history of having had the disease) are excluded from the handling of 
community foods. Subsequently in this report sources of infection are given 
where known. 

Summer Camps. 

This division, in cooperation with the Engineering Division, made 105 detailed 
inspections of summer camps. Approximately 63% of the camps had medical 
supervision of the registrants during their stay in camp. About 50% required 
physical examination of registrants before going to camp. Little or no attention 
was given to the examination of food handlers. No stool or urine specimens were 
required of any food handler as an aid toward the discovery of a typhoid "car- 
rier". No camps required prophylaxis against diphtheria, typhoid fever, or small- 
pox. About half the camps used pasteurized milk. The water supplied to 29% 
of the camps was found unsatisfactory. Methods of sewage disposal were un- 
satisfactory in about 13%. A summary of these facts will be found in the report 
of the Engineering Division. Because of the evidence brought out by the survey, 
the department will introduce legislation asking for power to make rules and 
regulations under which local boards of health may license summer camps. 

Forty-eight states, the District of Columbia and eight provinces were circularized 
for information as to rules and regulations governing the operation of summer 
camps within their borders. Twenty-nine states, the District of Columbia and 
three Canadian provinces have such rules and regulations. Eight other states 
are contemplating such legislation. 

Milk Legislation. 

In view of the department's interest in milk legislation it is noted that 20 towns 
with a population of 1,684,172 or 39.9 per cent of the total state population, require 
that the milk sold in their communities be pasteurized or from tuberculosis free 
herds. 

Venereal Disease. 

The cases of gonorrhea and syphilis reported this year were slightly less than 
in 1925. Subsequently, a table shows the cases and deaths reported for the last 
nine years. As in the immediate past, efforts toward control of these two diseases 
have been centered on treatment and the broad educational aspects of social 
hygiene. 

There are forty-eight treatment centers in the state, sixteen of which are sub- 
sidized by the department; 15,045 individuals made 128,188 visits to the sixteen 
state approved clinics in 1926. 

The social worker and special investigator on the staff have been concerned 
with the following activities: investigation of sources of infection, as well as lapsed 
and delinquent cases; visits to local boards of health, community social agencies, 
•courts, probation officers and police officials. This contact with all the community 



74 P.D. 34. 

forces concerned has been of mutual advantage in efforts toward the control of 
these diseases. 

In the direction of education, 88 lectures to nearly 7,000 people have been given 
on the subject of social hygiene. These talks have been made possible by the 
American Social Hygiene Association and the Massachusetts League of Women 
Voters in cooperation with the department. The services of the lecturer, Dr. 
Helen I. McGillicuddy, have been in constant and increasing demand. 

District Health Officers. 

Beside their ordinary routine of visits to local boards of health and investiga- 
tions of outbreaks of communicable disease, and other duties required by statute 
such as the inspection of jails, lockups, hospitals, and so forth, the District Health 
Officers have been engaged in the following special activities this year: aiding and 
proposing immunization against diphtheria; assisting in the furthering of the 
ten-year tuberculosis program, aiding in a goitre survey, the result of which will 
appear in a later report; inspecting summer camps; interviewing boards of health 
in regard to their requirements for the control of contagious disease to the end 
that there may be more uniformity in practice in this regard throughout the 
Commonwealth. Some of the District Health Officers have given material aid 
to the department in the establishment of cancer clinics in their respective 
districts. 

The Bacteriological Laboratory. 

During the year ending December 31, 1926, the Bacteriological Laboratory 
examined 25,327 specimens. There has been a marked decrease in the number of 
diphtheria cultures received this year and a slight decrease in the number of speci- 
mens received for the Widal test, malaria and pneumococcus type determination. 
There has been an increase in all other lines of work and the decided increase, 
marked last year, in the number of examinations for typhoid bacilli has been sur- 
passed this year. The increase in the amount of typhoid culture work has been 
due partially to the examination of food handlers in State sanatoria. 

The laboratory examines all throat cultures received for diagnosis for diph- 
theria for the organisms of Vincent's Angina, also. This is a supplementary 
examination which is not counted in the total number of examinations. 

This laboratory does not examine every throat culture for hemolytic strepto- 
cocci but if the physician's diagnosis is septic sore throat, scarlet fever or strepto- 
coccus sore throat an examination is made for hemolytic streptococci. 

A study was made of the viability of a hemolytic streptococcus in lobster salad 
at the time of the outbreak of scarlet fever in Weymouth. This has been reported 
in detail elsewhere. 

Table I. — • Shows the Number and Kinds of Examinations. 



Diphtheria .... 

Tuberculosis 

Typhoid fever Widal test . 

Typhoid fever Culture test 

Gonorrhea .... 



11,486 Malaria 65 

4,311 Pneumonia 456 

1,664 Miscellaneous .... 867 



1,652 

4,826 Total 25,327 



P.D. 34. 



75- 



Table II. Shows Results of Examinations. 





Positive. 


Negative. 


Atypical. 


Total. 


Diphtheria (primary) . 


649 


7,390 


- 


8,039 


Diphtheria (secondary) 


1,235 


2,212 


- 


3,447 


Tuberculosis (sputum) 


968 


3,343 


- 


4,311 


Typhoid fever (Widal) 


305 


1,304 


55 


1,664 


Typhoid fever (culture) 


69 


1,583 


- 


1,652 


Malaria 


3 


62 


- 


65 


Gonorrhea .... 


989 


3,837 


-, 


4,82& 


Pneumococcus Type Determination . 






456. 


Type I 










Number . 






. 50 




Per cent .... 






15.4 




Type II 










Number .... 






. 21 




Per cent .... 






6.5 




Type III 










Number .... 






. 48 




Per cent . . . . 






14.8 




Group IV 










Number .... 






. 205 




Per cent .... 






63.3 




No pneumococci 






. 132 




Miscellaneous^ 








867 


Total .... 


25,327 



Changes in Personnel. 

W. G. Webber appointed Acting Director of Division. 

H. L. Lombard appointed Acting District Health Officer. 

G. Webber, Acting Director, resigned. 

L. Scamman, appointed Director of Division. 

L. Lombard transferred to Division of Administration. 

P. Black appointed Epidemiologist. 
August 5, 1926 — Dr. E. A. Lane appointed Acting District Health Officer. 
October 1, 1926 — Mr. H. C. Mosman, Special Investigator, transferred to Divi- 
sion of Food and Drugs. 
October 31, 1926 — Dr. A. P. Black, Epidemiologist, resigned. 
November 1, 1926 — Dr. F. C. Forsbeck appointed Epidemiologist. 



January 1, 1926 — Dr. 
January 1, 1926 — Dr. 
April 1, 1926 — Dr. W. 
April 1, 1926 — Dr. C. 
June 1, 1926 — Dr. H. 
June 25, 1926 — Dr. A. 



December, 1925- 
January, 1926 
June 



REPORT OF EPIDEMIOLOGIST FOR 1926. 
Outbreaks traced to External Agencies. 

Lawrence Typhoid 8 cases Water borne. 

Lynn, Salem, Scarlet fever 138 cases Food. 

Weymouth 



A total of 138 cases with no deaths resulted from the eating of a contaminated', 
food served at three banquets by the same caterer. 



June 



Somerville 



Typhoid 



6 cases Carrier. 



Six cases with no deaths caused by a carrier contaminating a food used in 
common. 



September-October Waverley 



Typhoid 



21 cases Milk. 



1 Including 487 tests for hemolytic streptococci, 134 guinea pig inoculations for tubercle bacilli and 
agglutination tests for paratyphoid fever. 



76 P.D. 34. 

Twenty-one cases with two deaths occurred at the McLean Hospital caused by 
contamination of the milk by an unrecognized case on the institution's dairy farm. 

October Ashburnham Typhoid 9 cases Water borne. 

Nine cases with one death occurred in Ashburnham from polluted water getting 
into a sanitary supply because of a leaky cross connection between the two sup- 
plies. This condition has been corrected. 



December 



Lincoln, Concord, Typhoid 
Weston 



44 cases Milk (carrier). 



Forty-four cases with one death occurred on a milk route, on which contamina- 
tion of the milk was due to a carrier who was a milk handler. 



December 



Hyde Park 



Typhoid 



28 cases Milk. 



Twenty-eight cases with one death occurred on a milk route after a milk bottler, 
while he was an active case, had contaminated a previously pasteurized milk. 
The source of his own case was not discovered. 





Typhoid Fever. 












Case Rate 




Death Rate 


Year. 


Cases, 


per 


100,000. 


Deaths. 


per 100,000. 


1917-1921 (av.) . 


. . . 1,080 




28.2 


131 


3.4 


1922 . 


. . . 693 




17.4 


86 


2.2 


1923 . 


622 




15.4 


70 • 


1.7 


1924 . 


. . . 566 




13.8 


68 


1.7 


1925 . 


592 




14.2 


73 


1.7 


1926 . 


547 




12.9 


61 


1.4 



The unusually low typhoid fever incidence for the year includes four outbreaks, 
three of which were milk borne and one water borne. Of the milk borne outbreaks 
one was traceable to a carrier, and the other two were caused by individuals sick 
with the disease who infected the milk. 

Typhoid Cases, 1922-26, classified as to Probable Origin. 



Year. 


Total. 


Contact. 


Milk. 


Water. 


Food. 


Carrier. 


Per Cent 
Unknown. Unknown. 


1922 . 


. 693 


66 


18 


5 


6 . 


5 


593 85 


1923 . 


. 622 


30 


9 


23 


3 


15 


542 87 


1924 . 


. 566 


51 


17 


25 


15 


4 


454 80 


1925 . 


. 592 


37 


8 


15 


12 


3 


517 87 


1926 . 


. 547 


16 


92 


21 


6 


5 


407 74 



It will be noted that an unusually large number of cases had their origin from 
contaminated milk. Most of these cases were caused by a carrier. Although the 
classifications show relatively few cases due to "carriers", actually many more 
cases were caused by direct infection of foodstuffs, especially milk, by "carriers". 







Typhoid Cases, 1917-26, classified by Age Groups. 




Year. 


Total. 


0-14. 


15-24. 


25-34. 


35^4. 


45 Plus. 


Unknown. 




C. 1 % 


C. 1 % 


C. 1 % 


C. 1 % 


C. 1 % 


C. 1 % 


C. 1 % 


1917 


1,547 100 


312 20.2 


344 22.2 


265 17.1 


140 9.0 


116 7.5 


370 23.9 


1918 




1,064 100 


320 30.0 


255 24.0 


195 18.3 


141 13.2 


89 8.3 


67 6.3 


1919 




938 100 


273 29.1 


226 24.1 


182 19.4 


113 12.0 


89 9.5 


55 5.9 


1920 




935 100 


299 32.0 


218 23.3 


190 20.3 


112 12.0 


96 10.3 


20 2.1 


1921 




917 100 


345 37.6 


176 19.2 


150 16.4 


127 13.8 


106 11.6 


13 1.4 


1922 




693 100 


196 28.2 


176 25.4 


123 17.8 


87 12.6 


89 12.8 


22 3.2 


1923 




622 100 


193 310 


158 25.4 


106 17.0 


76 12>2 


66 10.6 


23 3.7 


1924 




566 100 


157 27.7 


132 23.3 


102 18.0 


76 13.4 


82 14.5 


17 3.0 


1925 




592 100 


161 27.2 


141 23.8 


113 19.1 


79 13.3 


71 11.9 


27 4.6 


1926 




547 100 


164 30.0 


•146 26.7 


71 13.0 


74 13.5 


74 13.5 


18 3.3 



P.D. 34. 



77 



Typhoid Deaths, 1917-26, classified hy Age Groups. 





0- 


-14. 


15- 


-39. 


40 Plus. 


Total 


% 


Ye.^r. 












Deaths. 




D. 


1 % 


D. 


% 


D. 1 % 




1917 .... 


33 


18.5 


94 


53.00 


51 28.6 


178 


100 


1918 










IS 


11.0 


102 


64.0 


40 25.0 


160 


100 


1919 










17 


15.9 


63 


59.0 


27 25.2 


107 


100 


1920 










15 


15.8 


51 


53.7 


29 30.5 


95 


100 


1921 










17 


14.5 


60 


51.3 


40 34.2 


117 


100 


1922 










11 


12.8 


50 


58.2 


25 29.0 


86 


100 


1923 










8 


11.6 


42 


61.0 


19 27.5 


69 


100 


1924 










9 


13.2 


32 


47.0 


27 39.7 


68 


100 


1925 










15 


20.6 


33 


45.2 


25 34.2 


73 


100 


1926 










9 


14.8 


33 


54.1 


19 31.1 


61 


100 



Year. 

1917-21 (av.) 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 



Diphtheria 










Case Rate 




Death Rate 


Cases. 


per 100,000. 


Deaths. 


per 100.000. 


8,357 


218 


647 


16.9 


8,826 


221 


606 


15.2 


9,018 


223 


579 


14.3 


7,290 


178 


534 


12.9 


4,482 


108 


333 


8.0 


3,401 


81 


243 


5.8 



Diphtheria Cases, 1922-26, classified hy Age Groups. 



Year. 


0-5. 


6- 


14. 


15 Plus. 


Total 

Age 

Given. 


% 




C. 1 % 


C. 


1 % 


C. 


! % 




1922 . 


3,414 41.5 


3,623 


44.1 


1,169 


14.4 


8,206 


100 


1923 . 


3,440 40.5 


3,917 


46.0 


1,158 


13.5 


8,515 


100 


1924 . 


2,859 43.5 


2,690 


40.8 


1,040 


15.7 


6,589 


100 


1925 . 


1,776 43.5 


1,629 


40.0 


670 


16.5 


4,075 


100 


1926 . 


1,376 44.8 


1,144 


37.3 


550 


17.9 


3,070 


100 



Diphtheria Deaths by Age Groups. 

[Five Year Averages.] 



Year. 


0-4. 


5-9. 


10 Plus. 


Total. 




D. 


1 % 


D. 


1 % 


D. 1 % 




1917-1921 . 
1922-1926 . 


360 
276 


55.6 
60.0 


210 
138 


32.5 
30.0 


77 11.9 
46 10.0 


647 

460 



Year. 

1917-21 (av.) 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 



Smallpox 



Cases. 


Deaths 


39 


3 


2 


- 


6 


- 


12 


2 


3 


- 


4 


- 



Gonorrhea and Syphilis. 













Gonorrhea. 


Syphilis. 


Death Rate 




Cases. 


Case Rate 
per, 100,000. 


Cases. 


Case Rate 1 
per 100,000.1 


Deaths. 


per 100,000. 


1918 


7,681 


197 


3,284 


84.4 


280 


7.2 


1919 










9,435 


246 


4,127 


107.5 


281 


7.3 


1920 










7,225 


188 


2,987 


77.6 


224 


5.8 


1921 










5,563 


141 


2,497 


63.4 


200 


5.1 


1922 










4,973 


125 


1,933 


48.4 


213 


5.3 


1923 










4,885 


121 


1,891 


46.7 


194 


4.7 


1924 










5,241 


128 


2,325 


56.7 


176 


4.2 


1925 










5,192 


125 


2,147 


51.6 


148 


3.5 


1926 










4,920 


117 


1,904 


45.1 


160 


3.8 



78 P.D. 34. 

It is peculiarly difficult in gonorrhea and syphilis to draw conclusions from case 
rates. It is impossible to state whether an increase in the number of cases re- 
ported means a greater incidence of the disease, or whether more and more people 
.are availing themselves of ethical treatment. In the case of syphilis some con- 
clusions can be drawn from the death rate. This rate has been steadily decreasing . 

Distribution of Arsphenamine, Sulpharsphenamine and Bichloridol, btj Years. 



Year. 


Arsphenamine. i 


Sulpharsphenamine. i 


Bichloridol 


1922 


42,083 


- 


9,680 


1923 


42,843 


3,737 3 


12,800 


1924 


27,603 


18,864 


13,412 


1925 


26,121 


27,911 


17,043 


1926 . . 


21,726 


31,895 


9,486 



Total Cases attending, and Visits to, State Subsidized Venereal Disease Clinics 

during 1924, 1925, 1926. 



[Subsidized Clinics (16). 











Persons a 


ttending 










Clinic per 


100,000 


New Cases. 


Old Cases. 


Total Visits. 


Population. 


5,132 


5,188 


155,671 




4,187 


.66 


8,060 


5,852 


150,132 




4,262.06 


9,851 


5,194 


128,188 




5,117 


.74 


Scarlet Fever. 














Case Rate 




Death Rate Fatality 


Cases. 


per 100,000. 


Deaths. 


per 


100,000. Pei 


Cent. 


7,410 


192 


145 




3.8 




1.9 


7,868 


197 


149 




3.7 




1.9 


12,300 


304 


155 




3.8 




1.3 


14,410 


351 


158 




3.9 




1.1 


10,319 


248 


117 




2.8 




1.1 


11,323 


268 


113 




2.7 




1.0 



Year. 

1924 
1925 
1926 



Year. 

1917-21 (av.) 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 

Scarlet fever for the past twenty-one years has been increasing at the rate of 
over two hundred and thirty cases per year. However, the death rate and fatality 
rate have steadily declined. For example, in 1876 the deaths from this disease 
were 1,222 giving a mortality rate of 73.0. For 1926, just fifty years later, the 
mortality rate was 2.7. 

Tuberculosis, Pulmonary . 

Year. 

1917-21 (av.) 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 

During the past quinquennium, the number of cases of pulmonary tuberculosis 
reported yearly has remained about constant, although previous to that time there 
had been a very definite decrease in incidence. Fortunately, the fatality rate for 
this same period has been steadily decreasing. To a less extent the same facts 
hold true for non-pulmonary tuberculosis. 





Case Rate 




Death Rate 


Fatality 


Cases. 


per 100,000. 


Deaths. 


per 100,000. 


Per Cent 


7,207 


188 


4,214 


110.0 


58 


5,562 


139 


3,167 


79.3 


57 


5,356 


132 


3,062 


75.7 


57 


5,376 


131 


2,953 


71.9 


55 


5,385 


130 


2,883 


69.3 


54 


5,491 


130 


2,952 


70.0 


54 



1 Based on 0.6 gram doses. 



2 Collapsules. 



3 June to December. 



P.D. 34. 



Year. 

1917-21 (av.) 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 



Ye.\r. 

19181 

1919 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 



79 



Tuberculosis, Non-Pulmonary . 







Case Rate 




Death Rate 


Fatality 


Cases. 


per 100,000. 


Deaths. 


per 100,000. 


Per Cent. 


786 


20.4 


699 


18.1 


89 


817 


20.5 


569 


14.3 


70 


807 


19.9 


528 


13.0 


65 


•893 


23.0 


577 


13.9 


61 


825 


19.8 


576 


13.7 


70 


891 


21.1 


527 


12.5 


60 


obar Pneumonia. 












Case Rate 




Death Rate 




Cases. 


per 100,000. 


Deaths. 


per 100,000. 




13,374 


351 


10,339 


271.7 






4,585 


119 


2,614 


65.5 






5,558 


143 


2,842 


73.8 






•4,080 


104 


1,823 


46.3 






5,194 


130 


2,344 


58.7 






4,759 


118 


2,313 


57.2 






4,552 


111 


1,944 


47.4 






5,544 


133 


2,364 


56.0 






5,134 


122 


2,378 


56.4 



After a sharp drop in the number of cases after 1918, the case incidence has 
remained fairly constant to date. 

Measles. 



Year. 


Cases. 


Case Rate 
per 100,000. 


Deaths. 


Death Rate 
per 100.000. 


1917-21 (av.) 

1922 .... 


. 22,609 
. 23,291 


589 

583 


323 
218 


8.4 
•5.5 


1923 .... 

1924 .... 

1925 . . 

1926 .... 


. 26,854 
. 22,425 
. 28,816 
. 30,020 


664 
547 
693 
712 


321 
165 
337 
367 


7.9 
4.0 

8.1 
8.7 


Year. 


Whooping Cough. 

Cases. 


Case Rate 
per 100,000. 


Deaths. 


Death Rate 
per 100,000. 


1917-21 (av.) 

1922 .... 

1923 .... 

1924 .... 


. . . . 6,613 
. 6,823 
. 10,612 
. 4,062 


171 

171 

262 

99 


408 

294 
493 
147 


10.6 
7.4 

12.2 
3.6 


1925 .... 


. 8,077 


194 


269 


6.5 


1926 .... 


. 11,547 


274 


404 


9.6 



Whooping cough became a reportable disease in 1907. The incidence has been 
increasing. During the past year more cases were reported than in. any other 
year since the disease was made reportable. 



' Made reportable May, 1917. 



80 



P.D. 34. 



Cases and Deaths from Certain Communicable Diseases in Massachusetts from 1922' 

to 1926. 





1922. 


1923. 


1924. 


1925. 


1926. 


Population .... 


3,991,333 


4,046,923 


4,102,513 


4,158,103 


4,213,693 






i 




M 




.a 




.a 




i 


Disease. 


i 




i 




s 




i 




s 






§ 




'& 




s 




s 


<o 


i 


(O 




o 


Q 


o 


Q 


o 


Q 


o 


Q 


o 


Q 


Actinomycosis 


3 


2 


6 


4 


4 


2 


3 


1 


2 


1 


Anterior Poliomyelitis 




217 


33 


223 


35 


227 


27 


167 


52 


245 


44 


Anthrax 




3 


1 


7 


2 


11 


2 


5 


1 


13 


1 


Chicken Pox . 




5,177 


8 


7,983 


11 


5,985 


9 


7,516 


9 


8,284 


7 


Dog Bite 




181 


- 


252 


- 


208 


- 


186 


- 


169 


- 


Dysentery 




14 


10 


3 


2 


25 


3 


13 


5 


8 


8 


Encephalitis Lethargica 




163 


83 


180 


85 


106 


58 


146. 


99 


105 


78 


Epidemic Cerebrospinal 


Men- 






















ingitis . 




105 


47 


121 


41 


128 


39 


112 


35 


116 


43 


German Measles 




480 


2 


527 


- 


1,644 


3 


6,778 


3 


6,236 


3 


Influenza 




7,453 


569 


2,466 


742 


405 


277 


1,244 


519 


2,193 


736 


Malaria . 




48 


4 


23 


3 


36 


2 


11 


6 


22 


1 


Mumps . 

Ophthalmia Neonatorun 




4,358 


2 


7,707 


6 


9,431 


12 


2,674 


6 


5,117 


1 


ii 


1,219 


- 


1,480 


- 


1,820 


- 


1,988 


- 


1,832 


- 


Pellagra . 




15 


9 


16 


11 


18 


12 


19 


10 


16 


10 


Septic Sore Throat 




123 


25 


197 


27 


170 


47 


116 


29 


129 


35 


Tetanus . 




33 


21 


28 


18 


41 


23 


45 


35 


30 


22 


Trachoma 




96 


- 


62 


- 


55 


- 


75 


- 


53 


- 


Trichinosis 




19 


4 


13 


- 


40 


1 


26 


- 


13 


- 


Glanders 




_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


Hookworm 




42 


_ 


12 


_ 


18 


- 


23 


- 


8 


- 


Leprosy . 




1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


Rabies 




2 


5 


3 


1 


1 


1 


2 


3 


- 


- 


Typhus Fever 




- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 



1 Includes suppurative conjunctivitis. 



Cases and Deaths, with Case and Death Rates per 100,000 Population for All Report- 
able Diseases during the Year 1926. 



Disease. 
Actinomycosis 
Anterior Poliomyelitis 
Anthrax 
Chicken Pox 
Diphtheria . 
Dog Bite . 
Dysentery . 
Encephalitis Lethargica 
Epidemic Cerebrospinal Meningitis 
German Measles . 
Gonorrhea . 
Hookworm . 
Influenza 
Leprosy 
Malaria 
Measles 
Mumps 

Ophthalmia Neonatorum i 
Pellagra 

Pneumonia, Lobar 
Scarlet Fever 
Septic Sore Throat 
Smallpox 
Syphilis 
Tetanus 
Trachoma . 
Trichinosis . 

Tuberculosis, Pulmonary 
Tuberculosis, Other Forms 
Tuberculosis, Hilum 
Typhoid Fever 
Whooping Cough 

Total . 





Case Rate 




Death Rate 


Fatality 




per 100,000 




per 100,000 


Rate 


Cases. 


Population. 


Deaths. 


Population. 


(Per Cent) 


2 


.04 


1 


.02 


50.0 


245 


5.8 


44 


1.0 


18.0 


13 


.3 


1 


.02 


7.7 


8,284 


196.6 


7 


.2 


.1 


3,401 


80.7 


243 


5.8 


7.1 


169 


4.0 


— 


- 


- 


8 


.2 


8 


.2 


100.0 


105 


2.5 


78 


1.8 


74.3 


116 


2.8 


43 


1.0 


37.1 


6,236 


147.9 


3 


.1 


.04 


4,920 


116.8 


14 


.3 


.3 


8 


.2 


- 


- 


— 


2,193 


52.0 


736 


17.5 


33.6 


1 


.02 


— 


— 


- 


22 


.5 


1 


.02 


4.5 


30,020 


712.4 


367 


8.7 


1.2 


5,117 


121.4 


1 


.02 


.01 


1,832 


43.5 


— 


- 


— 


16 


.4 


10 


.2 


62.5 


5,134 


121.8 


2,380 


56.5 


46.4 


11,323 


268.7 


113 


2.7 


1.0 


129 


3.1 


35 


.8 


27.1 


4 


.1 


- 


- 


- 


1,904 


45.2 


160 


3.8 


8.4 


30 


.7 


22 


.0 


73.3 


53 


1.3 


- 


— 


— 


13 


.3 


- 


— 


— 


5,444 


129.2 


2,952 


70.0 


54.2 


874 


20.7 


527 


12.5 


60.3 


665 


15.8 


- 


— 


— 


547 


12.9 


61 


1.4 


10.6 


11,547 


274.0 


404 


9.6 


3.5 



100,375 2,382.1 



194.7 



8.2 



' Includes 369 cases of suppurative conjunctivitis. 



81 



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82 



P.D. 34. 



hidex to Line Numbers in the Table of Cases and Deaths from Diseases Dangerous 

to the Public Health, 1926. 



Abington 


. 120 


Dunstable 


. 342 


Lexington 






Acton 


. 192 


Duxbury 


. 229 


Leyden . 






Acushnet 


. 139 






Lincoln . 






Adams 


. 65 


East Bridgewater 


. 151 


Littleton 






Agawam . 


. 110 


East Brookfield 


. 286 


Longmeadow . 






Alford . 


. 354 


East Longmeadow 


. 157 


Lowell 






Amesbury 


. 74 


Eastham 


. 321 


Ludlow . 






Amherst . 


. 117 


Easthampton . 


. 72 


Lunenburg 






Andover . 


. 76 


Easton 


. 124 


Lynn 






Arlington 


. 34 


Edgartown 


. 267 


Lynnfield 






Ashburnham 


. 204 


Egremont 


. 324 








Ashby 


. 290 


Enfield . 


. 303 


Maiden . 






Ashfield . 


. 287 


Erving 


. 260 


Manchester 






Ashland . 


. 186 


Essex 


. 256 


Mansfield 






Athol 


. 83 


Everett . 


. 30 


Marblehead 






Attleboro 


. 44 






Marion . 






Auburn . . . 


. 126 


Fairhaven 


. 73 


Marlborough . 






Avon 


. 195 


Fall River 


8 


Marshfield 






Ayer 


. 171 


Falmouth 
Fitchburg 


. 133 
26 


Mashpee 
Mattapoisett . 






Barnstable 


. 119 


Florida . 


. 336 


Maynard 






Barre 


. 156 


Foxborough 


. 129 


Medfield . 






Becket . 


. 298 


Framingham . 


. 42 


Medford . 






Bedford . 


. 242 


Franklin .. 


. 100 


Medway . 






Belchertown 


. 167 


Freetown 


. 231 


Melrose . 






Bellingham 


. 168 






Mendon . 






Belmont . 


. 52 


Gardner . 


48 


Merrimac 






Berkley . 

Berlin 

Bernardston 


. 273 
. 276 
. 292 


Gay Head 

Georgetown 

Gill 


. 358 
. 220 

. 288 


Methuen 

Middleborough 

Middlefield 






Beverly 


. 40 


Gloucester 


. 38 


Middleton 






Billerica . 


. 125 


Goshen 


. 349 


Milford . 






Blackstone 


. 134 


Gosnold . 


. 359 


Millbury 






Blandford 


. 330 


Grafton . 


. 101 


Minis 






Bolton 


. 294 


Granby . 


. 297 


Millville . 






Boston 


3 


Granville 


. 312 


Milton . 






Bourne . 
Boxborough 


. 166 
. 341 


Great Barrington 
Greenfield 


. 112 

. 58 


Monroe . 
Monson . 






Boxford . 


. 313 


Greenwich 


. 325 


Montague 






Boylston 


. 283 


Groton 


. 190 


Monterey 






Braintree 


63 


Groveland 


. 191 


Montgomery 






Brewster 


. 299 






Mount Washington 




Bridgewater 


. 81 


Hadley . 
Halifax 


. 175 






Brimfield 


. 293 


. 310 


Nahant . 




Brockton 


16 


Hamilton 


. 206 


Nantucket 






Brookfield 


. 254 


Hampden 
H^ancock 


. 308 


Natick 






Brookline 


27 


. 317 


Needham 






Buckland 


. 235 


Hanover 


. 181 


New Ashford 






Burlington 


. 240 


Hanson 


. 203 


New Bedford 










Hard, wick 


. 170 


New Braintree 




Cambridge 


9 


Harvard . 


. 309 


New Marlborough 




Canton . 


. 121 


Harwich, , . 


. 205 


New Salem 




Carlisle . 


. 318 


Hatfield '. 


. 184 


Newbury 




Carver 


. 255 


Haverhill 


24 


Newburyport 




Charlemont 


. 296 


Hawley . 
Heath 


. 339 


Newton . 




Charlton 


. 199 


. 345 


Norfolk . 




Chatham 


. 228 


Hingham 
Hinsdale 


. 115 


North Adams . 




Chelmsford 


. 104 


. 282 


North Andover 




Chelsea . 


23 


Holbrook 


. 159 


North Attleborough 




Cheshire . 


. 216 


Holden 


. 152 


North Brookfield 




Chester . 


. 238 


Holland '. '. 


. 361 


North Reading 




Chesterfield 


. 326 


Holliston 


. 180 


Northampton . 




Chicopee 


28 


Holyoke . 
Hopedale 
Hopkinton 
Hubbardston 


18 


Northborough 






Chilmark 


. 351 


. 161 


Northbridge 






Clarksburg 
Clinton . 


. 268 
. 62 


. 185 
. 280 


Northfield 
Norton . 






Cohasset 


. 173 


H^udson 


92 


Norwell . 






Colrain . 


. 241 


Hull ; ; 

Huntington 
Ipswich . 


177 


Norwood 






Concord . 
Conway . 
Cummington . 


99 
. 289 
. 320 


; 236 
. 118 


Oak Bluffs 
Oakham . 






Dalton . 
Dana 


. 141 
. 305 


Kingston 


. 187 


Orange 
Orleans . 
Otis 
Oxford . 






Danvers . 
Dartmouth 


. 70 
. 82 


Lakeville 


. 251 






Dedham . 


. 60 


Lancaster 


. 183 








Deerfield 


. 172 


Lanesborough . 


. 271 


Palmer . 






Dennis 


. 224 


Lawrence 


15 


Paxton 






Dighton . 


. 155 


Lee 


. 145 


Peabody . 






Douglas . 


. 194 


Leicester 


. 140 


Pelham . 






Dover 


. 279 


Lenox 


. 174 


Pembroke 






Dracut 


. 107 


Leominster 


. 41 


Pepperell 






Dudley . 


. 135 


Leverett . 


. 306 


Peru 







P.D. 34. 



83 



Petersham 

Phillipston 

Pittsfield 

Plainfield 

Plainville 

Plymouth 

Plympton 

Prescott . 

Princeton 

Provincetown 

Quincy . 

Randolph 

Raynham 

Reading . 

Rehoboth 

Revere 

Richmond 

Rochester 

Rockland 

Rockport 

Rowe 

Rowley . 

Royalston 

Russell 

Rutland . 

Salem 

Salisbury 

Sandisfield 

Sandwich 

Saugus 

Savoy 

Scituate . 

Seekonk . 

Sharon 

Sheffield . 

Shelburne 

Sherborn 

Shirley 

Shrewsbury 



304 
334 

25 
348 
243 

68 
319 
353 
300 
149 

17 

123 
202 

89 
197 

33 
307 
277 

95 
146 
346 
250 
295 
253 
200 

29 
221 
323 
246 

69 
333 
182 
136 
160 
232 
239 
301 
193 
114 



Shutesbury 


356 


Wareham 






122 


Somerset 


128 


Warren . 






144 


Somerville 


13 


Warwick 






337 


South Hadley . 


. 103 


Washington 






352 


Southampton . 


285 


Watertown 






35 


Southborough . 


. 207 


Wayland 






201 


Southbridge 


. 55 


Webster . 






66 


Southwick 


264 


Wellesley 






80 


Spencer . 


108 


Wellfleet . 






302 


Springfield 


7 


Wendell . 






331 


Sterling . 


237 


Wenham 






274 


Stockbridge 


222 


West Boylston 




213 


Stoneham 


85 


West Bridgewater 




164 


Stoughton 


94 


West Brookfield 




261 


Stow . 


272 


West Newbury 




262 


Sturbridge 


217 


West Springfield 




56 


Sudbury . 


249 


West Stockbridge 




266 


Sunderland 


263 


West Tisbury . 




343 


Sutton 


208 


Westborough 






111 


Swampscott 


87 


Westfield 






47 


Swansea . 


154 


Westford 
Westhampton 






150 
340 


Taunton . 


31 


Westminster 






212 


Templeton 


138 


Weston . 






169 


Tewksbury State Infirmarj 


366 


Westport 






137 


Tewksbury 


130 


Westwood 






225 


Tisbury . 


247 


Weymouth 






50 


Tolland . 


360 


Whately . 






269 


Topsfield 


291 


Whitman 






98 


Townsend 


214 


Wilbraham 






179 


Truro 


322 


Williamsburg 






210 


Tyngsborough . 


275 


Williamstown 






142 


Tyringham 


347 


Wilmington 
Winchendon 
Winchester 






148 

116 

71 


Upton 


209 


Windsor . 






335 


Uxbridge 


113 


Winthrop 
Woburn . 






53 

49 


Wakefield 


54 


Worcester 






5 


Wales 


327 


Worthington 






328 


Walpole . 


105 


Wrentham 






158 


Waltham 


32 






Ware . . . . 


90 


Yarmouth 






234 



84 



P.D. 34. 











Coses and Deaths from Diseases Dangerous 








22 


25A 


10 


24 


25B 


40 








An- 






Ep. 
Cere- 


Ger- 








Popu- 
lation 


terior 
Polio- 


Chicken 
Pox. 


Diph- 
theria. 


bro- 
spinal 


man 
Mea- 


Gonor- 
rhea. 




Cities and Towns grouped 


esti- 
mated 

as of 
July 1, 

1926. 


rnye- 
litis. 






Menin- 


sles. 






IN Order of Population. 








gitis. 






6 
g 




i 


£ 

^ 
» 






i 


i 


J3 
1 


i 


i 


i 


1 


3 






o 


Q 


O Q 


o 


Q 


o 


Q 


o 


Q 


Q 


Q 


~T 


Massachusetts 


4,213,693 


245 


44 


8284 


7 


3401 


243 


116 


43 


6236 


3 


4920 


14 


2 


Cities of over 500,000. 






























3 


Boston .... 




787,134 


13 


7 


2113 


4 


897 


54 


38 


26 


2039 


1 


2630 


1 


4 


Cities of over 150,000. 






























6 


Worcester 




193,376 


35 


7 


343 


- 


288 


17 


6 


1 


723 


- 


276 


- 


6 


Cities 100,000-150,000. 




831,406 


65 


9 


1341 


- 


609 


68 


22 


6 


522 


- 


858 


9 


7 


Springfield 




145,029 


41 


4. 


302 


- 


48 


6 


3 


3 


39 


- 


287 


3 


8 


Fall River 




131,018 


5 


2 


97 


- 


150 


18 


6 


2 


7 


- 


88 


1 


9 


Cambridge 




122,044 


4 


- 


491 


- 


49 


1 


5 


_ 


293 


- 


137 


3 


10 


New Bedford . . 




119,140 


- 


- 


111 


- 


116 


18 


- 


- 


16 


- 


65 


2 


11 


Lowell .... 




109,711 


5 


2 


83 


- 


74 


6 


1 


- 


11 


- 


141 


- 


12 


Lynn .... 




104,017 


3 


. - 


105 


- 


90 


9 


5 


1 


32 


- 


102 


- 


13 


Somerville 




100,447 


7 


1 


152 


- 


82 


10 


2 


- 


124 


- 


38 


- 


14 


Cities 50,000-100,000. 




389,576 


S3 


3 


641 


- 


283 


33 


9 


3 


387 


1 


169 


1 


15 


Lawrence .... 




93,352 


1 


1 


125 


- 


57 


8 


4 


1 


1 


- 


75 


1 


16 


Brockton .... 




65,127 


8 


- 


149 


- 


9 


1 


2 


- 


27 


- 


35 


- 


17 


Quincy . . . . 




62,955 


2 


- 


113 


- 


52 


3 


1 


- 


44 


- 


14 


- 


18 


Holyoke .... 




61,056 


1 


1 


41 


- 


110 


14 


1 


- 


4 


- 


22 


- 


19 


Newt6n .... 




54,658 


9 


- 


160 


- 


15 


1 


- 


- 


221 


1 


5 


- 


20 


Maiden .... 




52,428 


2 


1 


53 


- 


40 


6 


1 


2 


70 


- 


18 


- 


21 


Cities and Towns, 25,000-5 


D.OOO.' 


573,4^7 


30 


3 


1079 


2 


620 


35 


11 


1 


546 


- 


468 


1 


22 


Medford .... 




49,672 


2 


1 


144 


1 


25 


2 


2 


- 


259 


- 


16 


- 


23 


Chelsea .... 




48,213 


1 


- 


74 


- 


31 


2 


1 


1 


2 


- 


22 


- 


24 


Haverhill .... 




48,125 


3 


- 


162 


- 


87 


3 


1 


- 


13 


- 


179 


- 


25 


Pittsfield .... 




48,093 


8 


2 


41 


- 


34 


2 


3 


- 


5 


- 


36 


- 


26 


Fitchburg 




44,223 


3 


- 


13 


- 


38 


5 


1 


- 


4 


- 


16 


- 


27 


Brookline 




43,856 


2 


- 


126 


- 


8 


- 


- 


- 


165 


- 


13 


- 


28 


Chicopee .... 




43,231 


1 


- 


10 


- 


53 


6 


- 


- 


4 




3 


- 


29 


Salem .... 




42,890 


1 


- 


38 


- 


154 


13 


1 


- 


8 


- 


1 


- 


30 


Everett .... 




42,536 


2 


'- 


24 


- 


40 


- 


2 


- 


12 


- 


43 


- 


31 


Taunton .... 




39,759 


1 


- 


6 




9 


1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


60 


1 


32 


Waltham .... 




35,658 


1 


- 


78 


- 


20 


1 


- 


- 


22 


- 


17 


- 


33 


Revere .... 




34,317 


2 


- 


28 


- 


100 


- 


- 


- 


15 


- 


35 


- 


34 


Arlington .... 




26,437 


2 


- 


305 


- 


12 


- 


- 


- 


31 




8 


- 


35 


Watertown 




26,437 


1 


- 


30 


1 


9 


- 


- 


- 


5 




19 


- 


36 


Cities and Towns, 10,000-2c 


,000.' 


668,442 


P 


13 


1521 


1 


405 


19 


22 


i 


1030 


; 


254 


1 


37 


Northampton 




24,667 


1 


- 


25 


- 


13 


1 


1 


1 


31 


- 


38 


- 


38 


Gloucester 




23,475 


- 


- 


7 


- 


25 


- 


1 


- 


3 


- 


10 


- 


39 


North Adams 




22,821 


- 


- 


4 


~ 


13 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


10 


- 


40 


Beverly .... 




22,714 


- 


- 


20 


1 


47 


1 


- 


- 


15 


- 


23 


— 


41 


Leominster 




22,685 


5 


1 


25 


- 


32 


5 


2 


1 


13 


- 


- 


- 


42 


Framingham . 




22,041 


- 


- 


33 


- 


8 


- 


- 


- 


31 


- 


68 


- 


43 


Methuen .... 




21,895 


- 


- 


84 


- 


11 


1 


- 


- 


36 


- 


- 


- 


44 


Attleboro .... 




20,834 


1 


- 


59 


- 


9 


- 


2 


- 


57 


1 


8 


- 


45 


Melrose .... 




20,631 


7 


3 


81 


- 


7 


- 


3 


1 


118 


- 


8 


- 


46 


Peabody .... 




19,945 


1 


- 


33 


- 


17 


- 


1 


- 


3 


- 


6 


- 


47 


Westfield .... 




19,517 


1 


1 


16 


- 


8 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


48 


Gardner .... 




19,149 


7 


1 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


24 


- 


49 


Woburn .... 




18,798 


4 


1 


7 


- 


5 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


SO 


Weymouth 




17,775 


- 


- 


13 


- 


5 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


51 


Marlborough . 




16,522 


- 


- 


30 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


26 


- 


5 


- 


52 


Belmont .... 




16,329 


- 


- 


103 


- 


6 


- 


- 


- 


64 


- 


6 


- 


53 


Winthrop .... 




16,324 


- 


- 


20 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


94 


- 


4 


- 


54 


Wakefield 




16,226 


- 


1 


19 


- 


25 


- 


- 


- 


41 


- 


2 


- 


65 


Southbridge 




15,784 


4 


2 


- 


- 


15 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


4 


— 


56 


West Springfield 




15,773 


1 


- 


18 


- 


5 


- 


1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


57 


Newburyport . 




15,665 


- 


- 


31 


- 


3 


- 


2 


- 


12 


- 


1 


- 


58 


Greenfield 




15,195 


5 


2 


350 


- 


6 


1 


- 


- 


41 


- 


6 


- 


59 


Milford .... 




15,091 


1 


- 


11 


- 


5 


- 


3 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


60 


Dedham .... 




14,662 


- 


- 


31 


- 


21 


1 


- 


- 


37 


- 


- 


- 


61 


Norwood .... 




14,512 


- 


- 


11 


- 


11 


- 


- 


- 


6 


- 


- 


- 


62 


Clinton .... 




14,465 


- 


- 


43 


- 


5 


- 


2 


1 


19 


- 


3 


- 


63 


Braintree .... 




13,814 


- 


- 


49 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


53 


- 


2 


- 


64 


Milton .... 




13,689 


- 


- 


42 


- 


5 


- 


- 


- 


88 


- 


- 


- 


65 


Adams .... 




13,657 


- 


- 


6 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


66 


Webster .... 




13,419 


2 


- 


21 


- 


8 


- 


- 


- 


108 


- 


- 


- 


67 


Natick .... 




13,337 


- 


- 


23 


- 


3 


1 


- 


- 


8 


- 


- 


- 


68 


Plymouth 




13,206 


1 


- 


54 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


1 


- 


69 


Saugus .... 




13,187 


2 


- 


10 


- 


3 


- 


1 


- 


11 


- 


- 


- 


70 


Danvers .... 




11,962 


1 


- 


32 


- 


15 


- 


- 


- 


28 


- 


1 


- 


71 


Winchester 




11,821 


1 


- 


54 


- 


7 


1 


- 


- 


43 


- 


4 


- 


72 


Easthampton . 




11,663 


- 


- 


6 


- 


12 


- 


1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


73 


Fairhaven 




11,568 


- 


- 


52 


- 


6 


1 


- 


- 


4 


- 


2 


- 


74 


Amesbury 




11,513 


- 


- 


14 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


14 


1 


75 


Palmer .... 




11,317 


1 1 - 


101 - 


231 3 


- 1 - 


~ 


1 



P.D. 34. 

to the Public Health, 1926. 



85 



11 


101 


7 


13 


40A 


8 


38 


31 


32-37 


1 


S 






Influ- 
enza. 


Lobar 
Pneu- 
monia. 


Measles. 


Mumps 


Oph- 
thalmia 
Neona- 
torum. 


Scarlet 
Fever. 


Syphi- 
lis. 


Tuber- 
culosis, 
Pulmo- 
nary. 


Tuber- 
culosis, 
Other 
Forms. 


Ty- 
phoid 
Fever. 


Whoop- 
ing 
Cough. 






ai 




in 




m 




tJ 




m 




m 




m 




IB 




m 




m 




m 


d 

2: 




j: 




J3 




J3 




JS 




,£) 




JS 




J3 




J3 




ja 




ja 




J3 


i 


s 




g 




1 


s 
§ 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


03 


1 


i 


1 


03 


1 


S 
S 


1 


1 

C3 


2 


a 


o. 


Q 


o 


Q 





Q 





Q 





Q 





Q 





Q 





Q 





Q 





Q 





Q 


3 


2l93 


736 


5134 


2380 


30020 


367 


5117 


1 


1832 


- 


11323 


113 


1904 


160 


5444 


2952 


874 


527 


547 


61 


11547 


404 


2 
3 

A 


408 


75 


1570 


592 


4321 


60 


1581 


- 


1099 


- 


2798 


38 


944 


64 


1843 


670 


285 


109 


106 


15 


3551 


110 


108 


19 


319 


156 


1035 


17 


54 


_ 


126 


_ 


476 


4 


178 


13 


268 


130 


52 


36 


14 


1 


365 


11 


5 


S62 


139 


994 


383 


5697 


114 


673 


- 


241 


- 


2520 


21 


322 


21 


1117 


528 


268 


127 


113 


18 


2028 


74 


6 


49 


25 


181 


69 


2156 


30 


43 


- 


16 


- 


197 


3 


128 


5 


151 


72 


32 


22 


5 


1 


336 


10 


7 


95 


23 


119 


59 


832 


34 


116 


- 


63 


- 


114 


1 


31 


6 


211 


121 


23 


25 


21 


1 


214 


18 


8 


100 


5 


250 


71 


741 


3 


356 


1 


19 


- 


338 


2 


46 


1 


204 


97 


38 


13 


17 


6 


779 


17 


9 


19 


43 


110 


42 


678 


22 


36 


- 


113 


- 


462 


5 


34 


2 


199 


96 


98 


27 


11 


1 


118 


13 


10 


26 


9 


66 


34 


227 


10 


6 


- 


10 


- 


302 


3 


67 


2 


114 


67 


40 


28 


14 


4 


66 


3 


11 


14 


14 


133 


57 


504 


7 


69 


- 


7 


- 


611 


3 


8 


3 


139 


42 


19 


9 


34 


4 


332 


9 


12 


59 


20 


135 


51 


559 


8 


47 


- 


13 


- 


496 


4 


8 


2 


99 


33 


18 


3 


11 


1 


181 


4 


13 


52 


47 


319 


178 


3494 


16 


841 


- 


246 


- 


828 


10 


145 


4 


376 


155 


59 


47 


50 


5 


890 


19 


14 


4 


6 


38 


21 


69 


2 


34 


- 


94 


- 


119 


2 


68 


1 


79 


34 


14 


10 


26 


1 


97 


3 


15 


2 


8 


79 


28 


831 


2 


85 


- 


129 


- 


106 


1 


57 


- 


78 


20 


4 


5 


5 


- 


158 


2 


16 


10 


9 


43 


29 


204 


1 


141 


- 


3 


_ 


249 


3 


5 


2 


68 


25 


17 


4 


8 


- 


63 


3 


17 


- 


7 


29 


41 


409 


6 


_ 


- 


1 


- 


27 


- 


11 


1 


53 


44 


6 


18 


3 


1 


23 


- 


18 


11 


9 


63 


30 


1630 


2 


550 


- 


2 


- 


152 


1 


2 


- 


39 


16 


8 


6 


4 


3 


296 


- 


19 


25 


8 


67 


29 


351 


3 


31 


- 


17 


_ 


173 


3 


2 


- 


69 


16 


10 


4 


4 


- 


253 


11 


20 


S61 


108 


721 


341 


3330 


43 


635 


- 


48 


- 


1717 


9 


103 


22 


662 


278 


79 


60 


62 


4 


14I6 


49 


21 


26 


8 


59 


18 


376 


2 


127 


- 


3 


- 


175 


1 


3 


- 


65 


18 


6 


2 


13 


1 


253 


7 


22 


22 


9 


93 


33 


199 


- 


15 


- 


6 


- 


143 


1 


6 


3 


76 


51 


1 


7 


10 


1 


58 


2 


23 


74 


11 


131 


32 


147 


2 


168 


- 


9 


- 


103 


2 


31 


1 


59 


17 


8 


3 


3 


- 


77 


1 


24 


23 


15 


47 


44 


166 


1 


14 


- 


- 


_ 


245 


_ 


11 


1 


58 


30 


6 


11 


5 


- 


11 


- 


25 


5 


2 


69 


42 


589 


10 


16 


- 


4 


- 


26 


- 


7 


2 


36 


28 


6 


4 


6 


1 


15 


5 


26 


18 


7 


39 


16 


325 


- 


88 


- 


2 


- 


100 


- 


5 


1 


39 


16 


4 


5 


2 


- 


282 


1 


27 


1 


13 


24 


15 


187 


11 


- 


_ 


2 


_ 


20 


_ 


12 


_ 


38 


26 


8 


4 


1 


- 


25 


5 


28 


32 


15 


34 


23 


157 


3 


25 


- 


- 


- 


78 


- 


- 


4 


28 


10 


8 


7 


2 


- 


88 


5 


29 


14 


3 


52 


15 


188 


3 


22 


- 


14 


- 


300 


- 


8 


2 


71 


21 


8 


1 


7 


- 


58 


3 


30 


5 


14 


41 


37 


92 


8 


_ 


- 


_ 


_ 


62 


_ 


_ 


2 


42 


30 


2 


4 


_ 


- 


17 


7 


31 


12 


5 


37 


27 


274 


2 


85 


- 


1 


- 


94 


3 


3 


5 


39 


12 


15 


9 


5 


1 


240 


7 


32 


11 


2 


38 


13 


96 


- 


19 


- 


2 


- 


150 


- 


7 


- 


37 


5 


4 


- 


3 


- 


20 


3 


33 


11 


2 


21 


11 


399 


1 


52 


- 


2 


_ 


103 


1 


4 


_ 


52 


9 


1 


1 


5 


- 


230 


3 


34 


7 


2 


36 


15 


135 


- 


4 


- 


3 


- 


118 


1 


6 


1 


22 


5 


2 


2 


- 


- 


62 


- 


35 


403 


161 


765 


341 


5440 


es 


879 


- 


S3 


- 


1805 


16 


98 


16 


600 


385 


60 


66 


89 


10 


1743 


52 


36 


28 


12 


29 


9 


195 


3 


4 


- 


1 


- 


58 


1 


6 


4 


31 


62 


2 


5 


1 


1 


96 


1 


37 


1 


9 


19 


13 


8 


1 


46 


- 


3 


- 


21 


- 


1 


- 


10 


12 


- 


1 


1 


- 


13 


3 


38 


3 


4 


7 


6 


78 


_ 


_ 


- 


1 


- 


7 


- 


6 


- 


13 


9 


4 


4 


11 


- 


3 


1 


39 


4 


5 


48 


17 


173 


- 


23 


- 


- 


- 


50 


- 


15 


1 


23 


5 


2 


2 


1 


- 


36 


2 


40 


7 


3 


44 


19 


1086 


19 


39 


- 


1 


- 


10 


- 


- 


3 


21 


5 


2 


4 


- 


- 


13 


- 


41 


8 


15 


25 


19 


129 


2 


5 


- 


1 


- 


54 


_ 


24 


- 


25 


11 


4 


4 


2 


1 


58 


1 


42 


5 


4 


14 


4 


32 


- 


50 


- 


2 


- 


60 


- 


- 


- 


16 


11 


2 


2 


1 


- 


74 


_ 


43 


20 


6 


18 


11 


287 


3 


6 


_ 


_ 


_ 


66 


_ 


_ 


_ 


46 


45 


3 


1 


_ 


_ 


181 


8 


44 


14 


6 


31 


5 


113 


1 


6 


- 


10 


- 


49 


1 


2 


- 


20 


7 


3 


1 


6 


1 


64 


1 


45 


1 


- 


19 


13 


222 


2 


23 


- 


1 


- 


28 


- 


5 


- 


17 


6 


5 


2 


- 


- 


47 


4 


46 


- 


1 


16 


13 


234 


4 


- 


- 


1 


- 


18 


- 


1 


- 


36 


13 


- 


1 


3 


1 


18 


3 


47 


1 


6 


12 


7 


9 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


17 


1 


13 


3 


44 


17 


2 


1 


5 


3 


3 


1 


48 


6 


13 


17 


7 


4 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


19 


- 


- 


- 


8 


7 


2 


3 


- 


- 


5 


1 


49 


3 


3 


3 


8 


56 


_ 


10 


- 


_ 


- 


115 


1 


- 


1 


9 


6 


1 


4 


2 


- 


3 


_ 


50 


- 


3 


14 


3 


200 


1 


5 


- 


1 


- 


22 


- 


5 


- 


13 


8 


1 


2 


1 


- 


47 


2 


51 


10 


2 


12 


3 


177 


- 


58 


_ 


- 


_ 


27 


_ 


3 


_ 


17 


8 


2 


_ 


21 


_ 


209 


2 


52 


3 


- 


13 


6 


298 


1 


34 


- 


1 


- 


84 


1 


4 


- 


9 


- 


2 


- 


2 


- 


44 


- 


53 


1 


2 


28 


7 


41 


- 


14 


- 


- 


- 


91 


1 


- 


- 


10 


7 


- 


2 


2 


- 


22 


1 


54 


4 


3 


14 


9 


181 


4 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


1 


_ 


1 


- 


13 


5 


1 


_ 


2 


- 


4 


_ 


55 


6 


4 


11 


10 


69 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


35 


1 


_ 


- 


16 


1 


- 


- 


2 


- 


24 


1 


56 


22 


3 


36 


6 


121 


1 


8 


-■ 


1 


_ 


41 


1 


_ 


_ 


7 


1 


1 


5 


1 


1 


50 


1 


57 


23 


3 


18 


6 


47 


- 


8 


- 


3 


- 


57 


- 


3 


- 


10 


11 


1 


- 


2 


1 


224 


4 


58 


- 


2 


9 


15 


9 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


12 


- 


- 


- 


15 


11 


2 


3 


4 


- 


1 


- 


59 


5 


2 


3 


5 


62 


- 


4 


_ 


- 


- 


68 


_ 


_ 


_ 


2 


2 


1 


- 


_ 


- 


19 


_ 


60 


- 


4 


9 


2 


25 


1 


78 


- 


1 


- 


72 


- 


- 


- 


12 


2 


1 


3 


2 


- 


14 


- 


61 


- 


1 


76 


23 


313 


2 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 


26 


1 


_ 


_ 


10 


2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


2 


2 


62 


15 


2 


3 


6 


64 


1 


10 


- 


1 


.- 


106 


2 


- 


_ 


8 


32 


1 


- 


1 


- 


30 


_ 


63 


5 


1 


11 


11 


30 


1 


34 


- 


1 


- 


26 


_ 


_ 


1 


9 


3 




_ 




_ 


69 


_ 


64 


1 


1 


9 


5 


19 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


8 


_ 


_ 


_ 


20 


3 


_ 


1 


_ 


_ 


10 


1 


65 


1 


2 


10 




209 


3 


16 


- 


- 


- 


13 


- 


- 


- 


7 


6 


1 


- 


- 


- 


17 


- 


66 


7 


9 


12 




38 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 


- 


28 


_ 


1 


_ 


12 


3 


1 


3 


1 


_ 


■51 


4 


67 


- 


12 


6 




6 


2 


1 


- 


- 


- 


10 


- 


- 


- 


14 


4 


_ 


3 


- 


_ 


18 


2 


68 


19 


2 


22 




141 


6 


9 


_ 


_ 


_ 


30 


_ 


_ 


_ 


9 


3 


_ 


_ 


3 


_ 


27 


1 


69 


14 


1 


14 


11 


122 


_ 


20 


- -1 


_ 


47 


_ 


_ 


3 


17 


28 


1 


1 


2 


_ 


27 




70 


13 


- 


13 




20 


_ 


187 




- 


- 


34 


1 


3 


_ 


14 


7 


3 


2 


1 


_ 


55 


1 


71 


- 


- 


47 




63 


2 


1 


- 


1 


_ 


36 


2 


1 


- 


9 


6 


1 


1 


_ 


- 


39 


1 


72 


2 


4 


6 




126 


1 


- 


- 


2 


- 


55 


- 


- 


- 


9 


3 


4 


2 


6 


1 


17 


_ 


73 


25 


5 


35 


9 


25 


- 


1 


- 


_ 


- 


34 


1 


3 


_ 


2 


_ 


2 


2 




_ 


70 


3 


74 


~ 


1 


_2_ 


79 


3 


2 


- 


- 


- 


5 


- 


1 


- 


4 


6 


- 


1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


75 



86 



P.D. 34. 

Cases and Deaths from Diseases Dangerous 









22 


25A 


10 


24 


25B 


40 






Popu- 


An- 
terior 
Polio- 


Chicken 


Diph- 


Ep. 

Cere- 
bro- 


Ger- 
man 


Gonor- 






lation 


Pox. 


theria. 


spinal 


Mea- 


rhea. 




Cities and Towns grouped 
IN Order of Population. 


esti- 
mated 

as of 
July 1, 


mye- 
litis. 








Menin- 
gitis. 


sles. 




6 






m 




m 




M 




m 




» 




to 






1926. 




1 


2 


1 


i 


J3 
1 


i 


.a 

ta 
a> 






§5 


1 


2 






o 


Q 


o 


Q 


o 


Q 


o 


P 


o 


Q 


o 


•Q 


~7B 


Andover 


10,772 


- 


- 


59 


- 


1 


- 




- 


29 


_ 


_ 


IT 


77 


Northbridge 




10,022 


1 


- 


12 


- 


5 


1 


_ 


_ 




_ 


1 


_ 


78 


Towns, 5,000-10,000. 




380,7S1 


12 


1 


705 


- 


187 


11 


6 


_ 


477 


_ 


151 


1 


79 


North Attleborough 




9,920 


1 


- 


14 


- 


8 


- 


- 


- 


7 


_ 






80 


Wellesley .... 




9,721 


- 


- 


31 


- 


1 


- 


- 


_ 


61 


_ 


_ 


_ 


81 


Bridgewater 






9,713 


_ 


- 


66 


_ 


_ 


- 


_ 


_ 


25 


_ 


9 


_ 


82 


Dartmouth 








9,629 


_ 


- 


8 


_ 


_ 


- 


_ 


_ 


1 


_ 




_ 


83 


Athol 








9,557 


_ 


- 


5 


_ 


21 


2 


1 


_ 


3 


_ 


4 


_ 


84 


Needham 








9,443 


_ 


- 


65 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


33 


_ 


1 


_. 


85 


Stoneham 








9,372 


_ 


- 


20 


_ 


2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1 


_ 




_ 


86 


Middleborough 








9,298 


3 


- 


29 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


66 


_ 


_ 


_ 


87 


Swampscott 








9,156 


- 


- 


111 


- 


5 


- 


1 


_ 


39 


_ 


_ 


_ 


88 


Ludlow 








9,118 


1 


~ 


6 


- 


14 


1 


- 


- 


1 


_ 


1 


_ 


89 


Reading . 








8,992 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


_ 


1 


_ 


4 


_ 




_ 


90 


Ware 








8,653 


- 


- 


8 


- 


2 


1 


- 


- 


1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


91 


Marblehead 








8,425 


_ 


- 


3 


_ 


3 


- 


_ 


_ 


28 


_ 


5 


_ 


92 


Hudson . 








8,255 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 




_ 


93 


Lexington 








8,125 


- 


- 


25 


- 


5 


- 


- 


- 


11 


_ 


_ 


_ 


94 


Stoughton 








8,092 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


95 


Rockland 








8,065 


- 


_ 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


96 


Montague 








8,043 


_ 


_ 


1 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


97 


Maynard . 








8,040 


_ 


_ 


5 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


98 


Whitman . 








8,025 


- 


- 


5 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 


99 


Concord . 








7,197 


_ 


_ 


33 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


6 


_ 


111 


_ 


100 


Franklin . 








7,187 


- 


- 


14 


- 


2 


- 


_ 


- 


3 


_ 


5 


_ 


101 


Grafton . 








6,993 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 




_ 




_ 


102 


North Andover 








6,975 


_ 


_ 


25 


_ 


3 


- 


- 


- 


16 


_ 


_ 


_ 


103 


South Hadley 








6,865 


- 


- 


15 


- 


6 


- 


- 


- 


5 


- 


_ 


_ 


104 


Chelmsford 








6,784 


- 


- 


40 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


12 


- 


_ 


_ 


105 


Walpole . 








6,760 


- 


_ 


11 


- 


9 


1 


1 


- 


1 


_ 


7 


_ 


106 


Mansfield . 








6,670 


- 


_ 


8 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


6 


- 


2 


_ 


107 


Dracut 








6,665 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 




_ 


108 


Spencer . 








6,664 


1 


- 


_ 


- 


24 


1 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


109 


Millbury . 








6,629 


1 


- 


9 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


41 


- 


_ 


_ 


110 


Agawam . 








6,591 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


111 


West borough 








6,480 


2 


- 


34 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


2 


- 


1 


_ 


112 


Great Barringt( 


)n 






6,426 


_ 


- 


3 


- 


38 


1 


- 


- 


17 


- 




1 


113 


Uxbridge . 








6,360 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


114 


Shrewsbury 








6,322 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


1 


2 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


_ 


115 


Hingham . 








6,288 


- 


- 


11 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


5 


- 


- 


- 


116 


Winchendon 








6,236 


1 


- 


3 


- 


3 


1 


- 


- 


13 


- 


_ 


_ 


117 


Amherst . 








6,071 


_ 


_ 


16 


- 


2 


- 


- 


_ 


1 


_ 


3 


_ 


118 


Ipswich 








6,020 


_ 


- 


12 


- 


7 


- 


- 


- 


10 


- 


_ 


_ 


119 


Barnstable 








5,996 


_ 


- 


2 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


120 


Abington . 








5,905 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


1 


- 


121 


Canton 








5,886 


- 


- 


21 


- 


5 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


1 


- 


122 


Wareham . 








5,874 


- 


1 


2 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


123 


Randolph 








5,854 


- 


- 


14 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


124 


Easton 








5,402 


- 


- 


11 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


125 


Billerica . 








5,214 


_ 


_ 


6 


- 


3 


1 


- 


- 


16 


- 


- 


_ 


126 


Auburn . 








5,173 


2 


- 


3 


- 


5 


- 


- 


- 


23 


- 


- 


- 


127 


Monson 








5,150 


_ 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


_ 


- 


_ 


_ 


128 


Somerset . 








5,127 


- 


- 


3 


- 


6 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


129 


Foxborough 








5,123 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


130 


Tewksbury 








5,111 


- 


- 


4 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


131 


Orange 








5,081 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


132 


Towns, 


2,50 


}-5,o6o. 




191,868 


9 


2 


m 


- 


70 


6 


1 


/ 


183 


- 


45 


- 


133 


Falmouth 








4,978 


- 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


134 


Blackstone 








4,921 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


135 


Dudley 








4,805 


4 


1 


5 


- 


3 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


136 


Seekonk . 








4,499 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


137 


Westport 








4,467 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 


1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


138 


Templeton 








4,451 


- 


- 


7 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


139 


Acushnet . 








4,387 


- 


- 


2 


- 


10 


i 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


140 


Leicester . 








4,223 


- 


- 


_ 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


141 


Dalton 








4,172 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


142 


Williamstown 








4,076 


- 


_ 


1 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


143 


Oxford 








4,074 


_ 


_ 


1 


_ 


4 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


144 


Warren 








4,064 


- 


- 


14 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


145 


Lee . 








4,052 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


146 


Rockport . 








3,965 


- 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


147 


Medfield . 








3,932 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


148 


Wilmington 








3,737 


- 


- 


- 


- 


9 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


149 


Provincetown 








3,679 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 



P.D. 34. 

to the Public Health, 1926 



8l 



Continued. 



11 


101 


7 




13 


40A 


8 


38 


31 


32-37 


1 


9 




Influ- 
enza. 


Lobar 
Pneu- 
monia. 


Measles. 


Mumps. 


Oph- 
thalmia 
Neona- 
torum. 


Scarlet 
Fever. 


Syphi- 
lis. 


Tuber- 
culosis, 
Pulmo- 
nary. 


Tuber- 
culosis, 
Other 
Forms. 


Ty- 
phoid 
Fever. 


Whoop- 
ing 
Cough. 




i 


1 


i 
S 


1 


8 


J3 

la 


i 


1 


8 


10 

i 


i 


1 


2 


.a 


i 


ta 


7 


i 








i 

^ 
o 


6 

a> 
a 


o 


Q 


O 


Q 


O 


Q 


o 


Q 


O 


Q 


o 


Q 


o 


Q 


o 


Q 


o 


Q 


o 


Q 


o 


Q 


3 


4 


4 


14 


~8" 


43 


- 


169 


- 


_ 


- 


53 


1 


_ 


_ 


2 


2 


2 




1 


- 


~iT 


- 


76 


22 


2 


17 


6 


286 


- 


5 


- 


- 


- 


12 


- 


- 


- 


11 


5 


- 


- 


2 


- 


20 


- 


77 


88 


75 


253 


170 


SS3S 


19 


196 


- 


17 


_ 


814 


9 


55 


r 


307 


189 


53 


35 


41 


3 


772 


51 


78 


2 


2 


9 


3 


238 


- 


5 


- 


- 


- 


10 


- 


- 


_ 


12 


4 


1 


1 




- 


44 


1 


79 


- 


3 


19 


6 


409 


- 


17 


- 


3 


- 


19 


- 


1 


- 


4 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


19 


1 


80 


- 


2 


19 


5 


194 


1 


11 


_ 


- 


- 


10 


- 


6 


2 


59 


13 


- 


2 


1 


1 


52 


2 


81 


1 


- 


3 


1 


122 


- 


_ 


- 


3 


- 


43 


- 


- 


- 


9 


4 


7 


2 


- 


- 


18 


- 


82 


- 


8 


2 


2 


4 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


14 


1 


- 


- 


4 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


6 


- 


83 


- 


- 


6 


5 


301 


- 


10 


- 


_ 


- 


56 


- 


1 


_ 


8 


2 


- 


2 


- 


- 


67 


- 


84 


- 


1 


12 


8 


23 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


27 


- 


- 


- 


7 


4 


1 


1 


3 


- 


36 


2 


85 


- 


- 


7 


3 


167 


- 


3 


_ 


- 


- 


6 


_ 


_ 


_ 


9 


3 


1 


- 


- 


- 


23 


3 


86 


- 


- 


5 


- 


111 


_ 


30 


- 


1 


- 


64 


1 


- 


- 


5 


5 


1 


- 


3 


1 


36 


- 


87 


- 


- 


6 


3 


130 


4 


1 


- 


1 


- 


4 


- 


2 


- 


12 


4 


- 


1 


1 


- 


68 


3 


88 


- 


- 


- 


4 


24 


1 


_ 


_ 


- 


- 


14 


- 


- 


_ 


5 


3 


_ 


1 


- 


- 


- 


4 


89 


- 


- 


3 


6 


47 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


3 


4 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


90 


- 


_ 


2 


6 


108 


_ 


2 


- 


_ 


- 


14 


- 


_ 


_ 


5 


4 


_ 


1 


1 


- 


6 


2 


91 


2 


5 


3 


2 


7 


_ 


11 


- 


- 


- 


19 


3 


- 


- 


12 


4 


- 


1 


- 


- 


1 


3 


92 


- 


- 


3 


1 


129 


1 


4 


- 


1 


- 


41 


- 


1 


- 


13 


6 


- 


2 


1 


- 


49 


- 


93 


- 


1 


1 


6 


21 


1 


45 


- 


- 


- 


13 


- 


- 


- 


7 


3 


3 


1 


1 


- 


4 


- 


94 


- 


3 


11 


3 


14 


1 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


9 


- 


- 


- 


6 


3 


- 


1 


- 


- 


13 


- 


95 


1 


5 


- 


6 


2 


_ 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


8 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


1 


96 


- 


- 


1 


2 


69 


1 


_ 


_ 


- 


- 




- 


2 


_ 


5 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


9 


1 


97 


- 


- 


4 


4 


1 


_ 


1 


- 


- 


- 


10 


- 


- 


- 


3 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


24 


1 


98 


19 


2 


4 


1 


148 


_ 


9 


_ 


_ 


_ 


12 


_ 


41 


_ 


7 


2 


6 


1 


15 


- 


6 


1 


99 


- 


1 


10 


3 


99 


_ 


3 


_ 


1 


- 


41 


_ 


- 


_ 


2 


1 


_ 


_ 


- 


- 


28 


1 


100 


- 


1 


- 


7 


- 


_ 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


1 


1 


22 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


101 


- 


- 


3 


1 


_ 


_ 


4 


_ 


_ 


_ 


21 


_ 


_ 


_ 


6 


1 


_ 


1 


- 


- 


18 


1 


102 


1 


- 


- 


2 


129 


1 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


7 


- 


- 


- 


4 


1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


4 


- 


103 


- 


1 


8 


2 


156 


1 


3 


- 


- 


_ 


42 


1 


1 


- 


4 


4 


2 


1 


4 


- 


6 


1 


104 


- 


- 


13 


1 


82 


- 


9 


- 


- 


- 


14 


- 


- 


- 


4 


1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


31 


3 


105 


2 


1 


5 


2 


34 


_ 


3 


- 


1 


_ 


19 


_ 


- 


- 


6 


4 


- 


1 


- 


- 


2 


- 


106 


- 


2 


- 


1 


- 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


1 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


107 


2 


1 


6 


3 


23 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


3 


_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


2 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


108 


3 


2 


4 


1 


74 


1 


_ 


_ 


- 


_ 


31 


- 


- 


- 


2 


3 


_ 


- 


1 


- 


22 


- 


109 


1 


2 


4 


4 


28 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


6 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


110 


7 


5 


1 


12 


210 


_ 


2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


47 


- 


- 


1 


7 


9 


- 


- 


- 


- 


28 


11 


111 


- 


- 


2 


3 


6 


_ 


8 


_ 


- 


- 


9 


- 


- 


- 


3 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


112 


- 


3 


5 


4 


34 


- 


_ 


- 


1 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


6 


4 


1 


1 


1 


- 


2. 


- 


113 


- 


2 


- 


- 


9 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


1 


2 


_ 


1 


- 


- 


- 


1 


114 


- 


1 


10 


2 


120 


_ 


2 


- 


- 


- 


8 


- 


- 


- 


5 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


44 


1 


115 


12 


2 


4 


7 


22 


_ 




_ 


_ 


_ 


26 


1 


_ 


- 


7 


2 


_ 


1 


3 


- 


1 


- 


116 


4 


2 


20 


3 


16 


_ 


1 


_ 


- 


_ 


14 


- 


- 


- 


4 


1 


- 


- 


2 


1 


10 


1 


117 


3 


2 


5 


1 


58 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


32 


- 


- 


- 


10 


2 


2 


1 


1 


- 


15 


1 


118 


7 


8 


4 


5 


4 


_ 


2 


_ 


1 


_ 


7 


_ 


- 


1 


5 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


119 


- 


1 


- 


4 


_ 


1 


_ 


_ 


- 


_ 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


120 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


47 




4 


_ 


_ 


_ 


12 


1 


_ 


- 


12 


6 


24 


1 


- 


- 


11 


- 


121 


- 


- 


_ 


1 


49 


1 




_ 


1 


_ 


9 


- 


- 


- 


4 


6 


1 


1 


2 


- 


- 


- 


122 


2 


- 


5 


3 


32 


_ 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


19 


- 


- 


- 


7 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


1 


123 


1 


2 


6 


1 


83 


_ 


2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


8 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


1 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


124 


18 


1 


17 


3 


76 


_ 


1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


20 


- 


- 


- 


2 


4 


1 


1 


- 


- 


23 


2 


125 


- 


- 


- 


1 


78 


1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1 


- 


- 


- 


6 


1 


- 


2 


- 


- 


37 


1 


126 


- 


- 


_ 


4 






_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


- 


2 


_ 


3 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


127 


- 


_ 


- 


1 


64 


3 


_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


4 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


1 


128 


: 


- 


1 


5 


3 
23 




- 


- 


- 


- 


11 


- 


- 


: 


- 


12 


- 


: 


: 


- 


- 


- 


129 
130 


- 


3 


- 


6 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


131 


375 


57 


75 


100 


1137 


15 


165 


_ 


13 


_ 


283 


2 


29 


3 


106 


123 


8 


15 


18 


2 


303 


17 


132 


- 


1 


1 


1 

1 


20 


- 


25 


- 


- 


- 


7 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


21 


1 
1 


133 
134 


1 


2 


2 


1 


9 


3 


10 


_ 


- 


_ 


8 


- 


- 


- 


5 


6 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


135 


- 


1 


- 


2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1 


- 


- 


- 


1 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


136 


1 


2 


_ 


1 


52 


2 


1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


11 


- 


- 


- 


5 


3 


_ 


_ 


- 


- 


14 


3 


137 


- 


3 


7 


3 


132 


2 


1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


7 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


_ 


1 


- 


3 


- 


138 


1 


2 


- 


_ 


16 


_ 


1 


_ 


- 


- 


13 


- 


- 


- 


9 


2 


1 


2 


- 


- 


5 


- 


139 


_ 


1 


_ 


2 




_ 




_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


_ 


_ 


- 


_ 


- 


1 


140 


- 


4 


_ 


2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


141 


- 


3 


- 


1 


54 


_ 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


8 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


- 


1 


142 


- 


_ 


_ 


2 


30 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


18 


- 


- 


- 


1 


2 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


143 


3 


- 


7 


3 


42 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


2 


- 


1 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


144 


_ 


2 




2 


1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


12 


_ 


_ 




_ 


5 


_ 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


2 


145 


- 


1 


_ 


2 


2 


_ 


4 - 


2 


_ 


3 


- 


- 


- 


1 


7 


- 


- 


2 


- 


14 


2 


146 


_ 


1 


4 


8 


48 


_ 


26 - - 


- 


15 


- 


- 


1 


9 


18 


- 


3 


1 


- 


- 


- 147 


_ 


2 


_ 


3 


'_ 




_ 


6 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 


4 


- 


- 


- 


7 


- 148 


- 


2 


- 


3 4 


- 


- - - 


- 


10 1 - 


- 1 - 


1 


3 


- 


- 


- 


5 


- 149 



88 



P.D. 34. 

Cases and Deaths from Diseases Dangerous 





Cities and Towns grouped 
IN Order of Population. 


Popu- 
lation 

esti- 
mated 

as of 
July 1. 

1926. 


22 

An- 
terior 
Polio- 
mye- 
litis. 


25A 

Chicken 
Pox. 


10 

Diph- 
theria. 


24 

Ep. 
Cere- 
bro- 
spinal 
Menin- 
gitis. 


25B 

Ger- 
man 
Mea- 
sles. 


40 

Gonor- 
rhea. 


o 
a 

a 


i 

o 


J3 

Q 


a) 

o 


Q 


6 


i 


1 

6 


Q 


J 


1 

Q 


J 


1 
Q 


150 
151 

152 
153 
154 
155 
156 
157 
158 
159 
160 
161 
162 
163 
164 
165 
166 
167 
168 
169 
170 
171 
172 
173 
174 
175 
176 
177 
178 
179 
180 
181 
182 
183 
184 
185 
186 
187 
188 
189 
190 
191 
192 
193 
194 
195 
196 
197 
198 
199 
200 
201 
202 
203 
204 
205 
206 
207 
208 
209 
210 
211 
212 
213 
214 
215 
216 
217 
218 
219 
220 
221 
222 
223 


Westford 

East Bridgewater .... 

Holden 

Longmeadow 

Swansea 

Dighton 

Barre 

East Longmeadow .... 

Wrentham 

Holbrook 

Sharon 

Hopedale 

Nantucket 

Medway 

West Bridgewater .... 
North Brookfield .... 

Bourne 

Belchertown 

Bellingham 

Weston 

Hardwick 

Ayer 

Deerfield 

Cohasset 

Lenox ...... 

Hadley 

Norton 

Hull 

Pepperell 

Wilbraham 

Holliston 

Hanover 

Scituate 

Lancaster 

Hatfield 

Hopkinton 

Ashland 

Kingston 

Manchester 

Towns under 2,500. 
Groton . . • . 

Groveland 

Acton 

Shirley 

Douglas 

Avon ..... 

Millville 

Rehoboth 

Merrimac ...... 

Charlton 

Rutland 

Wayland 

Raynham 

Hanson . . . . . 

Ashburnham 

Harwich 

Hamilton 

Southborough 

Sutton 

Upton 

Williamsburg 

Northborough 

Westminster 

West Boylston 

Townsend 

Lunenburg 

Cheshire 

Sturbridge 

Marshfield 

MiUis 

Georgetown 

Salisbury 

Stockbridge 

Northfield 


3,666 
3,550 
3,546 
3,503 
3,468 
3,358 
3,323 
3,320 
3,310 
3,298 
3,274 
3,256 
3,236 
3,188 
3,171 
3,150 
3,129 
3,106 
3,062 
3,055 
3,037 
3,027 
3,007 
2,978 
2,943 
2,912 
2,862 
2,861 
2,853 
2,845 
2,836 
2,797 
2,755 
2,729 
2,714 
2,649 
2,576 
2,529 
2,507 
198,172 
2,485 
2,446 
2,440 
2,425 
2,405 
2,404 
2,399 
2,395 
2,389 
2,365 
2,353 
2,330 
2,230 
2,226 
2,194 
2,131 
2,109 
2,104 
2,078 
2,057 
2,023 
2,019 
2,012 
1,985 
1,970 
1,932 
1,929 
1,910 
1,872 
1,863 
1,861 
1,847 
1,845 
1,831 


1 

1 

1 

11 
1 

1 

1 

1 


1 


7 

5 

2 
31 

1 

4 

1 

2 
2 

4 
9 

23 
4 
2 

3 
4 

5 

3 

1 

10 

23 

329 
1 
4 

15 
14 
5 

6 

3 
17 

68 
8 
26 

14 
9 


- 


1 
1 

1 

6 
3 

3 

1 
2 

2 

8 

2 
1 

1 
1 

1 

4^ 

1 
1 

1 

2 
1 

1 
1 


- 


1 

1 


1 

1 

1 


1 
65 

2 
9 

11 

45 

1 

4 
1 

26 
4 
2 
2 

349 
1 

116 

1 

2 
12 

4 

5 

28 

111 

5 

2 

1 
2 


- 


3 

2 

1 

4 

1 

31 

6 

6 


- 



P.D. 34. 

to the Public Health, 1926 — Continued. 



89 





11 


101 




7 


13 


40A 


8 


38 


31 


32-37 


1 


9 




Influ- 
enza. 


Lobar 
Pneu- 
monia. 


Measles. 


Mumps 


Oph- 
thalmia 
Neona- 
torum. 


Scarlet 
Fever. 


Syphi- 
lis. 


Tuber- 
culosis, 
Pulmo- 
nary. 


Tuber- 
culosis, 
Other 
Forms. 


Ty- 
phoid 
Fever. 


Whoop- 
ing 
Cough. 






jn 




JS 




J3 




J3 








j: 




J3 




J3 




J3 




J3 




J3 


o 

2 


S 
S 


2 




s 


% 


2 




s 


"i 


g 


1 


t 




g 


S 


g 


0) 


s 




2 




s 


a 

a 


o 


« 


O 


o 


O 


(J 


O 


u 


o 


P 


O 


M 


O 


(J 


O 


u 


O 


u 


O 


M 


O 


w 


)-) 


_ 


_ 


_ 


3 


fi4 


1 


2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


12 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


_ 


2 


- 


150 


_ 


2 


_ 


4 


3 


_ 


- 


- 


1 


- 


fi 


_ 


- 


_ 


1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1 


_ 


- 


- 


151 


: 


: 


4 


1 
1 


71 


- 


3 


- 


1 


- 


5 
5 


- 


2 


- 


1 

1 


3 
1 


1 


- 


2 


- 


14 


1 


152 
153 
154 


- 


1 

2 


5 


3 
2 


3 


- 


- 


- 


8 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


3 


2 

1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


155 
156 


- 


3 


3 


_ 


11 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


1 


2 


1 


157 


34fi 


4 


18 


2 


fi 


1 


3 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


8 


4 


1 


1 


- 


- 


47 


- 


158 


_ 


_ 




7 


21 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


8 


_ 


_ 


_ 


2 


1 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 


- 


- 


159 


- 


- 


_ 


1 


fifi 


1 


10 


- 


- 


- 


14 


- 


- 


- 


8 


17 


1 


1 


- 


- 


fi 


1 


leo 


_ 


1 


2 


_ 


2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


fi 


1 


- 


_ 


2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


Ifil 


_ 


- 


_ 


1 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


2 


5 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


162 


_ 


_ 


_ 




4fi 


_ 


4 


_ 


_ 


_ 


7 


_ 


- 


_ 


1 


1 


_ 


1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


163 


_ 


_ 


1 


1 


15 


_ 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


1 


_ 


- 


- 


1 


- 


_ 


- 


_ 


_ 


9 


- 


164 


- 


- 


_ 


3 


15 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


4 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


165 


- 


2 


2 


8 


4 


_ 


« 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


4 


8 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


166 


_ 


_ 


_ 


3 


_ 


_ 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


2 


- 


2 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


167 


_ 


_ 


1 


1 


31 


1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


168 


3 


2 


2 


1 


27 


1 


12 


- 


- 


_ 


12 


_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


1 


_ 


_ 


3 


_ 


23 


- 


169 


- 


_ 


_ 


2 


5 


_ 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


1 


_ 


- 


1 


_ 


- 


- 


I/O 


_ 


_ 


1 


2 


4 


_ 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


3 


_ 


3 


_ 


1 


1 


_ 


_ 


1 


_ 


13 


- 


171 


S 


1 


4 


2 


4 


_ 


2 


_ 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


_ 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 


7 


- 


172 


1 


- 


- 


1 


33 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


1 


2 


- 


2 


2 


1 


14 


- 


173 


6 


1 
2 


1 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


9 


: 


1V4 
175 


2 


- 


_ 


2 


18 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


176 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1 


4 


_ 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


4 


1 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


7 


- 


177 


- 


2 


_ 


- 


1 


- 


_ 


_ 


- 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


_ 


1 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


1 


178 


_ 


2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


5 


_ 


_ 


_ 


5 


2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


179 


2 


2 


2 


_ 


9 


_ 


39 


_ 


_ 


_ 


15 


_ 


- 


_ 


2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


3fi 


- 


180 


- 


1 


_ 


1 


_ 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


5 


_ 


- 


_ 


- 


1 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


181 


_ 




_ 


2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


3 


1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1 


182 


« 1 


_ 


fi 


3 


124 


1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


3 


_ 


23 


1 


2 


_ 


_ 


- 


_ 


_ 


8 


- 


183 


- 


1 


1 


3 


_ 


_ 


* - 


- 


- 


_ 


4 


_ 


- 


_ 


2 


2 


_ 


_ 


- 


- 


3 


- 


184 


- 


- 


_ 


3 


12fi 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


in 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 


1 


- 


- 


- 


10 


- 


185 


- 


_ 


1 


_ 


3 


_ 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


15 


_ 


- 


_ 


_ 


1 


_ 


- 


- 


_ 


19 


- 


186 


- 


1 


_ 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


1 


1 


1 


1 


- 


_ 


4 


- 


187 


_ 




1 


1 


4 


_ 


15 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


3 


2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


188 


.95 


BS 


79 


97 


173^ 


15 


93 


- 


10 


- 


2fi2 


^ 


1 


4 


tl7 


Jt09 


J^ 


29 


53 


3 


481 


20 


189 


6 


- 


7 


1 


15 


- 




- 


- 


- 


_ 




- 




1 


3 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


190 


- 


1 


7 


1 


1 


- 


11 


- 


- 


- 


fi 


- 


- 


- 


1 


2 


- 


- 


1 


- 


2 


- 


191 


1 


1 


_ 


3 


51 


- 


1 


_ 


- 


- 


4 


_ 


- 


_ 


_ 


2 


_ 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


192 


43 


1 


3 


- 


7 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


193 


- 


1 




1 


fi 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


1 


_ 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


194 


- 


- 


- 


1 

1 


122 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


9 


- 


- 


- 


3 


1 


- 


1 


1 


- 


42 


2 


195 
196 


- 


1 


_ 


1 


5 


1 


1 


_ 


- 


_ 


4 


- 


_ 


- 


1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


2 


1 


197 


- 


- 


3 


2 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


- 


_ 


1 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


8 


- 


198 


- 


1 




2 


_ 


1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


2 


_ 


1 


- 


- 


_ 


- 


199 


- 


- 


_ 


3 


_ 


_ 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


3 


- 


199 


- 


4 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


200 


3 


2 


4 


- 


11 


- 


7 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


1 


2 


- 


_ 


1 


- 


33 


2 


201 


5 


_ 




_ 


13 


1 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


4 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1 


1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


1 


202 


- 


- 


- 


- 


9 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


1 


- 


- 


_ 


12 


27 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


203 


- 


- 


4 


1 


59 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


2 


1 


- 


- 


10 


- 


- 


- 


204 


- 


1 


_ 


1 


1 


_ 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


2 


_ 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


205 


- 


1 


- 


- 


34 

1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


2 

1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


7 


: 


206 
207 


- 


1 


- 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


_ 


2 


1 


_ 


- 


- 


_ 


- 


1 


208 


- 


_ 


2 


_ 


34 


_ 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


_ 


24 


- 


209 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


34 


- 


1 


- 


_ 


- 


1 


- 


_ 


_ 


.2 


1 


_ 


_ 


2 


- 


- 


1 


210 


5 


- 


3 


1 


7 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


20 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


211 


- 


1 


_ 


- 


11 


1 


- 


_ 


- 


_ 


_ 


- 


_ 


_ 


1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


- 


212 


- 


1 


_ 


- 


sn 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


fi 


- 


213 


- 


_ 


3 


2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1 


1 


_ 


_ 


1 


_ 


11 


_ 


214 


- 


- 


3 


3 


20 
12 


- 


1 


- 


" 


- 


4 
17 


1 


- 


- 


1 
1 


3 

1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


2 


- 


215 
216 

217 


- 


1 


- 


1 


3 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


218 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


17 


_ 


2 


_ 


- 


- 


fi 


- 


_ 


_ 


2 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


- 


219 


I 


1 


- 


1 


18 


- 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


220 


2 


- 


1 


_ 


14 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


2 


_ 


_ 


- 


1 


1 


1 


1 


_ 


_ 


8 


1 


221 


- 


1 


- 


- 


85 


- 


8 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


1 


- 


_ 


- 


_ 


- 


1 


- 


222 


- 


- 


- 


1 


18 


- 


- -1 


- 


- 1 


3 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


1 


19 


- 


223 



^0 



P.D. 34. 

















Cases and Death 


s from 


Diseases Dangerous 




Cities and Towns grouped 
IN Order of Population. 


, Popu- 
lation 
esti- 
mated 
as of 
July 1, 
1926. 


22 

An- 
terior 
Polio- 
mye- 
litis. 


25A 

Chicken 
Pox. 


10 

Diph- 
theria. 


24 
Ep. 

Cere- 
bro- 
spinal 
Menin- 
gitis. 


25B 

Ger- 
man 
Mea- 
sles. 


40 

Gonor- 
rhea. 


o 

a 
3 


6 


• 

1 
p 


1 

o 


J3 

Q 


J 


J3 

1 
P 


i 


1 
P 




J3 

1 
P 


1 

6 


1 
P 


224 
225 
226 
227 
228 
229 
230 
231 
232 
233 
234 
235 
236 
237 
238 
239 
240 
241 
242 
243 
244 
245 
246 
247 
248 
249 
250 
251 
252 
253 
254 
255 
256 
257 
258 
259 
260 
261 
262 
263 
264 
265 
266 
267 
268 
269 
270 
271 
272 
273 
274 
275 
276 
277 
278 
279 
280 
281 
282 
283 
284 
285 
286 
287 
288 
289 
290 
291 
292 
293 
294 
295 
296 
297 


Dennis 

Westwood 

North Reading 

Middleton 

Chatham . 

Duxbury . 

Nahant . 

Freetown . 

Sheffield . 

Mattapoisett 

Yarmouth 

Buckland 

Huntington 

Sterling . 

Chester . 

Shelbume 

Burlington 

Colrain 

Bedford . 

Plainville . 

Pembroke 

Norwell . 

Sandwich 

Tisbury . 

Newbury 

Sudbury . 

Rowley 

Lakeville . 

Littleton 

Russell 

Brookfield 

Carver 

Essex 

Oak Bluffs 

Lynnfield 

Lincoln 

Erving 

West Brookfield 

West Newbury 

Sunderland 

Southwick 

Marion 

West Stockbrid 

Edgartown 

Clarksburg 

Whately . 

Norfolk . 

Lanesborough 

Stow 

Berkeley . 

Wenham . 

Tyngsborough 

Berlin 

Rochester 

Orleans 

Dover 

Hubbardston 

Mendon . 

Hinsdale 

Boylston 

New Marlborou 

Southampton 

East Brookfield 

Ash field . 

Gill . 

Conway . 

Ashby 

Topsfield . 

Bernardston 

Brimfield . 

Bolton 

Royalston 

Charleniont 

Granby . 


gh 








1,799 
1,789 
1,784 
1,778 
1,741 
1,724 
1,704 
1,693 
1,656 
1,622 
1,604 
1,584 
1,570 
1,566 
1,564 
1,562 
1,560 
1,552 
1,550 
1,547 
1,509 
1,493 
1,484 
1,467 
1,462 
1,459 
1,446 
1,444 
1,442 
1,436 
1,421 
1,404 
1,387 
1,377 
1,370 
1,367 
1,343 
1,322 
1,301 
1,290 
1,283 
1,268 
1,248 
1,245 
1,242 
1,229 
1,225 
1,211 
1,205 
1,162 
1,157 
1,122 
1,119 
1,112 
1,093 
1,086 
1,072 
1,045 
1,039 
1,010 
986 
940 
935 
929 
927 
925 
923 
918 
860 
854 
822 
821 
821 
816 


1 

1 
1 

1 


- 


3 

40 

22 

1 

4 

11 
17 

1 
1 

20 
1 

1 

2 

1 

2 

1 
1 


- 


1 
2 

1 
3 

1 

2 
3 

2 


- 


1 

• - 


- 


1 
2 

1 
2 

1 

2 

1 
6 

1 

2 

1 

2 
5 


- 


- 


_ 



P.D. 34. 

to the Public Health; 1926 — Continued. 



91 



11 

Influ- 
enza. 


101 

Lobar 
Pneu- 
monia. 


7 

Measles. 


13 

Mumps. 


40A 

Oph- 
thalmia 
Neona- 
torum. 


8 

Scarlet 
Fever. 


38 

Syphi- 
lis. 


31 

Tuber- 
culosis, 
Pulmo- 
nary. 


32-37 

Tuber- 
culosis, 
Other 
Forms. 


1 

Ty- 
phoid 
Fever. 


a 

Whoop- 
ing 
Cough. 




U 


i 

1 
p 


O 


J3 
O 

Q 




1 

Q 


i 




O 


J3 


C3 


J3 
1 

Q 


5 


1 

Q 




1 

Q 


i 


J3 
t 

Q 


1 


1 

Q 


i 


J3 
1 

Q 


o 

'►3 


3 
1 

1 

11 
3 


3 

1 
1 

1 

1 

2 

1 

1 

2 

1 

1 

1 
2 

1 
2 

1 

1 
2 
1 


1 
1 

1 

2 

1 

2 
2 

1 
3 
2 

1 

6 

1 

1 
1 

1 

3 
2 

1 

1 
1 


2 

1 

1 
2 

2 
2 
1 
2 

4 
2 

1 

1 
2 

2 
2 
2 

1 

1 
1 

1 
2 
2 

2 
2 

1 

1 

2 
2 

1 
1 

1 
2 

1 
2 

1 


3 

2 

1 

3 

106 

49 
4 
3 
3 

13 

45 

7 

10 

1 

49 
27 

4 
3 

75 

44 
5 
1 

82 
6 

94 
9 

3 

17 

2 

7 
13 

3 
4 
3 

19 

2 
14 

2 
6 

15 

4 

15 

1 

1 

1 
1 

1 

4 
22 


2 

1 

1 

1 
1 


2 

2 
5 
3 

1 

3 

4 
5 

21 

2 
1 


- 


10 


- 


1 

1 

8 
4 

1 
1 
1 
12 

2 

1 

1 
10 

3 

1 

1 

7 
3 

7 

2 

2 

8 

1 
2 
3 
10 
3 
4 

2 
3 

8 
1 

1 

2 
2 

9 
1 
3 

9 

1 
1 
3 

8 
1 


2 


- 


1 


1 
1 

2 
1 

2 

1 
2 
1 

1 

1 

2 
2 

32 
1 
1 
1 

2 

2 

1 

1 

1 
3 

1 

2 

1 
1 


2 

13 
95 

1 

3 
12 

1 
1 

1 
1 

1 
1 

1 

1 

3 
1 

1 

1 


1 

1 


1 

1 

1 
2 

1 
1 

5 

1 

1 

1 


1 
1 

2 

1 

26 

1 
1 


1 


7 

4 
8 

7 

2 
3 

16 

1 
26 

3 
19 

27 

5 

29 

7 

3 

2 

9 

34 

6 

6 

1 

11 
2 

5 

6 


1 

1 

1 

1 

2 


224 
225 
226 
227 
228 
229 
230 
231 
232 
233 
234 
235. 
236 
237 
238 
239 
240 
241 
242 
243 
244 
245. 
246 
247 
248 
249 
250 
251 
252 
253 
254 
255 
256 
257 
258 
259 
260 
261 
262 
263 
264 
265 
266 
267 
268 
269 
270 
271 
272 
273 
274 
275 
276 
277 
27g 
279 
280 
281 
282 
283 
284 
285- 
286 
287 
288 
289 
290 
291 
292 
293 
294 
295 
296 
297 



92 



P.D. 34. 

















Cases and Deaths from Diseases Dangerous 




Cities .^nd Towns grouped 
IN Order of Population. 


Popu- 
lation 

esti- 
mated 

as of 
July 1, 

1926. 


22 

An- 
terior 
Polio- 
mye- 
litis. 


25A 

Chicken 
Pox. 


10 

Diph- 
theria. 


24 

Ep. 
Cere- 
bro- 
spinal 
Menin- 
gitis. 


25B 

Ger- 
man 
Mea- 
sles. 


40 

Gonor- 
rhea. 




;3 


i 


1 
P 


6 


-a 

i 

Q 


6 


Q 


s 
6 


1 

Q 


C3 






m 

1 
P 


298 
299 
300 
301 
302 
303 
304 
305 
306 
307 
308 
309 
310 
311 
312 
313 
314 
315 
316 
317 
318 
319 
320 
321 
322 
323 
324 
325 
326 
327 
328 
329 
330 
331 
332 
333 
334 
335 
336 
337 
338 
339 
340 
341 
342 
343 
344 
345 
346 
347 
348 
349 
350 
351 
352 
353 
354 
355 
356 
357 
358 
359 
360 
361 
362 
363 
364 
365 

366 


Becket 

Brewster . 

Princeton 

Sherborn . 

Wellfleet . 

Enfield . 

Petersham 

Dana 

Leverett . 

Richmond 

Hampden 

Harvard . 

Halifax 

Paxton 

Granville 

Boxford . 

Oakham . 

Pelham 

New Salem 

Hancock . 

Carlisle 

Plympton 

Cummington 

Eastham 

Truro 

Sandisfield 

Egremont 

Greenwich 

Chesterfield 

Wales 

Worthington 

New Braintree 

Blandford 

Wendell . 

Otis . 

Savoy 

Phillipston 

Windsor . 

Florida 

Warwick . 

Monterey . 

Hawley 

Westhampton 

Boxborough 

Dunstable 

West Tisbury 

Mashpee . 

Heath 

Rowe 

Tyringham 

Plainfield . 

Goshen 

Leyden 

Chilmark 

Washington 

Prescott . 

Alford 

Middlefield 

Shutesbury 

Montgomery 

Gay Head 

Gosnold . 

Tolland . 

Holland . 

Monroe 

Peru 

New Ashford 

Mount Washing 

Tewksbury St. 


ton 
[nfiri 


nary 






802 
794 
794 
780 
777 
740 
678 
671 
658 
633 
633 
627 
626 
615 
599 
581 
535 
522 
520 
520 
520 
520 
513 
509 
494 
485 
485 
462 
445 
437 
434 
429 
428 
409 
403 
391 
390 
385 
377 
372 
363 
346 
345 
341 
335 
329 
310 
292 
283 
283 
272 
257 
256 
240 
231 
230 
215 
209 
200 
182 
173 
143 
141 
140 
137 
105 
79 
55 


1 

1 

1 


- 


1 

2 

1 
1 

3 

- 

2 
28 


- 


1 

2 

15 
1 


_ 


- 


- 


1 

4 

1 

1 

16 

1 

6 
I 

1 


- 


_ 
63 


- 



P.D. 34. 

to the Public Health, 1926 — Concluded. 



93 



11 

Influ- 
enza. 


101 

Lobar 
Pneu- 
monia. 


7 

Measles. 


13 

Mumps. 


40A 

Oph- 
thalmia 
Neona- 
torum. 


8 

Scarlet 
Fever. 


38 

Syphi- 
lis. 


31 

Tuber- 
culosis, 
Pulmo- 
nary. 


32-37 

Tuber- 
culosis, 
Other 
Forms. 


1 

Ty- 
phoid 
Fever. 


9 

iWhoop- 

ing 
Cough. 




i 


1 


O 


J3 
1 

Q 


1 


Q 


1 


to 

1 

Q 


1 


m 

1 


O 


J3 

1 

P 


i 


.a 
1 


1 

o 


J3 
1 

Q 


i 


to 

1 


6 


1 


1 

6 


1 


o 

a 
3 


1 

10 

_ 
40 


1 

1 
3 

1 
1 

1 
1 

1 
1 

2 


1 

1 

1 

1 
1 

39 


1 

_ 

1 

2 

2 

1 
1 

1 
1 

1 

1 
1 

1 
22 


3 
2 

5 

7 

1 
85 
26 

12 
5 
12 

1 

5 

5 
4 

19 

2 

5 

4 
13 

_ 
1 

5 
4 


I 
2 

1 


1 
2 

2 
1 




~ 


- 


2 
1 

1 
1 

1 

7 
1 

1 

9 

1 

9 
1 

1 
3 

2 


1 
- 


29 


6 


1 

3 

- 

1 
48 


1 
2 

1 

1 

1 

1 
1 

1 

1 

1 
85 


1 

6 


1 

1 
1 

1 
3 


1 

1 
1 


1 


9 

1 
6 

3 

9 

5 

12 

5 
1 

8 

2 

1 

3 


1 

1 

1 
1 

1 
1 


298 
299 
300 
301 
302 
303 
304 
305 
306 
307 
308 
309 
310 
311 
312 
313 
314 
315 
316 
317 
318 
319 
320 
321 
322 
323 
324 
325 
326 
327 
328 
329 
330 
331 
332 
333 
334 
335 
336 
337 
338 
339 
340 
341 
342 
343 
344 
345 
346 
347 
348 
349 
350 
351 
352 
353 
354 
355 
356 
357 
358 
359 
360 
361 
362 
363 
364 
365 

366 



94 

In addition to the foregoing there 
occurred 2 cases of actinomycosis 
with 1 death. 

Cases. Deaths. 

Boston 1 1 

Greenfield 1 

13 cases of anthrax with 1 death: 

Haverhill ...... 5 

Lynn ...... 4 

Peabody 1 

Worcester 3 1 

169 cases of dog bite: 

Amesbury ..... 2 

Amherst ...... 1 

Auburn ...... 1 

Belmont 2 

Beverly .2 

Billerica 3 

Boston 32 

Cambridge . . . . .11 

Chelmsford 3 

Danvers ...... 2 

Deerfield ..... 1 

Everett 5 

Great Barrington .... 1 

Holyoke 3 

Lowell 27 

Maiden ...... 5 

Mansfield 1 

Marblehead 2 

Medford 7 

Melrose 1 

Newton 2 

North Attleborough ... 1 

Peabody 21 

Quincy 2 

Revere 12 

Salem 1 

Somerville 1 

Springfield ..... 5 

Swampscott 3 

Waltham 1 ■ - 

Wayland 2 

Winchester ..... 1 - 

Winthrop 5 

8 cases of dysentery with 8 deaths : 

Boston 2 6 

Fall River 1 

Grafton - 1 

Ipswich 2 1 

Lawrence 1 

Maiden 2 

105 cases of encephalitis lethargica 
with 78 deaths: 

Adams ...... 2 

Attleborough - 5 

Barnstable ..... 1 1 

Belmont ...... 2 

Beverly 2 

Billerica ....... 1 

Boston 29 18 

Brockton ...... 1 

Brookline ...... 1 1 

Cambridge 7 3 

Charlton .1 1 

Cohasset - 1 

Danvers ...... 1 

Dartmouth ...... 1 

Dunstable ...... 2 

Everett 2 1 

Fairhaven ..... 1 

Fall River 2 3 

Framingham ..... 1 

Gardner - 1 

Haverhill ...... 2 2 

Hingham 1 

Hull 1 

Lawrence ...... 1 1 

Leominster 1 1 

Lowell 1 1 

Lynn 2 1 

Maiden 1 

Mansfield 1 1 

Marblehead 1 

Melrose 1 i 



P.D. 34. 

Cases. Deaths. 
Merrimac ....... 1 

Methuen - 1 

New Bedford 2 2 

Newburyport 1 2 

Newton - 3 

Northampton 5 3 

Palmer - 1 

Peabody 1 

Pittsfield 3 2 

Plainville ...... 1 

Princeton - 1 

Salem 5 3 

Somerville . . • . . .3 

Southbridge ..... 1 

Springfield 7 

Waltham 2 

Watertown 1 

Wellesley 

Westfield 

Worcester 6 

Wrentham ..... 1 

665 cases of hilum tuberculosis: 

Andover ...... 2 

Avon ...... 1 

Belmont ...... 1 

Beverly ...... 1 

Boston 289 

Brockton ...... 1 

Cambridge ..... 1 

Canton ...... 2 

Chicopee 6 

Clinton ...... 1 

Colrain ...... 1 

Dalton 6 

Dedham 2 

Deerfield 1 

Everett 15 

Fall River 26 

Fitchburg 27 

Framingham 11 

Gardner ...... 19 

Gloucester ..... 1 

Greenfield 6 

Harvard ...... 1 

Haverhill ...... 1 

Hinsdale 4 

Holden 1 

Holyoke ...... 6 

Lenox ...... 2 

Leominster 8 

Lexington ..... 3 

Lowell 62 

Ludlow 1 

Lynn ...... 25 

Maiden 4 

Maynard ...... 1 

Medford 1 

Newburyport 4 

Newton 2 

North Andover .... 2 

Northampton ..... 3 

Northbridge 12 

Norwood 3 

Peabody ...... 5 

Pittsfield ..... 24 

Revere 1 

Salem 4 

Sherborn 2 

Somerville ..... 6 

Southbridge 8 

Southwick 2 

Springfield . . . . .21 

Sterling 1 

Stoughton 3 

Templeton 1 

Wakefield 2 

Washington ..... 1 

Wayland 2 

Webster 8 

West Newbury .... 1 

Weston 1 

Williamstown 3 

Winthrop ...... 3 

8 cases of hookworm: 

Boston ...... 7 

Springfield 1 



P.D. 34. 



1 case of leprosy: 
Ludlow 



Cases. Deaths. 
1 



22 cases of malaria with 1 death: 
Andovet ..... 
Belmont ..... 
Boston ..... 

Brockton 

Cohasset ..... 

Everett 

Maiden 

Newton ..... 

Peabody 

Winchester .... 
Worcester ..... 



16 cases of pellagra with 10 deaths: 
Acushnet ...... 

Arlington 

Boston ...... 

Cambridge 

Danvers 

Fall River 

Fitchburg ..... 

Leominster ..... 

Medfield 

Northampton ..... 

Pittafield 

Waltham ...... 

Westborough ..... 

Worcester ...... 

129 cases of septic sore throat with 35 
deaths : 
Amherst ...... 

Andover ...... 

Beverly ...... 

Boston ...... 6 

Cambridge 

Chelsea ...... 

Danvers ...... 

Fall River 

Franklin 

Georgetown ..... 

Greenfield 

Haverhill 

Holliston 

Holyoke 

Lanesborough 

Lawrence ...... 

Littleton ...... 

Lowell 

Lynn 

Mansfield 

Marlborough ..... 
Melrose ...... 

New Bedford 

Newburyport ..... 

Newton 

North Attleborough . . . - 

Peabody 1 

Rehoboth 2 

Somerville 2 



Springfield 
Wakefield . 
Walpole 
Watertown 
Wellesley 
Westfield , 
Weymouth 
Worcester . 



95 

Cases. Deaths. 



4 cases of smallpox: 
Upton 



30 cases of tetanus with 22 deaths: 
Auburn ..... 

Boston 

Chicopee 

Easthampton .... 
Great Barrington 

Lowell 

Lynn ..... 

Marlborough .... 
Methuen ..... 
Middleborough 

Natick 

New Bedford .... 
Northampton .... 

Peabody 

Pepperell 

Salem ..... 
Springfield .... 
Somerville .... 
Worcester 



53 cases of trachoma: 
Attleboro . 
Barnstable 
Beverly 
Boston 
Cambridge 
Chelsea 
Dedham . 
Everett 
Fall River 
Haverhill . 
Lawrence . 
Lynn 
Lowell 
Maiden 

Newburyport . 
Oxford . . . 
Plymouth 
Springfield 



13 cases of trichinosis: 
Boston 
Cambridge 
Cohasset . 
Gardner . 
Lynn 
Newton 
Westborough 
Worcester . 



1922. 


1923. 


1924. 


1926. 


1926. 


. 336,730 


411,507 


442,905 


370,412 


296,591 


4,296 


4,609 


3,949 


3,262 


2,451 


721 


336 


335 


256 


247 


- 


- 


- 


278,600 


215,750 


. 189,215 


197,767 


249,090 


273,153 


298,834 


. 66,959 


60,976 


65,512 


90,776 


88,842 


3,235 


5,875 


6,427 


5,403 


5,031 


155^ 


170 


140 


515 


350 


s 96,407 


174,589 


309,294 


171,405 


205,589 


- 


- 


- 


319 


3,712 


4,665 


7,670 


39,415 


20,290 


9,865 



96 P.D. 34. 



Keport of Division of Biologic Laboratories. 

Benjamin White, Ph.D., Director. 

Elliott S. Robinson, M.D., Assistant Director, 

William A. Hinton, M.D., Assistant Director, 

I. Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory. 

1 . Distribution of Prodiccts. 

The following table shows the amounts of the various products distributed 
each year for the past five years. 

Product. 
Diphtheria Antitoxin, 1,000 unit doses 
Antimeningococcic Serum, 15 cc. doses 
Antipneumococcic Serum, 100 cc. doses 
Antipneumococcic Serum, bulk cc. 
Smallpox Vaccine Virus, capillary tubes 
Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccine, 1 cc. doses 
Schick Outfits, 50 doses each . 
Diphtheria toxin (bulk) cc. 

Diphtheria Toxin-Antitoxin Mixture, 1 cc. doses 
Scarlet Fever Streptococcus Antitoxin, doses 
Normal Serum, cc. . 

(1) The falling off in the amount of diphtheria antitoxin distributed is due to 
the unusual decrease in the number of diphtheria cases. During the last month 
of the year, however, a rise in distribution took place owing to an increase in the 
reported cases. 

(2) The decrease in the amount of antimeningococcic serum given out is due to 
two factors: (a) the continued low incidence of the disease and (b) the policy of 
the laboratory in cutting orders to amounts required for immediate needs. 

(3) The decreased output of antipneumococcic serum is due to the relative 
infrequency of cases of Type I lobar pneumonia and the increased use of the con- 
centrated product of Dr. Felton. The production of this serum has continued 
high, the bulk of the material being sent to Dr. Felton for concentration and 
experimental purposes. 

(4) There has been a continued increase in the amount of smallpox vaccine 
virus distributed from this laboratory. The greater demand is undoubtedly due 
to the more thorough way in which the compulsory vaccination law is being 
administered. 

(5) The amount of typhoid-paratyphoid vaccine distributed is practically the 
same as that distributed in 1925 and remains at a level higher than that of previous 
years. 

(6) Fewer Schick outfits are being sent out because it is becoming more and more 
the practice to give toxin-antitoxin immunizations to pre-school and school chil- 
dren without performing previous Schick tests. 

(7) After a falling off in the demand for diphtheria toxin-antitoxin mixture in 
1925, increased amounts were sent out in 1926. Considerable quantities were 
supplied to the Boston School Department where systematic active immunization 
is being carried on, and other large amounts have been sent to various cities and 
towns where anti-diphtheria campaigns have been begun. 

(8) In 1926 approximately ten times the amount of scarlet fever streptococcus 
antitoxin was sent out than in 1925 when it first came to production. The demand 
for this product far exceeds the supply and not yet is it possible to send regular 
supplies to all distributing stations. It might be mentioned here that improve- 
ments have been made in the production of this antitoxin and that its use has 
led to gratifying results in the treatment of scarlet fever. 

(9) In addition to the various amounts of various products distributed, stocks 
of all products except scarlet fever streptococcus antitoxin are sufficient to meet 
anything but a most unusual emergency. 



P.D. 34. 



97 



S. Expenses. 





Personal Services. 


Expenses. 


Total. 


Year. 


Appro- 
priation. 


Spent. 


Appro- 
priation. 


Spent. 


Appro- 
priation. 


Spent. 


1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 


$30,700.00 
35,620.00 
41,000.00 
43,200.00 
46,000.00 


$30,690.50 
35,229.51 
40,983.18 
42,507.56 
45,025.29 


$29,400.00 
30,002.56 
34,065.81 
34,648.52 
31,184.94 


$29,360.80 
30,001,73 
33,900.28 
33,342.18 
30,751.08 


$60,100.00 
65,622.56 
75,065.81 
77,848.52 
77,184.94 


$60,051.30 
65,231.24 
74,883.46 
75,849.74 
75,776.37 



3. Discussion. 
It will be noted that along with the increase in salaries there has been a decrease 
in the amount of money spent for expenses. This showing ought to furnish con- 
vincing evidence that a liberal policy in compensation can be made a paying one. 
It should be pointed out also that in spite of the decrease in expenses, a greater, 
volume of work has been done. 

4- Improveinents. 

Various betterments have been made in apparatus, equipment and methods.- 
The old hand-iced freezing tanks for vaccine virus have been replaced with more 
satisfactory and economical electric refrigerating tanks. An additional electric 
bake oven for sterilization of glassware has been added, and hot air sterilization 
by electrical means has been carefully investigated and the methods improved. 
Many new improvements have been made in the technic of injection and bleeding 
of horses. Renewed attention has been given to the feeding of horses, and by 
varying the diets and introducing special rations the horses have been kept in 
better physical condition than ever before at no additional cost. 

5. Personnel. 

The past year has shown a smaller turnover in labor than ever before. With 
the more permanent organization made possible by the salary increases granted, 
it has been possible to carry on the work of the laboratory with no additional 
helpers and with far greater efficiency. Many members of the staff are still under- 
paid, but it is hoped that these inadequacies of compensation may soon be 
corrected. 

6. Educational Activities. 

(a) Teaching. — This laboratory has taken a still greater part in the teaching 
of students in the Harvard School of Public Health. These students first receive 
instruction in public health bacteriology under Professor Zinsser; then are given 
a course in applied immunology consisting of the rationale and practice of 
making antitoxins, serums and vaccines at this laboratory; then are given a 
course in epidemiology by Professor Rosenau. No other public health school in 
the country is able to give such comprehensive instruction in communicable 
diseases. The course intended for the training of skilled workers for public health 
laboratories, conducted jointly with the Department of Biology of Simmons 
College and with other departmental laboratories, has been continued and three 
trained assistants were graduated and immediately placed in desirable positions. 
Both the Director and the Assistant Director have given lectures on immunologic 
topics in the courses in bacteriology and immunity in the Harvard Medical School. 
In addition to the students taldng the stated course, the laboratory has had many 
student visitors for longer or shorter periods coming from the following countries: 
Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, England, France, 
Hungary, Ireland, Japan, Jugoslavia, Mexico, Norway, the Philippines, Roumania 
and Spain. 

(fe) Demonstrations. — This laboratory has been utilized by the Harvard Medi- 
cal School, the Medical Schools of Tufts University and Boston University, by 
classes from Simmons College and classes of nurses from many hospitals. Dem- 
onstrations have been given to these students of the methods employed in the 
production of various biologic products. 



98 P.D. 34. 

(c) Lectures mid Addresses. — In addition to lectures in the Harvard Medical 
School and the School of Public Health, the Director and Assistant Director have 
given talks or addresses before medical societies, science clubs and women's clubs. 

(d) Investigations. — Along with the routine work, studies have been made of 
several immunologic problems, such as the flocculation test for determining the 
potency of diphtheria toxins and antitoxins, the use of toxin-tapioca injections 
in the active immunization of horses for the production of diphtheria antitoxin. 
The question of the immunization of horses against pneumococcus for the produc- 
tion of a more potent serum has been carried out in collaboration with Professor 
Zinsser and Professor Felton of the Harvard Medical School. This work is stiU 
continuing. The recent work of Tunnicliff, and Ferry and Fisher on the pro- 
duction of measles antitoxin seemed so promising that one horse has been treated 
with cultures and toxins of the Tunnicliff organism. This serum has been proc- 
essed and is now under therapeutic trial. The effect of low temperatures on 
toxin-antitoxin mixture has been restudied and the result will soon come to publi- 
cation. In addition, experiments have been carried out to determine the immu- 
nizing value of toxin-antitoxin mixtures. This study will be continued. 

(e) Publications. — The one paper published was published by Dr. Benjamin 
White under the title "Diphtheria Prevention" in the Boston Medical and Surgical 
Journal, Vol. 195, No. 13, pp. 625-631, Sept. 23, 1926. 

7. Inspection. 

During the autumn the Director of the United States Hygienic Laboratory 
made an annual inspection of the laboratory and there is every reason to expect 
that the Federal license covering all products manufactured at this laboratory will 
be continued. 

8. New Buildings. 

The progress made during the year makes it seem likely that at last the greatly 
needed additions to the laboratory building and the stables will be erected in the 
very near future. The necessary funds have been obtained, detailed plans have 
been drawn and it is expected that before the end of the calendar year construc- 
tion will be begun, adding nearly 100 per cent more space to the laboratory build- 
ing and about 60 per cent more space to the stable building. With the completion 
of these buildings, the present overcrowding will be done away with and it should 
be possible to meet all demands made on this laboratory for biologic products. 

11. Wassermann Laboratory. 

In the Wassermann Laboratory the number of tests has shown the expected 
increase. The Wassermann tests showed an increase of about 4 per cent over the 
previous twelve months and in addition the Kahn precipitation test for the diag- 
nosis of syphilitic infections is being carried out and is of particular value in the 
case of hemolyzed blood specimens. 

The routine activities of the Wassermann Laboratory continued to increase as 
is shown in the accompanying table. 

1 . Tests and Examinations. 

1922. 1923. 1924. 1925. 1926. 



47,488 56,214 60,534 62,695 64,665 

2,554 2,729 1,302 

1,476 1,542 1,661 1,903 1,776 



157 105 88 33 25 

- 50 27 



Wassermann Tests ..... 

Kahn tests . . 

Gonococcus Fixation Tests 

Lange's Colloidal Gold Tests . 

Complement Fixation Tests for Glanders . 

Complement Fixation Tests for Antimeningo- 
coccic Serum ....... - - " "■ '9 

Diagnostic Examinations for the Division of 
Animal Industry: 
(a) Complement Fixation Tests for Glanders . 279 145 110 42 43 

(6) Examinations for Rabies . . . 482 413 283 282 312 

(c) Pathologic and Bacteriologic Examinations 55 34 34 37 39 

Id) Agglutination Tests for Bacillus Abortus . - - 148 89 101 

49,937 58,453 65,412 67,860 68,369 



P.D. 34. 

2. Expenses. 
The expenses for the past five years are shown in the following table : 



99 



Year. 


Personal Services. 


Expenses. 


Total. 


Appro- 
priation. 


Spent. 


Appro- 
priation. 


Spent. 


Appro- 
priation. 


Spent. 


1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 


$9,477.00 
11.600.00 
11,800.00 
12,500.00 
12,600.00 


$9,170.26 
10,663.15 
11,689.70 
11,984.70 
12,186.98 


$5,731.58 
5,600.00 
6,000.00 
6,000.00 
5,500.00 


$5,726.63 
5,631.33 
5,827.65 
5,971.18 
5,386.40 


$15,208.58 
17,200.00 
17,800.00 
18,500.00 
18,100.00 


814,896.89 
16,294.48 
17,517.35 
17,955.88 
17,573.38 



It will be seen from the above table that an increased amount of work and, there- 
fore, of service has been performed at a decreased cost. It will be further noticed 
that while an increased amount has been expended for personal services, a de- 
creased amount has been spent for expenses. This accomplishment bears out one 
of the fundamental principles mentioned in the report of the Griffenhagen Asso- 
ciates, which is, "Higher individual rates, securing more capable employees, and 
greater attention to effectiveness of organization and procedure so that more 
work may be done better with fewer employees at higher pay, is the way to true 
economy and better service in the long run." 

3. Investigation. 

A statistical study was made of the comparative results obtained by the Was- 
sermann and Kahn reactions. The results of this work were pubHshed by Dr. W. A. 
Hinton under the title "The Kahn and Wassermann Reactions. A Comparative 
Study," in the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, June, 1926. Another com- 
parative study has been made of the Wassermann test and the slide test as de- 
scribed by Kline and Young. The results thus far have been most gratifying and 
they appear to be more reliable even than those obtained from the Wassermann 
test itself. This study is being continued. 

4. Teaching. 

The laboratory has been utilized for teaching purposes both in the Harvard 
Medical School and School of Public Health and in the training of laboratory 
workers carried on in conjunction with Simmons College. Instruction is given not 
only in the technic of the various serologic tests, and bacteriologic and pathologic 
examinations, but also in public health laboratory administration. 



100 P.D. 34. 

Eeport of Division of Hygiene. 

Meebill E. Champion, M.D., Director. 

The Division of Hygiene, now in its twelfth year, has the following staff: a di- 
rector, two pediatricians, one school nursing consultant and four general public 
health nursing consultants, one consultant in nutrition and three assistant nutrition- 
ists, one consultant in dental hygiene and health education, two assistants in health 
education, and a stenographic and clerical staff of twelve. The appropriation for 
the division's activities for 1926 was $83,150. 

For the sake of convenience and clearness, the work of the division will be dis- 
cussed under certain headings which in a general way suggest the scope of the 
activity carried on, namely, maternal, infant and preschool child hygiene; school 
hygiene; nutrition; dental hygiene; and informational. 

Before going into details, it may not be out of place to emphasize the fact that 
the work of the division of hygiene has to do largely with child hygiene and is 
entirely advisory in nature. In other words, the division depends for results en- 
tirely upon persuasion based on convincing facts rather than upon coercion based 
on statutory authority. 

Maternal, Infant and Pke-school Hygiene. 

Always a part of the division 's interests, activities directed toward the promotion 
of maternal and infant hygiene have been redoubled since 1922 when a special 
addition was made to the annual appropriations for child hygiene. This phase of 
the work is the primary interest of one of our pediatricians and the four district 
nursing consultants. A health education worker, trained in nutrition, also takes 
part in our Well Child Conferences. These may well be explained before proceed- 
ing further. 

Well Child Conferences. — The State well child conferences are in the nature of 
demonstrations, intended primarily to show local communities the need of attention 
to the apparently well child and the best methods of conducting community 
efforts in this direction. The children receive a careful physical examination and 
advice as to hygiene. No treatment whatever is given. Parents are expected to 
take the children to the family physician for the correction of defects found or other 
treatment. The family physician receives a copy of the findings of the conference 
physician. By this means it is hoped to develop a sturdy sense of independence 
and responsibility on the part of the parent for the health of the child. 

During 1926, there were held 62 conferences reaching 1,187 families with 1,907 
children including both infants and children of preschool age. Five communities, 
large or small, subsequently established conferences of their own. 

An essential part of the well child conference is the "follow up " afterwards. This 
is usually done by the local public health nurse. In some small communities 
without public health nursing service, the duty occasionally devolves upon an 
interested lay committee and if tactfully carried out is successfully performed. 
Our state nurses keep in touch with the progress of this follow up. The pediatrician 
in charge of the state demonstration conferences, wherever possible, visits indi- 
vidually the physicians in the town — either before or after the holding of the 
conference — and thus helps to make ultimate results more sure. 

As has already been indicated, the purpose of the state conference is to point the 
way for subsequent community action in the shape of a permanent local conference. 
Such a local conference is not, however, desirable in many of the smaller com- 
munities because of the cost. Thus far no better plan has been devised to meet the 
needs of such small towns than for the state conference to be repeated — a pro- 
cedure which is contrary to our rule in the case of the larger communities. 

It is the hope of the division of hygiene ultimately to extend this demonstration 
service to prenatal cases, but at present for various reasons this does not seem to be 
feasible. 

Studies in Maternal and Infant Mortality. — Continuing study has been given to 
statistics dealing with maternal and infant mortality. The publication of a paper 



P.D. 34. 101 

on the results of two years study of maternal deaths was the starting point for fur- 
ther analysis of this mass of figures. Papers will soon be ready on deaths from 
toxemia and from sepsis. Another paper dealt with a study of 79 cardiac deaths 
among infants. 

Cooperation xviih Other Departments. — By statute, the licensing of lying-in 
hospitals is in the hands of the state department of public welfare. The division of 
hygiene is in constant touch with the supervisor of this lying-in hospital service and 
many opportunities are found for mutual assistance in raising standards. 

Public Health Nursing Consultant Service. — For the purposes of this type of 
service on the part of the division of hygiene, the state is divided into four dis- 
tricts, each in charge of a public health nurse. Her first and most important duty 
is to keep in constant touch with the various local nurses in her territory, advising 
with them and rendering every possible service consistent with state policy. Con- 
tact is obtained with the local nurses by means of personal visits, group meetings 
and, occasionally, through definite assistance with some special project such as a 
Schick or immunization clinic. The various child hygiene stations are visited as 
often as possible for the purpose of offering suggestions as to their improvement. 
A series of conferences was executed last year for local nurses and directors of 
nursing organizations, in cooperation with the county branches of the Massachu- 
setts Association of Directors of Public Health Nursing Organizations. 

Breastfeeding Campaigns. — Demonstrations as to the value of breastfeeding 
were carried on by the visiting nursing staff of four cities and towns at the instiga- 
tion of our nursing consultants. With the assistance of the state district health 
officers the practicing physicians of these communities were reached and their co- 
operation solicited, in the effort to have as many babies as possible breastfed for six 
months or more. The results of these demonstrations are not yet available. 

School Hygiene. 

Our school hygiene activities are carried on by a staff of one pediatrician and one 
school nursing consultant, assisted by the four district nursing representatives re- 
ferred to under the discussion of maternal and preschool hygiene. As in past years 
an effort has been made to keep in touch with the school physicians and school 
nurses of the state for the purpose of aiding them gradually to raise the standard of 
this work throughout the commonwealth. Until September, the division of 
hygiene had the services of two school nursing consultants : since then the general 
nurses have handled the everyday contacts with the school nurses of the state. It 
should be remembered that, in Massachusetts, every city and town is obliged to 
have school medical and nursing service. 

As in the case of maternal and preschool work, contacts have been maintained 
by personal and group conferences. Furthermore, during this year a new service 
was made available to the local communities in the shape of a complete medical 
and nursing survey of those school systems desiring it. Eight communities were 
thus surveyed and recommendations offered. This bids fair to be of permanent 
value and will be continued. 

A goitre survey of fifteen communities was carried on in cooperation with repre- 
sentatives of the United States Public Health Service. 

The usual series of joint conferences on the part of the state department of edu- 
cation and the state department of public health for the benefit of school physicians, 
nurses, superintendents and others was given. These conferences have always 
proved to be of the greatest value. 

The summer school for school nurses, held in connection with the summer school 
at the state normal school at Hyannis was conducted along similar lines to those of 
other years. Five nurses received the certificate offered in return for three sum- 
mers' work. There were 23 nurses in the first year class, and three in the second. 
A course in school hygiene was also offered teachers at the same school. 

Nutrition. 
One consultant in nutrition and three assistant nutritionists carry on this branch 
of the work of the division of hygiene. The three assistant nutritionists are 
assigned to the clinics for underweight children carried on by the division of tuber- 



102 P.D. 34. 

culosis. Two of these nutritionists are attached to the main cHnic while one handles 
the follow up work. The duties of those in the main clinic are to discuss with the 
children and their parents the proper diet and general health habit regime which 
these below par children should follow. The worker in charge of follow up, on the 
other hand, checks up later with the school nurse and, on occasion, in the home, to 
see how the children have reacted to the advice given them in the clinic. 

It should be pointed out, however, that the ultimate answer so far as the child of 
school age is concerned is the establishment of a good system of health habit pro- 
motion as an integral part of the school curriculum. 

In addition to the clinic work, one of the nutritionists during the summer visited 
a dozen summer health camps to see what suggestions might be offered along the 
line of nutrition and health habit promotion. 

The nutritionists participated in clinics in 46 places. The nutritionist doing 
follow up visited 35 towns, interviewed 1,014 children and made 867 home visits. 

The senior nutritionist, in charge of the work, concentrated on lectures to 
groups of key people and on the preparation of educational material and articles 
dealing "with the problems of nutrition. A course of six lessons was given to nurses 
in five towns. Other lectures were given to dental hygienists, nurses in training 
schools, teachers and summer school students. The latter included courses at the 
summer schools at Hyannis and Fitchburg Normal. 

Dental Hygiene. 

Preparing and explaining a new dental policy for the department has been the 
major new activity of the division of hygiene this year. It has been a matter of 
concern for some time that cities and towns were allowing their dental hygiene 
activities to degenerate into free dental surgery furnished to all at the expense of the 
taxpayer. Much could be said, did space permit, concerning the wastefulness and 
inconsistency of such a plan. 

Fortunately a demonstration of what can be accomplished by a more intelligent 
plan is at hand in the work of the Forsyth Dental Infirmary of Boston. With this 
as a basis and with the advice and assistance of the Massachusetts Dental Hygiene 
Council, the department through the division of hygiene set forth a policy upon 
which its advice to local agencies should be based. In briefest outline, its sug- 
gestions are: 

That municipalities confine their activities so far as possible to educational work, 
especially with younger children, teaching them the importance of proper diet for 
the building of good teeth. 

That the children in the first grades receive attention first, and that the impor- 
tance of the sixth year molar be always borne in mind. 

That operative work deal with filling pits and fissures and with extracting balyd 
decayed teeth in order to give the child a clean mouth. 

That attention be given to the preschool child and to the diet of the prospective 
mother. 

That families be urged to go to their family dentist for treatment. On the other 
hand, where clinics are desirable, that they be carried on preferably in connection 
with hospitals and that they be so far as possible on a paying basis. 

In view of the fact that we have only one state worker to push this program 
actively, excellent progress has been made in convincing communities of its es- 
sential soundness. 

Health Education and Informational Service. 

This service includes a large number of allied activities which are bound up with 
the services of the special workers already referred to. Included here are : 

The publication of the department's quarterly bulletin The Commonhealth. 

The distribution of an occasional bulletin for those interested in school hygiene. 
This goes by the name of Tidings. 

The division's prenatal and postnatal letter service: These letters go to pro- 
spective mothers and are sent monthly until the baby is two years old. In 1926 
there were 5,023 new requests for prenatal letters and 4,584 new requests for 
postnatal letters. 



P.D. 34. 103 

Newspaper service : Brief articles are sent weekly to the newspapers of the state 
and special news items as occasion offers. 

Pamphlets on health subjects: These cover a wide variety includint? fliers on 
dental hygiene and nutrition. We distribute on an average about 100,000 of each 
of these pamphlets a year. An interesting project of last year was one in coopera- 
tion with the department of education, division of immigrant education. A pam- 
phlet of twenty health lessons for adult immigrants was prepared, including writing 
the lessons and making sixty original drawings. 

Health Exhibits;. Posters: Most of the material employed by the division of 
hygiene is original and prepared by our own staff. They consist of box exhibits, 
sets of posters illustrating prenatal, preschool and school hygiene, and many special 
exhibits for special occasions such as conventions. 

One of the earliest activities of the division of hygiene was the health show. 
These originate in the communities themselves and at their best, represent a demon- 
stration to the people of the town of the possibilities of some health service — public 
health nursing, for example. In many instances such health shows have as their 
result the establishment on a permanent basis of some essential service. Sixteen 
such health shows were held last year. Fifty-two towns were reached by illus- 
trated talks to school children, dealing with the simpler aspects of health. 

The project involving reaching the teachers of drawing in the schools of the state 
was carried almost to completion. The correlation of the teaching of health with 
the teaching of drawing through the medium of original poster making has been 
shown to be both possibleand attractive. The contacts thus made by the depart- 
ment of public health will prove permanently valuable. 

The lecture service of the Department, in general charge of the division of 
hygiene, has continued to be popular. During the year, 434 lectures and 3 radio 
talks were given by 31 department speakers in 101 communities of the state to an 
audience of approximately 33,165 people. 



104 P.D. 34. 

Eeport of Division of Tuberculosis. 

Dr. Henry D. Chadwick, Acting Director. 

On April 1, 1926 Dr. Sumner H. Remick resigned as Director. Dr. Henry D. 
Chadwick then took up the duties as Acting Director of the Division. The rec- 
ommendation made by Dr. Remick in his last report of having a physician as 
assistant director was put into effect in May, 1926, by the appointment of Dr. 
David Zacks to that position. Dr. Zacks was assigned the supervision of the 
field nurses who investigate the reported cases of tuberculosis and the recording 
of these reports. He also was given charge of supervising the tuberculosis 
dispensaries. 

Reporting of Tuberculosis Cases. 

A recent study shows that the physicians of the State have been very remiss in 
the duty of reporting cases of tuberculosis. For the State as a whole in 1925 
there were 2,883 deaths and 5,385 reported cases, or a ratio of approximately 1.9 
to 1. By Counties the ratio of reported cases to deaths was as follows: Barnstable 
County 1.21 to 1; Berkshire County 1.67 to 1; Bristol County 1.94 to 1; Dukes 
County 1 to 1; Essex County 1.73 to 1; Franklin County 2.23 to 1; Hampden 
County 1.66 to 1; Hampshire County 1.32 to 1; Middlesex County 2.11 to 1; 
Nantucket County to 0; Norfolk County 1.48 to 1; Plymouth County 1.41 to 1; 
Suffolk County 2.57 to 1; Worcester County 1.35 to 1. . 

It is a well-known fact that the ratio should be five reported cases to one death 
each year, if the cases seen by the physicians were reported as soon as diagnosis 
is made. In Boston recently a survey was made by Dr. Haven Emerson, who 
found that 19.7% of the cases of tuberculosis were not reported until after death, 
and 16.7% were not reported until within one month of death. This means that 
about one-third of all cases are not reported in time to allow the public health 
authorities to carry out any measures for prevention. 

The ratio of reported cases to deaths in the remainder of the State is a little 
lower than in Boston. Therefore the children and adolescents in about 1,000 
homes where there is a case of advanced tuberculosis are being given but little if 
any protection from massive infection. This indeed is a very serious situation. 

Records of Reported Cases. 

A new system of recording the reported cases on a punched card has been put 
into effect and the data on the old cards has been transferred to the new ones. 
These new cards can be run through a tabulating machine and information as to 
the number of cases in any city or town, and other recorded data, can be quickly 
obtained. The field nurses will get a report on each known case of tuberculosis 
once a year. The method of handling these reports has been simplified so that 
five nurses will be able to do the work which previously required the services of 
seven. 

There were 30,000 cases in the files, but when these records were studied and 
transferred to the new cards it was found that 27,489 were located cases, and the 
addresses of 2,511 were unknown. The new records will be more complete and 
the follow-up work more effectively done. We will be able to get statistics from 
these cards of the number of cases in a given locality, and other data in regard 
to them, with very little time and effort. 

Sanatoria. 
Rutland State Sanatorium. 
The beds at Rutland have been fully occupied throughout the year and there 
has always been a waiting list. Approximately 250 of the 350 beds have been 
occupied by contract cases. As these County cases are not selected the result has 
been that about three-fourths of the patients now under treatment are bed cases. 
To relieve this situation somewhat a few months ago a new plan was put into 
effect. This requires the examination of all applicants for admission to Rutland 



P.D. 34. • 105 

which come from sections of the State not under contract by some one of the 
sanatoria staff, except Boston cases, who are examined at the Out-Patient De- 
partment of the Boston Sanatorium. In this way at least 100 beds can be kept 
filled with a more favorable type of patient. 

Lakeville State Sanatorium. 

The new women's ward for non-pulmonary cases was formally opened in April, 
1926. It was soon filled to capacity with women and children. The men's ward 
was finished in July and was about half filled within a very short time. The capac- 
ity of the sanatorium is 200 and indications are that it will not be adequate to 
care for all the non-pulmonary cases that apply for admission. Provision for sun 
treatment combined with skilfuU orthopedic supervision has already shown excel- 
lent results. 

A medical building with an operating room is now the greatest need of the 
institution. Plans for such a building have been submitted and an appropriation 
^of 148,000 requested for construction and equipment. 

North Reading State Sanatorium. 

The three wards which were under reconstruction at this institution were com- 
pleted last spring and made ready for children. Plans to remodel the service 
.building, which will cost about $14,000, have been submitted. These call for an 
addition so that the bakery can be moved out of its present location. This will 
result in giving more space and light in the kitchen. The chimneys will be in- 
creased in height to give better draught and the refrigerating rooms rebuilt and 
enlarged. The seating capacity of one of the dining rooms will be increased by 
these proposed changes. 

West field State Sanatorium. 

This sanatorium has a capacity of 310 beds for children. Since North Reading 
was opened for children not enough applications to fill both sanatoria have been 
received. As a result there have been about 40 vacancies at Westfield. To fill 
these beds we have admitted about a dozen women and about the same number 
of men as a temporary measure, to relieve the waiting list for Rutland. Until 
sufficient applications for children are received to fill both Westfield and North 
Reading it would be a good policy to admit adults to both of these sanatoria. 

The housing situation for employees at Westfield is inadequate and plans have 
been drawn for a dormitory for nurses and attendants. An appropriation of 
$38,500 is needed to construct and furnish this building. 

Available Beds for Tubercidous Patients. 
There are at the present time 3,638 beds available for tuberculous cases in the 
State. They are classified as follows: State Sanatoria 1,081; State Infirmary 280; 
Municipal Hospitals 1,061; County Sanatoria 604; Private Sanatoria and board- 
ing houses 97; Hospitals for Mental Diseases 332; School for Feeble Minded 20; 
State Farm 4; West Rutland Prison Camp 70. There were 2,883 deaths from tuber- 
culosis in Massachusetts in 1925, so there is a ratio of more than one bed for each 
death. This is considered adequate in number, but unfortunately the geographical 
distribution of these beds is not such as to prevent waiting lists in some sections 
of the State and vacant beds in others. If some working agreement could be made 
whereby the 70 or more vacant beds in the County sanatoria could be used for 
patients residing in other counties no waiting hst would result and everyone 
needing sanatorium treatment could be accommodated without delay. On No- 
vember 30th there were 75 vacancies in the State Sanatoria for children, and for 
men with non-pulmonary tuberculosis; 79 vacancies in the County sanatoria, 
and 170 vacancies in the Municipal hospitals. It is evident therefore, that Massa- 
chusetts does not need more beds but an effort made to make more attractive the 
municipal hospitals so that patients will be willing to go to them for treatment 
and be contented to remain. Also the Counties which have more beds than are 
needed for their population should be willing to make favorable terms with other 
sections of the State where the number of patients exceed the number of available 
beds. 



106 • P.D. 34. 

Juvenile Tuberculosis. 

The effect of the State chnics carried on under the Ten- Year Program has not 
materially increased the number of children applying for admission to the State 
Sanatoria. It has, however, been the means of securing a better selection of pa- 
tients. Bj^ that I mean that the children coming to the sanatoria are more in need 
of such treatment than was formerly the case. This is brought about by the 
greater local interest aroused in child welfare work with the result that many more 
children are being given thorough examinations and good supervision at home. 
The rapid increase of summer camps which are now very well managed give a 
large number of children the benefits which formerly could only be obtained in a 
sanatorium for children. It is probable that the 500 beds now available for chil- 
dren in Westfield and North Reading will not all be required. There are now in 
these two sanatoria about 400 chilclren and I believe this represents about the 
peak of the demand for sanatorium care. 

The Ten-Year Program. 

The personnel of the clinic group now consists of one nurse who acts as an 
advance field agent, 5 doctors, 2 stenographers, 2 nurses, 2 nutritionists, and 
one X-ray technician. The follow-up work group consists of one physician, one 
nurse and one nutritionist. Four stenographers are employed on the records and 
reports. Three of these are doing this work at Westfield where a clinic office is 
maintained. I do not anticipate that any additions to this clinic personnel will 
have to be made in the future. The organization as it now stands seems to be 
quite complete. 

More than three-quarters of the population of the State will have been covered 
at the end of the third year. I think the balance can easily be completed next 
year and in addition probably some of the cities which had the clinic the first year 
can have a second examination. Officials in some of these cities and towns are 
already asking to have the clinic return for another examination of their children. 

During the past year clinics have been held in the following 62 cities and towns : 
Adams, Amesbury, Andover, Amherst, Athol, Avon, Becket, Belmont, Boston, 
Byfield, Chelmsford, Chicopee, Cochituate, Colrain, Dalton, Dedham, Dudley, 
Easthampton, Erving, Fitchburg, Gardner, Greenfield, Holyoke, Hinsdale, Lanes- 
borough, Lee, Leominster, Lexington, Leverett, Lincoln, Littleton, Lowell, Mon- 
tague, Newbury, Newburyport, New Salem, North Adams, Northampton, North- 
bridge, Peabody, Pittsfield, Princeton, Randolph, Reading, Salem, Salisbury, 
Shutesbury, Southbridge, South Deerfield, South Hadley, Sudbury, Sterling, 
Warwick, Webster, Wendell, Westfield, Westford, West Newbury, Williamstown, 
Winchendon, Woburn, 

Summary of Result of the Second Year's Examination. 

No. of children examined 

No. of contacts examined 

No. given Von Pirquet test 

No. of children with positive Von Pirquet (reactors) 

No. of children X-rayed 

No. of cases diagnosed as "Pulmonary" Tuberculosis 

No. of cases diagnosed as Hilum Tuberculosis 

No. diagnosed as "Suspects" . . . . . 

No. of cases X-rayed and classified as negative 

No. of children with enlarged and diseased tonsils and 

adenoids 

No. of children with defective teeth .... 
No. of children with heart murmurs .... 

The immediate effect of the clinics has been to stimulate local interest in the 
care of cases of juvenile tuberculosis which have been found, and also of the chil- 



Total. 


Per Cen 


19,073 

2,956 

18,601 


- 


5,314 


28.5 


5,730 


- 


19 


- 


621 


3.3 


1,399 
3,691 


7.0 


3,652 

8,575 
398 


19.0 

45.0 

2.0 



P.D. 34. 107 

dren showing malnutrition. Many local organizations have undertaken the 
maintenance of summer camps, and a large proportion of the children picked out 
by the clinic have been given the opportunity to live for a few weeks in the fresh 
air and sunshine. They have been furnished with suitable diet and given the 
rest periods that all these children are so much in need of. The results obtained 
are bound to have a marked influence for good health, and by stimulating resist- 
ance to the tuberculous infection which they have, will prevent many from 
developing a fatal form of tuberculosis in later years. 

The Control of Tuberculosis. 

This is dependent upon two things. We must lessen the amount of infection 
from both human and bovine sources, and increase the resistance of children to 
the infection that cannot as yet be prevented. By hospitahzation of open cases 
of pulmonary tuberculosis we can lessen the foci of infection from human sources. 
Bj^ stopping the sale of unpasteurized milk we can materially reduce the deaths 
and the crippling of children. At the present time the following cities and towns 
have ordinances requiring all milk to be pasteurized, except that from tuberculosis- 
free cows: Arlington, Belmont, Boston, Brookline, Brockton, Cambridge, Fram- 
ingham, Leominster, Milton, Natick, New Bedford, Needham, Newton, Pitts- 
field, Maiden, Quincy, North Brookfield, Somerville, Springfield, Stockbridge, 
Walpole. There are 1,709,000 people, or 41% of the population of the State, living 
in these cities and towns. It is gratifying to report that the children in this large 
area are now protected from the danger resulting from infection of the bovine 
type of the tubercle bacillus. 

A study of the tuberculin tests made by the State Clinic group indicates a 
higher percentage of infection among the children in small towns who have not 
been exposed to human tuberculosis, than is the case in the cities where the use 
of pasteurized milk is more universal. This can only be accounted for by the 
more general use of raw milk from tuberculous cows. The children brought up 
on the farms are in more danger of being crippled or dying in infancy from tuber- 
culosis of bovine origin tham are city children. Dr. Charles Mayo states that 
the majority of cases of tuberculosis of the neck, intestines and abdomen are 
found in children from the farms and not from the cities. It is noteworthy that 
11% of the rural reactors in our childrens' clinics had enlarged glands of the neck^ 
and but 6.3% of the city children. There were 12% more reactors among the non- 
contact rural children than among the urban non-contact children. These figures 
would indicate greater prevalence of bovine infection in the small communities of 
Massachusetts where but little if any of the milk is pasteurized. As pasteuriza- 
tion is impractical for the small farmer it is all the more important that cows 
should be tuberculin tested and the reactors eliminated from the herd. For the 
protection of his own children and his customers' children this should be done. 

Summary of the Task before Us. 

First. — We should strive to get the physicians to report their cases of tubercu- 
losis as soon as diagnosis is made that better supervision may be carried out. 

Second. — Children exposed to tuberculosis should be examined, treated, if 
necessary, and guarded from further infection. 

Third. — Hospitalization of all the open cases of tuberculosis, if possible, espe- 
cially if there are children in the homes. 

Fourth. — Pasteurization of the public milk supply. 

Fifth. — Elimination of tuberculosis from all the herds in Massachusetts by 
means of the tuberculin test and the slaughter of all infected animals. 



108 P.D. 34. 

LAKEVILLE STATE SANATORIUM. 

Resident Officers. 

Leon A. Alley, M.D., Superintendent. 

Harold Ragolsky, M.D., Assistant Superintendent. 

Harold B. Boyd, M.D., Senior Asst. Physician. 

Myles S. Record, M.D., Assistant Physician. 

Chin S. Chang, M.D., Assistant Bacteriologist. 

Caroline T. White, R.N., Superintendent of Nurses. 

Katherine Nute, Occupational Therapist. 

Susan M. Murphy, Head Matron. 

Charles J. Odenweller, Steward. 

Robert A. Kennedy, Chief Engineer. 

Thomas Francis Mahony, Head Farmer. 

Non-Resident Officers. 

Zabdiel B. Adams, M.D., Consulting Orthopedic Surgeon. 
John B. Lombard, D.M.D., Dentist. 

REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 

To George H. Bigelow, M.D., Commissioner, Department of Public Health. 

I have the honor to submit the seventeenth annual report of the Lakeville 
State Sanatorium, for the year ending Nov. 30, 1926. During the year there has 
been expended $169,595.46 for maintenance, a gross weeldy per capita cost of 
$25.7507. There has been collected from miscellaneous sources (the total of all 
collections) $45,257.02. Deducting this amount from the gross maintenance ex- 
pense, leaves a net expense of $124,338.44, and a net weekly per capita cost of 
$18,879. There has been collected from private sources $6,035.00, from Cities 
and Towns $33,187.36, from the War Risk Insurance $567.63, from the State 
Board of Retirement $15.09, and from sales $5,451.94. Thirty-nine patients were 
supported wholly or in part by private funds, 155 by Cities and Towns, 75 wholly by 
the State, and there are 32 patients on whom settlement has not been determined. 

Your attention is again called to the high per capita cost this year, which was 
due, as was the case in 1925, to reconstruction work which was responsible for 
the low house count, the daily average number of patients being 126.6547, while 
our present capacity, now that the work has been completed is 210. 

There has been expended from Special Appropriation, authorized by Chapter 
510, acts 1924 ($20,000 for Employees' Building) expended prior to fiscal year 
1926, $19,613.06, during 1926, $375.00. Total $19,988.06. The time limit on the 
above appropriation has expired, and the balance of $11.94 is reverting to the 
State Treasury. Authorized by Chapter 277, acts 1925 and Chapter 398 acts 
1926 ($46,000 for New Water System), expended prior to 1926, $3,128.11, during 
1926, $27,685.49. Total $30,813.60. As authorized by Chapter 211, acts of 
1925 ($28,000 for alterations on Children's Building) expended prior to 1926, 
$18,616.24. There has been expended to date $27,154.78. This building has been 
completed, except for the installation of some automatic sprinklers, for which 
there is an available balance of $845.22. As authorized by Chapter 211, acts of 
1925, $33,000 for alteration on Women's Building there has been expended to 
■date $32,917.23. This building has been completed. As authorized by Chapter 
211, acts 1925, $6,500.00 for alteration on Administration Building there has 
been expended to date $6,482.66. This work has been completed. As authorized 
by Chapter 79, acts of 1926 (Reconditioning Men's Building $40,000). There 
has been expended to date $38,679.83. The work on this building has been practi- 
cally completed, except for some automatic sprinklers. The details of these dis- 
bursements are contained in the report of the Treasurer. 

There were 102 patients in the Sanatorium at the beginning of the year, December 
1st, 1925, and 171 at the close, November 30, 1926. The largest number present 
at one time was 172, and the smallest 90. The daily average number of patients 
was 126.6547, four less than last year. Daily average number of bed patients was 



P.D. 34. 109 

93.2327, children 56.0684, adults 37.1643. There were 200 patients admitted 
during the year. For the classification of patients admitted, your attention is 
called to Table No. 7. The average age of patients admitted was 19§ years. 
Including deaths there were 131 patients discharged, and the average duration of 
residence was 359 days. Of those discharged 96 gained 1,404| pounds, an average 
gain of 14.63 pounds per person. Of those discharged there were 5 arrested, 
5 apparently arrested, 30 quiescent, 58 improved, 12 unimproved, 13 deaths, 3 
not considered, the duration of treatment being less than one month, 5 non- 
tuberculous. There were 46,229 hospital days of treatment, 1,417 less than for 1925. 

Medical Report. 

Appointments. — On January 1st, 1926, Dr. Z. B. Adams of Boston was ap- 
pointed Consulting Orthopedic Surgeon. Dr. Adams makes a weekly visit to the 
Institution. 

On Feb. 1st, 1926, Dr. John B. Lombard was appointed Dentist. He is on duty 
two days each week. 

On May 3rd, 1926, Dr. Chin S. Chang was appointed Assistant Bacteriologist. 

On September 1, 1926, Dr. Harold Ragolsky was promoted from Assistant 
Physician to Assistant Superintendent. 

On November 30, 1926, Dr. Myles S. Record, a graduate of Tufts College Medical 
School and of the Lowell Corporation Hospital was appointed Assistant Physician. 

On July 19, 1926, Miss Katherine Nute, a graduate of Sargent School, Boston, and 
the Boston School of Occupational Therapy was appointed Occupational Therapist. 

The standard forms of medical records have been continued during the year, 
and photographs taken, at the time of the patient's admission and at various 
times during his residence, have been added. 

The very valuable work which Dr. Chang has done in the Laboratory in proving 
the diagnosis on many of the extra-pulmonary cases has made our records of the 
utmost value for purposes of study. A summary of the work done in the Labora- 
tory during the last year is incorporated as a part of this report. 

Laboratory and X-Ray Report. 

Pathology: Preservation of specimen 
Clinical Microscopy: 

Routine examination of blood 
Sputum : 

Positive T. B. 

Negative T. B. 
Urine 
Feces 
Spinal fluid cell counts 

Smears . 
Urethral discharges 
Bacteriology: 

Preparation of media : 

Glycerine Bouillon ^ 

Glycerine Agar ^ 

Blood Agar plates ^ 

Petroff 's medium ^ 

Glycerine Egg '■ 

Glycerine Agar and Egg medium ^ 
Smears ....... 

Cultures : 

Throat ....... 

Urine . . ... . . . 

Tonsils . . . . 

Sputum ...... 

Pus (abcesses, sinuses and broken down glands) 

Abdominal fluid ..... 



Number. 


Total 


- 


69 


- 


150 


151 


_ 


410 


561 


- 


459 


- 


14 


2 


- 


4 


6 


- 


4 



961 

9 
5 
30 
4 
152 
5 



1 Every month. 



110 



P.D. 34. 



Serology: 








Number. 


Total. 


Tubercumet Tests ...... 


_ 


150 


Tuberculin Tests ...... 


_ 


302 


Typhoid Agglutination (Widal Reaction) 


- 


82 


Preparation of blood for Wassermann Test . 


160 


- 


Preparation of spinal fluid for Wassermann Test 


2 


162 


Animal Experiment: 






Guinea pig inoculation ..... 


_ 


161 


Cut 




_ 


1 


Autopsy: 








Positive T. B. 




43 


_ 


Negative T. B. 




76 


_ 


Proven Tuberculosis: 








Guinea pig, Cultures and Microscopic Diagnosis (from the 
lesion) : 


Human 
Type. 


Bovine 
Type. 


Laryngeal Tuberculosis ..... 


2 




Abdominal Tuberculosis . 








4 


_ 


Pulmonary Tuberculosis . 








181 


— 


Tuberculosis of the Arm . 








1 


1 


Tuberculosis of the Neck 








3 




Tuberculosis of the Kidneys 








5 


— 


Tuberculosis of the Leg 








1 


_ 


Tuberculosis of the Knee-joint 








4 


1 


Tuberculosis of the Hip . 








4 


1 


Tuberculosis of the Thigh 








1 


2 


Tuberculosis of the Inguinal 








1 


- 


Tuberculosis of the Tonsil 








1 


— 


Tuberculosis of the Foot . 








2 


_ 


Tuberculosis of the Wrist 








2 


— 


Tuberculosis of the Appendix 








1 


- 


Tuberculosis of the Buttock lesion 






- 


1 


Tuberculous Dactylitis 








3 


- 



X-Rmjs. 
Number of X-rays taken from December 1, 1925 to Novem- 
ber 30, 1926 



Feb 
Examinations . 
Cement fillings 
Amalgam 
Root Canal fillings 
Temporary fillings 
Gutta-Percha fillings 
Treatments 
Abscesses 
Abscesses treated 
Root Canal Dressings 
Prophylaxis 
Mouth Washes 
Gingivitis 
Extractions 

Post-Extraction treatments 
X-rays 

Bedside treatments . 
Plates 
Bridges 
Crowns . 
Plates repaired 
Bridges repaired 



Dental Report. 
2nd to Nov. 30, 1926. 



661 



266 

130 

34 

4 

101 

32 

181 

7 

7 

21 

57 

36 

11 

63 

7 

14 

79 

4 

6 

7 

7 

2 



P.D. 34. Ill 

The large number of cement fillings over amalgam fillings is explained by the 
fact, that the greater number of our patients are confined to bed, or in such positions 
in casts or on frames that proper cavity preparation for a more permanent type of 
filling is impossible or impractical. 

The comment of the oral condition of the patients admitted to this Institution 
■during the past years, by the dentist is as follows: "with the exception of four 
patients whose oral condition is very poor, the oral condition as an average among 
the patients at the Institution will compare favorably with an equal number of 
persons taken from a general private practice of apparently non-tubercular people." 

Staff meetings on Monday mornings of each week for the consideration of ad- 
ministrative and medical problems have been continued throughout the year. 
Clinical conferences have been held on Wednesday mornings for the consideration 
of new admissions and methods of trea,tment. Each Friday a visit is made by the 
entire staff through the Institution, together with the Consulting Orthopedic 
Surgeon, at which time, every patient is visited and the progress of the case dis- 
cussed. These various meetings, conferences, and staff visits have been of great 
value, both to the members of the staff and the patients. It has made possible, 
satisfactory and uniform methods of procedure in carrying out heliotherapy; and 
the use of various forms of apparatus with such a large number of patients at one 
time. 

Consultation clinics have been held monthly at Fall River, Taunton, Brockton 
and Plymouth. A total of 40 patients were examined at these clinics, and 59 cases 
were examined at the Sanatorium, making a total of 99 patients. 



Consultation Clinic Report. 



Place. 

Fall River 
Taunton 
Brockton 
Plymouth 



lew Patients 
examined. 


Re-Exami- 
nations. 


Total Number 
examined. 


11 


4 


15 


5 


5 


10 


2 


2 


4 


6 


5 


11 



24 16 40 



Because of the small attendance at the Clinics and the fact that Out Patients may 
be examined at the Sanatorium on any week day, they were discontinued at the 
close of the year. 

The Immunization policy has been carried out with both patients and employees. 
This includes vaccination, Schick testing, and the giving of toxin and antitoxin 
where it is indicated, typhoid and paratyphoid antitoxin. A Widal test is done on 
all food handlers on their arrival at the Institution, and specimens of feces and urine 
are sent to the Department Laboratory for examination. 

Patients have been treated by Heliotherapy throughout the year, and the results 
in both children and adults have been most encouraging. At the present time, 
certain types of patients suffering from extra-pulmonary tuberculosis are being 
grouped and careful records kept, in order that during the coming year, many of 
these cases may be reported in the various Medical Journals, as the diagnosis of 
tuberculosis has been proven by the demonstration of tubercle bacilli in several 
«ases previously considered as Osteomyelitis or some other Non-tuberculous in- 
fection. 

As the length of residence and duration of treatment is a matter of years in the 
majority of these cases, the work which has been carried on by the Occupational 
therapist helps in no small part on keeping the patients contented, and their mental 
attitude, one of cheerfulness and co-operation. 

Farm. — • The farm has gone through a successful year, producing an abundance of 
fresh vegetables, fruits, and the entire supply of milk and eggs consumed during 
the year. 

The herd was retested this fall, and, no reactor was found. The young stock has 
been taken care of, during the past summer, on land owned by the Institution, near 
the coal trestle, and has demonstrated that there is no further need of hiring outside 
pasture land. 



112 P.D. 34. 

The poultry flock was again tested this j^ear for white diarrhoea by a representa- 
tive from Amherst College, and showed but a small percentage of reactors. 

Opening. — The official opening of this Institution for extra-pulmonary tuber- 
culosis was held on April 27th, 1926. The Institution was visited on that day by 
over 200 people and appropriate exercises were held in the Assembly Hall, following 
a buffet luncheon. The exercises were opened by an address by His Excellency,, 
Governor Alvin T. Fuller. 

Iviprovements. — The reconstruction on the Women's and Children's Buildings 
was completed in the Spring, and both buildings are practically filled to capacity. 
Work on the reconstruction of the Men 's Building has progressed very satisfactorily, 
and about 50 male patients have already been admitted. 

The work on the new water system to supply the Institution with water from 
Clear Pond is rapidly nearing completion, and should be in operation within a few 
weeks. 

Further additions have been made to our fire equipment; considerable old wiring 
in the buildings has been replaced by more modern and approved methods, which 
should lessen the fire hazard considerably. Monthly fire drills have been held. 

Recommendations. — It was necessary to purchase large amounts of medical 
supplies and equipment during the past year to meet the demand of the new 
type of service required by the many orthopedic cases admitted. The need of a 
proper location for this equipment has shown how necessary it is that a Central 
Medical Building be provided, to properly house and furnish adequate space for 
operating facilities, laboratories for bacteriological. X-ray, fluoroscopic and photo- 
graphic work, together with a plaster room for making shells, and other forms of 
orthopedic apparatus. This need was also noted in the report of last year. 

In the past few months we have had several cases of Pertussis among the patients 
in our Children's Building. We have been unable to stop the spreading of this 
disease, due I believe, to our lack of facilities for the proper isolation of patients, 
suffering from contagious diseases. This need should be met by providing space 
for isolation, in one end of a Central Medical Building. 

Provisions should be made on the second floor of this building for nurses ' quarters, 
as we are already overcrowded in our present quarters for both male and female 
employees. It has been very difficult to keep nurses, especially for night duty, as 
the rooms now occupied by the nurses are over the wards, and the noise from the 
children patients in the early morning and during the day, has made it very difficult 
for these employees to get the proper amount of sleep. 

The Laundry in which the equipment is old and in a very unserviceable condition, 
is not able to properly take care of the large increase in the number of pieces sent 
for cleaning each week. The first floor, on which the washing machine is located 
is not sufficiently large to accommodate the newer types of machines needed. It is 
therefore recommended that an addition be built on to the present laundry, and new 
equipment installed. 

A preliminary survey has been made by the Division of Sanitary Engineering 
for the provision of adequate filter beds for the disposal of sewage. The present 
sub-soil method of disposal is inadequate to meet the demands at the present time. 

A twenty bed unit, known as the South Pavilion, should I believe, be provided 
with a porch and diet kitchen for the accommodation of extra-pulmonary patients. 
At a small expense this unit could be increased by ten beds, thereby increasing the 
capacity of beds for patients to 230. Estimates were included in the budget for 
1927 for the above improvements. 

Entertainments. — Due to the fact that a large percentage of our patients are 
confined to the bed, moving pictures have not been held since the latter part of 
June. It has therefore been necessary that we depend on the radio and certain 
phases of occupational therapy for the entertainment of our patients. Head 
phones at each bedside have been provided through the kindness and generosity of 
certain outside organizations. 

Acknoivledgments. — Religious services have been held each week, as in the past 
by Catholic and Protestant Chaplains, and twice each month by the Jewish Chap- 
lain. As the majority of patients are unable to attend services in the Assembly Hall, 
it has been necessary that a large part of the religious work be carried on in the wards. . 



P.D. 34. 113 

To the many friends of the patients and institution, grateful acknowledgment is 
made for the very generous gifts of toys, books and magazines. 

The medical staff and employees have been cooperative and loyal during another, 
hard year, due to the upset condition of wards and living quarters, necessitated by 
the reconstruction work. They have rendered efficient service, and merit your 
approval. 

Appreciating your helpful advice and cooperation, I am 

Respectfully, 

Leon A. Alley, M.D., 

Superintendent. 
Valuation. 



Land. 



Grounds, 50 acres 

Lawns and buildings, 48 acres . 

Roads, 2 acres. 
Woodland, 10 acres .... 
Mowing, 34 acres .... 

Tillage, 49 acres. 
Tillage, 30 acres. 
Garden, 19 acres. 

Orchard, 8 acres ..... 
Pasture, 41 acres .... 

Waste and Miscellaneous, 17 acres 
Meadow, pasture and swamp land, 16 acres. 
Coal trestle, 1 acre. 



$7,15.5 30 
535 70 



1,7.30 37 
4,311 81 



611 65 

1,816 41 

942 27 



$17,103 51 
4,882 00 
$21,985 51 

Buildings. 

Institution buildings $296,730 00 

Farm, stable and grounds . . . . . . . . .... 31,022 26 

Miscellaneous • . . . 103,176 77 

$452,914 54, 

13,943 19 

$466,857 73 



Sewerage system 



Present value of all personal property as per inventory of Nov. 30, 1926 



Population. 



Number received during the year .... 
Number passing out of the Institution during the year 
Number at end of the fiscal year in the Institution . 
Daily average attendance (number of inmates actually 

present during the year) ..... 

Average number of employees and officers during the 

year ......... 



Males. 
37 
96 
31 



Females. 
40 
10 
33 



44.2383 16.9233 



78.3 



27.9 



Expenditures. 

Current Expenditures : 

1. Salaries and Wages 

2. Clothing 

3. Subsistence ..... 

4. Ordinary expense 

5. Office, domestic and outdoor expense 

Extraordinary expenses: 
Permanent Improvements: 

New Water System (Chapter 277, Acts 1925, 1926) . 
Alterations on Administration Bldg. (Chapter 211, Acts 1925) 
Employees' Building (Chapter 510, Acts 1924) 
Alterations on Children's Pavilion (Chapter 211, Acts 1925) 
Alterations on Women's Building (Chapter 211, Acts 1925) 
Reconditioning Men's Building (Chapter 79, Acta 1926) . 



Summary of Current Expenses. 

Total Expenditures ......... 

Deduction of Extraordinary Expenses ...... 

Deducting amount of sales ........ 



Boys. Girls. Totals. 

55 68 200 

8 17 131 

54 53 171 

32.7616 32.7315 126.6547 

106.2 



$98,242 93 

697 07 

20,465 10 

4,817 94 

45,372 42 $169,595 46 



630,813 60 

6,482 66 

375 00 

8,538 54 

18,647 26 

38,679 83 



103,.536 89 
{273,132 35 



5273,132 35 
103,536 89 $169,595 46 



5,451 94 

$164,143 52 

Dividing this amount by the daily average number of patients 126.6547^ gives a 
cost for the year of $1,295.9923 equivalent to an average weekly net cost of 
$24.9229. 



114 



STATISTICAL TABLES. 

Table 1. — Admissions and Discharges. 



P.D. 34. 



Patients in the Sanatorium Nov. 30, 1925 
Patients admitted Dec. 1, 1925 to Nov. 30, 1926 
Patients discharged Dec. 1, 1925 to Nov. 30, 1926 
Patients remaining in Sanatorium Nov. 30, 1926 
Daily average number of patients . 
Deaths (included in number discharged) 



Adults. 



Males. Females. 



88 

37 

96 

31 

44 . 2383 

10 



40 
10 
33 

16.9233 
1 



Children. 



Boys. 



Girls. 



9 5 

55 68 

8 17 

54 53 

32.7616 32.7316 
2 



Totals. 



102 
200 
131 
171 

126.6547 
13 





Table 2. - 


— Civil Condition of Patients admitted. 










Adults. 


Children. 


Totals. 




Males. Females. 


Boys. Girls. 


Single 

Married 

Widowed s . 

Divorced 


16 15 

18 24 

3 1 

37 40 


65 67 
1 

55 68 


153 

43 

4 

200 









Table 3. - 


- Age of Patients admitted. 








Adults. 


Children. 


Totals. 


Percentage. 




Males. 


Females. 


Boys. Girls. 


1 to 13 years 
13 to 17 years 
17 to 20 years 
20 to 30 years 
30 to 40 years 
40 to 50 years 
Over 50 years 








2 
12 
10 
10 

3 

37 


13 

17 

7 

3 

40 


35 47 
7 8 

10 9 
3 4 

55 68 


82 
15 

21 
32 
27 
17 
6 

200 


41. 

7.50 
10.50 
16. 
13.50 

8.50 

3. 










- 





Table 4 


. — Nativity and Parentage of Patients admitted 










Adults. 


Children. 




























MALES 


. 


FEMALES. 




BOYS. 


GIRLS 












fl 


si 




42 

a 


si 


i 


a 


si 


^ 


a 


s-' 


S; 


a 


U 


i 




Ph 


J3 




^ 
fu 


J3 


o 


1 


.a 


O 


PL, 


1 


o 


^ 
P^ 


1 


O 


United States: 






















Massachusetts 


18 6 


9 


8 1 2 


43 


14 16 


55 13 


13 


124 


34 


40 


Other New England State 


- - 


- 


1 1 - 


6 


3 2 


1 2 


3 


8 


6 


5 


Other States . 


3 4 


3 


5 2 3 




2 1 


3 7 


9 


13 


15 


16 




21 10 


12 


14 4 5 


51 


19 19 


59 22 


25 


145 


55 


61 


Other Countries 
























Albania 






— — 


- 


— — — 


— 


— — 


- 1 




— 


1 


1 


Armenia 






- — 


— 


— - - 


— 


1 1 


1 1 




1 


2 


2 


Austria . 






- — 


— 


— — — 


- 


- — 


— — 




— 


— 


1 


Azores . 






2 2 


2 


— — — 


— 


1 - 


1 1 




3 


4 


3 


Belgium 






— - 


— 


— — — 


— 


— — 


- 1 




— 


1 


1 


Canada 






5 6 


7 


6 7 7 


2 


7 8 


2 7 


6 


15 


2V 


28 


China . 






- — 


— 


_ _ _ 


1 


1 1 


— — 


— 


1 


1 


1 


England 






- 1 


- 


- - 1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


2 


1 


Egypt . 






- 1 


— 


— — - 


— 


— — 


— — 


— 


— 


1 


— 


Finland 






— — 


— 


111 


— 


2 2 


— — 


— 


1 


3 


3 


Germany 






- 1 


— 


- 1 - 


— 


— 


— — 


— 


— 


2 


— 


Greece . 






- — 


— 


1 1 1 


— 


— — 


2 


2 


1 


3 


3 


Ireland . 






1 6 


5 


7 H 10 


— 


5 6 


1 4 


6 


9 


26 


27 


Italy 






3 2 


2 


5 6 6 


- 


3 2 


- 8 


V 


8 


19 


17 


Korea . 






1 1 


1 


— — — 


— 


— — 


— — 


— 


1 


1 


1 


Newfoundlanc 






- — 


— 


1 1 1 


— 


— — 


— — 


— 


1 


1 


1 


Norway 






— — 


- 


1 - 1 


— 


1 1 


— — 


— 


1 


1 


2 


Poland . 






1 1 


1 


— - — 


— 


3 3 


1 6 


b 


2 


10 


9 


Portugal 






- 1 


1 


1 1 1 


— 


4 4 


1 3 


3 


2 


9 


9 


Russia . 






2 2 


2 


2 3 3 


- 


5 5 


1 3 


2 


5 


13 


12 


Scotland 






- 1 


1 


- - 1 


— 


- - 


- 2 


2 


— 


3 


4 


Spain . 






- - 


- 


_ _ _ 


1 


1 1 


- 1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


Sweden . 






— — 


— 


- 3 1 


— 


— — 


1 


1 


— 


4 


2 


Syria 






- 1 


1 


1 1 1 


— 


— — 


— — 


— 


1 


2 


2 


Turkey . 






1 1 


1 


— — — 


— 


— — 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


Unknown 






- 


1 


- - - 


- 


2 2 


1 3 


2 


1 


5 


5 








37 37 


37 


40 40 40 


55 


55 55 


68 68 


68 


200 


200 


200 



P.D. 34. 



AUston . 

Amesbury 

Arlington Heights 

Attleborough 

Boston 

Boylston . 

Bradford 

Braggville 

Brockton 

Brookline 

Cambridge 

Centen'ille 

Chelmsford 

Chelsea . 

Clinton . 

Cohasset 

Concord Junction 

Danvers . 

Dedham . 

East Douglas 

East Templeton 

Everett . 

Fall River 

Falmouth 

Fitchburg 

Gloucester 

Haverhill 

Holyoke . 

Hudson . 

Ipswich . 

Lawrence 

Lowell 

Ludlow . 

Lynn 

Maiden . 

Manchester 

Marlborough 

Med ford . 

Middleborough 

Millbury . 

Nantucket 

Natick 

New Bedford 

Newbury 

Newton . 

North Adams 

Norfolk . 

Norwood 

Pittsfield 

Randolph 

Reading . 

Revere 

Seekonk . 

Somerset 

Somer\'iIle 

Southbridge 

Springfield 

Stoughton 

Taunton . 

Walfwle . 

Waltham 

Wareham 

Watertown 

Webster . 

Westfield 

Willimansett 

Worcester 



115 



Table 5. — Residence of Patients admitted. 



Adults. 

1 
1 

29 

1 
1 
1 
1 

8 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 



Children. 
1 
1 
1 
2 
36 
1 



Total, 
1 
2 
2 
2 

65 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 

11 
1 
1 
3 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
3 
2 
2 
3 
1 
7 
1 
1 
1 
3 
8 
1 
8 
3 
1 
1 
4 
3 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
2 
2 
1 
3 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
4 
1 
3 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
4 



77 



123 



200 



116 



P.D. 34. 



Table 6. — Occupations. 

















Males. 


Females. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Totals 


Attendant ........ - 


- 


1 


1 


2 


Barber . 














1 


- 


- 


— 


1 


Bell boy . 














1 


— 


— 


— 


1 


Book binder . 














1 


— 


— 


— 


1 


Box maker 














— 


— 


— 


1 


1 


Box inspector . 














— 


- 


— 


1 


1 


Cashier . 














— 


1 


- 


— 


1 


Chambermaid . 














— 


1 


- 


— 


1 


Chauffeur 














3 


— 


- 


- 


3 


Child 














— 


— 


15 


23 


38 


Clerk, grocery 














— 


— 


1 


— 


1 


Clerk, office 














- 


— 


— 


3 


3 


Clothing packer 














- 


1 


— 


— 


1 


Cotton mill 














4 


2 


- 


— 


6 


Factory . 














1 


2 


- 


2 


5 


Fireman . 














1 


— 


— 


— 


1 


Florist . 














1 


— 


— 


- 


1 


Home at 














— 


2 


- 


4 


6 


Housemaid 














— 


2 


— 


2 


4 


Housewife 














— 


24 


- 


1 


25 


Laborer . 














4 


- 


2 


- 


6 


Laundress 














- 


1 


— 


1 


2 


Machinist 














3 


— 


1 


— 


4 


Meter repairer 














1 


— 


— 


— 




Nursemaid 














- 


1 


— 


— 




Optometrist 














1 


— 


— 


— 




Orderly . 














1 


- 


— 


- 




Physician 














1 


— 


— 


— 




Porter . 














1 


— 


— 


— 




Poultryman 














1 


— 


- 


— 




Printer . 














2 


— 


— 


— 




Reporter 














- 


— 


1 


- 




Revenue officer 














1 


— 


— 


— 




Saleslady 














- 


1 


- 


- 




Salesman 














1 


— 


— 


— 




School . 














- 


- 


32 


29 


61 


Seamstress 














— 


1 


— 


— 




Stenographer . 














1 


— 


— 


- 




Storekeeper 














1 


— 


— 


— 




Student . 














1 


— 


2 


- 




Waiter . 














1 


— 


— 


— 




Waitress 














— 


1 


- 


— 




Teamster 














1 


— 


— 


- 




Silver plater 














1 


- 


— 


— 




Superintendent of bi 


lildinf 


;s 










1 


- 


- 


- 





37 40 55 

Total number of occupations 45, total number of patients, 200. 



68 



Table 7. — Stage of Disease on Admission. 



Pulmonary Cases. 
Minimal 
Mod. Advanced 
Advanced 
Unclassified . 

(1 Pul. ca.se) 

(6 Extra Pul.) 



One Lesion. 
Tb. abscess, brain . 
Tb. abscess, breast . 
Tb. abscess, ischio-rectal 
Tb. adenitis, cervical 
Tb. ankle 
Tb. dactylitis 
Tb. endometritis 
Tb. epiglottis 
Tb. hip joint . 
Tb. ileo-cecal . 
Tb. kidney . 
Tb. knee 

Tb. nephritis, bilateral 
Tb. ophthalmia 
Tb. OS calcis . 
Tb. peritonitis, dry 
Tb. peritonitis, with effusion 
Tb. peritonitis, fibrinous 
Tb. sacro-iliac joint 
Tb. shoulder joint . 
Tb. skin 
Tb. spine 

Tb. svmphysis pubis 
Tb. wrist 
Tb. wrist, post operative 



Males. Females. Boys. 
1 - - 



Girls. 



16 



20 



200 





Per- 


Totals. 


centage 


1 


.5 


9 


4.5 


3 


1.5 


7 


3.5 



_ 


- 


_ 


1 


1 


.5 


- 


— 


- 


1 


1 


.5 


_ 


1 


_ 


- 


1 


.5 


2 


2 


1 


12 


17 


8.5 


1 


1 


1 


1 


4 


2. 




- 


2 


1 


3 


1.5 


— 


1 


_ 


- 


1 


.5 


- 


1 


- 


- 


1 


.5 


2 


2 


4 


10 


18 


9. 


— 


_ 


1 


— 


1 


.5 


_ 


1 


1 


1 


3 


1.5 


_ 


— 


8 


2 


10 


5. 


_ 


1 


2 


— 


3 


1.5 


_ 


- 


2 


3 


5 


2.5 


_ 


_ 


1 


— 


1 


.5 


2 


6 


- 


8 


16 


8. 


1 




— 


1 


2 


1. 




1 


— 


— 


1 


.5 


1 


1 


1 


- 


3 


1.5 






1 


- 


1 


.5 


_ 


_ 


2 


1 


3 


1.5 


6 


10 


12 


9 


37 


18.5 


1 


- 


- 


- 


1 


.5 


1 • 


_ 


1 


- 


2 


1. 


1 


- 


- 


_: 


1 


.5 



18 



28 



51 



137 



P.D. 34. 



Table 7. — Stage of Disease on Admission — Concluded. 



Two Lenions. 
Tb. adenitis, cervical and fecal fistula 
Tb. adenitis, cervical and Tb. ophthalmia 
Tb. adenitis and Tb. middle ear 
Tb. ankle and sternum 
Tb. dactylitis, Tb. adenitis cervical . 
Tb. dactylitis and general adenitis 
Tb. dactylitis and ankle . 
Tb. femur and rt. hip joint 
Tb. foot and Tb. ophthalmia . 
Tb. kidney, Tb. hip joint 
Tb. kidney and nephrectomy, convalescent 
Tb. knee, and minimal 
Tb. knee and spine 
Tb. knee and ulna . 
Tb. hip joint and Tb. kidney . 
Tb. hip joint and Tb. spine 
Tb. lungs and sternum 
Tb. nephritis and epididymitis 
Tb. ophthalmia and Tb. hip joint 
Tb. peritonitis with effusion and hydrothorax 
Tb. peritonitis with effusion and splenomegaly 
Tb. spine and hip . 
Tb. spine and nephritis . 
Tb. spine and sacro-iliac jt. 
Tb. spine and sacrum 
Tb. spine and Tb. wrist . 



Three Lesions. 
Tb. spine; sacrum and Tb. ophthalmia 



Males. Females. 
1 



Boys. 

1 
1 

1 

1 

1 
1 
1 

1 

1 

1 
10 



Four Lesions. 



Girls. 
1 



37 



40 



53 



68 



Table S. — Condition on Discharge. 



Totals. 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

2 
3 
1 
1 



29 



200 



117 



Per- 
centage. 
.5 
.5 
..5 
.5 
.5 
..5 
.5 
.5 
.5 
.5 
.5 
..5 
.5 
.5 
.5 
.5 
.5 
.5 
.5 
.5 
.5 
.5 

1. 

1.5 
.5 
.5 



Tb. adenitis, Tb. spine, Tb. hip and peritoneal Tb. 


- 


- 


- 


1 


1 


.5 


Tb. knee, Tb. dactylitis, Tb. elbow and wrist 




— 


1 


— 


— 


1 


.5 


Tb. spine, Tb. dactylitis and wrist; rachitis 




- 


~ 


1 


- 


1 


.5 






_ 


1 


1 


~o 


4 


_ 


Non-Tuberculosis. 
















Non-Tuberculosis ..... 




— 


— 


1 


2 


3 


1.5 


Arteriosclerosis^ ..... 




— 


1 


— 


— 


1 


.5 


Cervical adenitis ..... 




— 


— 


— 


1 


1 


.5 


Congenital deformity .... 




- 


- 


- 


1 


1 


.5 


Fixation left hip ..... 




- 


— 


— 


1 


1 


.5 


Osteomyelitis left femur . . 




— 


- 


— 


1 


1 


.5 


Separation of the epiphysis of the head of 


the 














right femur ..... 




- 


- 


1 


— 


1 


.5 


Septic arthritis hip joint .... 




- 


1 


— 


~ 


1 


.5 






_ 


2 


2 


6 


10 


_ 


Summary. 
















Pulmonary cases ..... 




16 


1 


2 


1 


20 


10. 


One Lesion ....... 




18 


28 


40 


51 


137 


68.5 


Two Lesions ...... 




3 


8 


10 


8 


29 


14.5 


Three Lesions 




— 


— 


- 


1 


1 


.5 


Four Lesions ...... 




— 


1 


1 


1 


3 


1.5 


Non-Tuberculosis 




- 


2 


2 


6 


10 


5. 





Adults. 


Children. 


Totals. 










' 




Percentage. 




Males. 


Females. 


Boys. 


Girls. 






Arrested 


1 




2 


2 


5 


3.82 


Apparently Arrested 


4 


- 


- 


1 


5 


3.82 


Quiescent 


27 


2 


1 


- 


30 


22.90 


Improved 


40 


5 


3 


10 


58 


44.28 


Unimproved . 


12 


- 


- 


- 


12 


9.16 


Deaths . 


10 


1 


- 




13 


9.92 


Not Considered 


2 


— 


- 


1 


3 


2.29 


Non-Tuberculosis . 


- 


2 


2 


1 


5 


3.81 




96 


10 


8 


17 


131 





118 



P.D. 34. 











Table 9. — 


Deaths. 










Duration of 


Males. 


Fe- 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Totals. 


Length 


or Residence 


IN Sanatorium. 




1 


Fe- 
males. 






1 


















Males. 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Totals. 


1 to 2 months 


_ 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 




1 


1 


_ 


_ 


2 


2 to 3 months 


— 


- 


- 


— 


_ 








_ 


1 


1 


3 to 4 months 


— 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 




_ 


_ 


_ 


1 


1 


4 to 5 months 


— 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 




1 


_ 


_ 




1 


9 to 10 months 


1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1 




1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1 


12 to 18 months 


1 


- 


_ 


_ 


1 




3 


_ 


_ 


_ 


3 


18 to 24 months 


1 


_ 


_ 


1 


9. 




2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


2 


Over 2 years 


6 


— 


— 


1 


7 




2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


2 


Unknown . 


1 


1 


- 


- 


2 






- 


- 


- 






10 


1 


- 


2 


13 




10 


1 


- 


2 


13 



Totals. 

10 

1 

2 

13 



Table 10. — Cause of Deaths. 

Males. Females. Boys. Girls. 

Pulmonary Tuberculosis ...... 10 - - 

Tuberculosis Meningitis ....... 1 - - 

Tuberculosis Peritonitis ....... - - 2 

10 1 - 2 

NORTH READING STATE SANATORIUM. 
Resident Officers. 
Carl C. MacCorison, M.D., Superintendent. 
Earle C. Willoughby, M.D., Assistant Superintendent. 
Gerald H. Caron, M.D., First Assistant Physician. 
Thomas W. Loft, D.M.D., Dentist. 
Ethel M. Knight, Treasurer and Chief Clerk. 
Marion Duff, R.N., Superintendent of Nurses. 
Clara J. Gill, Head Matron. 
J. Ellis Doucette, Steward. 
Daniel J. Scott, Chief Engineer. 
Edward J. Leary, Farmer. 

REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 
To George H. Bigelow, M.D., Commissioner, Department of Public Health. 

I have the honor to submit the 18th annual report of the North Reading State 
Sanatorium for the year ending Nov. 30, 1926. 

During the year there has been expended $148,055.39 for maintenance, a gross 
weekly per capita cost of $19.48. 

There has been collected from miscellaneous sources $68,872.70 (the total of all 
collections). Deducting this amount from the gross maintenance expenses leaves 
a net expense of $79,182.69. The net weekly per capita cost was $10.42. There 
has been collected from private funds $3,437.72; from cities and towns $64,735.48. 
Twenty-five cases were supported wholly or in part by private funds; 244 by 
cities and towns; and 68 wholly by the State. 

There were 106 patients at the Sanatorium at the beginning of the year, and 
183 at the close. The largest number present at any one time was 183, and the 
smallest number 101. The daily average number of patients was 146.06. There 
were 275 cases admitted during the year, 114 more than last year. 

There were 218 cases admitted from cities and towns of over 25,000 population, 
and 57 from cities and towns under 25,000 population. The average age of patients 
was 14.46 years. Including deaths, there were 198 cases discharged, and the aver- 
age duration of residence was 7 months and 23 days. Of those discharged 142 
gained 1,572 pounds — an average gain of 11.07 pounds per person. Of the dis- 
charges there were 16 Apparently Arrested cases, seven more than last year; 5 
Arrested; 53 Quiescent, 19 more than last year; 53 Improved, 35 less than last 
year; 41 Unimproved. There were 16 patients Not Considered — the duration 
of treatment being less than one month. There were 12 Deaths — 12 less than 
last year. There were 53,357 hospital days of treatment. 

With the permanent elimination of Camp 3 East and Camp 2 West, and the 



P.D. 34. 119 

temporary emptying of Pavilions B East and West and Pavillion C East during 
alteration and construction, our census from the beginning of the fiscal year to 
the time we began to admit children in March was necessarily very low. Conse- 
quently our per capita cost was materially increased. 

The following table shows the classification on the application blank and our 
classification on admission. 

Classification on Our Classification 

Application Blanks. on Admission. 

Bronchial Adenitis 2 37 

Hilum Tuberculosis 96 121 

Minimal (Incipient) 89 22 

Moderately Advanced 71 64 

Advanced 10 17 

Cervical Adenitis 1 

Non-Tuberculous (Aortic Stenosis) ... 1 

Non-Tuberculous (Lung Abscess) ... 1 

Observation 1 

Unclassified 6 11 

275 275 

Medical Report. 

Consultation clinics have been held monthly during the year at Haverhill, 
Lawrence, Lowell and Woburn. Eight cases were referred to the Lowell clinic; 
34 cases to the Haverhill clinic; 21 to the Lawrence clinic and 9 to the Woburn 
clinic. 104 cases were referred direct to the Sanatorium. Of the 176 consultation 
cases examined, 37 were diagnosed as active pulmonary tuberculosis; 6 as inactive 
pulmonary tuberculosis; 4 as non-pulmonary tuberculosis; 81 hilum tuberculosis 
and 121 were regarded as needing close observation. 

Twenty-two ex-patients returned for examination. Of this number 17 returned 
once; 4 returned twice, and 1 returned three times. 

Our physicians assisted at Underweight School Clinics at Belmont and Stoneham. 

The following examinations were made in our laboratory: Sputum Examina- 
tions: Positive, 545; Negative, 920; Total, 1,465. Urine Analyses, 568; White 
Blood Counts, 46; Red Blood Counts, 5; Differential Blood Counts, 3; Guinea 
Pigs Inoculated, 9; Babcock Milk Tests, 56; Throat Cultures, 27; Other Smears, 
15; Widal Tests, 91. 

Report of Wassermann Tests. — Positive, 2; Negative, 51; Negative (Kahn 
Test), 4; Doubtful, 2. 

479 X-ray films were made. Of this number 105 were consultation clinic cases 
or underweight school clinic patients. 

Dental Report. 

The dental work has undergone a somewhat radical change since the children 
arrived. In the coming year an attempt will be made to classify sone of the oral 
conditions seen at examinations, not with any specific intent at present, but 
chiefly because such a study has not been followed at this Institution with tuber- 
culous children, and it is hoped that as years go on, such a study will increase in 
significance. 

The following table is a summary of the work done during the year: 

Oral Examinations. — On Admissions, 262; Re-Examined, 115; Examined in 
bed, 19. 

Operative. — Extractions (five in bed), 69; Deciduous extractions, 117; Post 
operative irrigations, 8; Cleaning, dark stain and salivary calculus, 130; Gold 
Fillings, 2; Amalgam Fillings, 203; Cement Fillings, 233; Synthetic Porcelain, 
55; Sedative Dressings, 26; Pulps removed, 4; Root Canal dressings, 32; Root 
Canal fillings, 16; Crowns, 3; Bridges repaired, 1; Dentures, 3; Dentures re- 
paired, 2; Ginival treatment, 84; Smears for Vincents Angina, 5; Cases which 
require Orthodontic care, 22; Operative total, 1,411. 

Dr. Joseph W. Reddy resigned July 31, 1926, to take up similar duties at the 
Westfield State Sanatorium. Dr. Gerald H. Caron was appointed to fill the 
vacancy. 



120 P.D. 34. 

Childben. 

Alterations and additions to Pavilions B East and West were completed at the 
end of the first week of March, and the first complement of children arrived March 
8th. Pavilion C East was completed June 5th. During the summer Pavilions B 
West and C East have been filled to capacity and one-half of Pavilion A West and 
Camp 1 East have been filled to capacity and one-half of Pavilion A West and Camp 
1 West have been occupied by the older children. We still have 25 adult male 
patients and 15 female patients. There are empty beds in the pavilions occupied 
by the adult patients, but it is not advisable to fill these beds with the small children. 

We find that the children require, very much more supervision than the adults. 
Although skilled nursing is not required, it is necessary to have a larger number of 
attendants to carry on the work. 

Miss Marguerite M. Murlless, a graduate of the Boston School of Physical 
Education, was engaged in September to supervise the amusements of the children 
and to carry out corrective exercises. We find, however, that it is impossible for 
one person to satisfactorily carry out this work for both girls and boys where the 
ages range from 6 to 16 years. 

An ungraded school was opened on October 11, utilizing the chapel or amusement 
hall for one class room and the reception room on Pavilion B East for the other. 
Two teachers were engaged to carry on this work. The total enrollment was 1 10, 
with an average daily attendance of 93. The grades taught were the first to the 
eighth. We hope that two of the class rooms in the new school building will be 
ready for occupancy by the first of January, 1928. 

Improvements. 

Alterations and additions to Pavilions C East and B East and West were com- 
pleted in the early spring. A swimming pool for the use of the children was con- 
structed and a playground levelled off south of Pavilion C. 

The fire protective system was extended to cover the new schoolhouse, and an 
additional underground heating main and circulating hot water system laid to 
supply Pavilions B and C East, Nurses ' Hall and Chapel, Pavilions A and B West 
and the schoolhouse. A 4" water main was laid from the water tank to the school- 
house, a 75 K.W. unit and additional Ross hot water heater and a motor driven 
1^" centrifugal hot water circulating pump was installed in the power plant, and a 
small addition was made to the garage. A new heat and power line was laid to 
the farm house, and the shed and kitchen of farm house, centre portions of Pavilions 
B East and West and the carriage shed at the barn reshingled. 

Recommendations. 

An improved refrigerating system and enlarged ice box, and alterations in kitchen 
and bake shop are badly needed. The centre portions of East and West Wards 
should be reshingled and rather extensive repairs made on the verandas of Pavilions 
A East and West. 

Alterations in the centre portions of Pavilions A East and West should be made 
before these buildings are entirely turned over for the occupancy of children. 

Acknowledgments. 

The Catholic, Protestant and Jewish chaplains have continued without change, 
and religious services have been held as usual. 

We have received many gifts of magazines, toys, games and books for the chil- 
dren from several individuals, the Junior Red Cross, the Junior Christian Endeavor 
of North Reading and the Kings ' Daughters of Andover. 

Employees. 
Miss Mira B. Ross, our Head Matron, after thirteen years of faithful service, 
resigned on May 4, 1926. Mrs. Clara J. Gill was appointed to fill the vacancy. 

Miss Catherine B. Ryan, Superintendent of Nurses, who had rendered good 
service for a period of four years in that position, resigned on August 18, 1926. 
There have been no other changes in the heads of departments. 
To the employees in general I wish to extend my appreciation for their eflScient 
work. Respectfully submitted, 

Carl C. MacCorison, 

Superintendent. 



P.D. 34. 

Valuation. 

Land. 

Grounds, 12.32 acres $593 45 

Lawns and Buildings, 11.57 acres. 

Roads, .75 acres. 

Woodland, 23.16 acres . 1.115 62 

Mowing, 16.41 acres 790 47 

Tillage, 5.45 acres 262 53 

Tillage, .51 acres. 

Garden, 4.94 acres. 

Orchard, 3.99 acres 192 20 

Pasture, 1.50 acres 72 26 

W.aste and Miscellaneous, 38.93 acres ........ 1,874 77 

Rough Pasture, 8.17 acres. 

Meadow Swamp Land, 30.00 acres. 

Coal Trestle, .75 acres. 



121 



Sewerage system 



$4,901 30 
8,258 31 



Institution Buildings . 
Farm, Stable and Grounds 
^liscellaneous 



Buildings. 



$13,159 61 



$.304,9.54 49 
19,066 59 
102,798 51 426,819 59 



Present value of all personal property as per inventory of November 30, 1926 
Grand Total 



$439,979 20 
87,983 82 



$527,963 02 



Population. 

Number received during the year ....... 

Number passing out of the Institution during the year 

Number at end of fiscal year in the Institution ..... 

Daily average attendance (number of inmates actually present during 
the year) ........... 

Average number of employees and officers during the year . 



Males. 
124 



71.67 
49.00 



Females. 
151 
112 
93 

74.39 
37.09 



Totals. 
275 
198 
183 

146.06 
86.09 



Expenditures. 

Current Expenditures: 

1. Salaries and Wages .... 

2. Clothing 

3. Subsistence ..... 

4. Repairs Ordinary 

5. Office, Domestic and Outdoor Ejcpenses 

Extraordinary Expenses: 

1. Permanent Improvement to Existing Buildings 



Sum7nary of Current Expenses. 



$75,514 60 
2,432 71 

50,396 59 
3,238 94 

14.013 05 



$145,595 89 

2,459 50 

$148,055 39 

$148,055 39 
145,595 89 
144,967 43 



Total Expenditures _ . 
Deducting Extraordinary Expenses 
Deducting amount of sales . 

Dividing this amount by the daily average number of patients 146.06 gives a 
cost for the year of $992.52, equivalent to an average weekly net cost of $19.09. 



STATISTICAL TABLES. 
Table I. — Admissions and Discharges. 



Patients in Sanatorium Dec. 1, 1925 ..... 

Patients admitted from Dec. 1, 1925, to November 30, 1926, inclusive 
Patients discharged from Dec. 1, 1925, to November 30, 1926, inclusive 
Patients remaining in Sanatorium November 30, 1926 
Daily average number patients ...... 

Deaths (included in number discharged) ...... 



Males. 

52 

124 

86 

90 

71.67 
6 



Females. 

.54 

151 

112 

93 

74.39 
6 



Totals. 
106 
275 
198 
183 

146.06 
12 



Single . 
Married 
Widowed 
Divorced 

Totals 



Table II. — Civil Condition of Patients admitted. 

Males. Females. 

112 135 

12 12 

- 2 

- 2 



124 



151 



Totals. 

247 

24 

2 

2 

275 



122 



1 to 13 
13 to 20 
21 to 30 
31 to 40 
41 to 50 
51 to 60 
Over 60 



P.D. 34. 



Table III. 



years 
years 
years 
years 
years 
years 
years 



Age of Patients admitted. 








Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Per- 
centage. 


. 75 


70 


145 


52.728 


. 27 


52 


79 


28.728 


. 12 


18 


30 


10.909 


7 


8 


15 


5.454 


1 


3 


4 


1.454 


2 


— 


2 


0.727 


. 


- 


- 


0.000 



151 



Average Age of Patients, 14.46 years. 

Table IV. — Nativity and Percentage of Patients admitted. 



275 100.00 











Males. 


Females. 


Totals. 


Place of Nativity. 


"S 


cii 


si 


e 


u 




a 


u 


i 




.2 


J5 


J3 


.2 


^ 


^ 


.2 




^ 




1^ 




O 






1 


Oh 


1^ 


1 


United States 


109 


49 


55 


132 


43 


50 


241 


92 


105 


Massachusetts .... 


98 


34 


42 


121 


36 


43 


219 


70 


85 


Other N. E. States .... 


8 


6 


8 


9 


1 


5 


17 


7 


13 


Other States 


3 


9 


5 


2 


6 


2 


5 


15 


7 


Total 


109 


49 


55 


132 


43 


50 


241 


92 


105 


Other Countries: 




















Albania 


_ 


_ 


_ 


— 


1 


1 


— 


1 


1 


Argentina 








1 


_ 


_ 


1 


— 


- 


2 


— 


— 


Armenia . 










1 


1 




1 


1 


_ 


2 


2 


Austria . 








_ 






_ 


3 


3 


— 


3 


3 


Brazil 








1 


_ 


1 


1 


_ 


_ 


2 


— 


1 


Canada . 








2 


24 


19 


7 


34 


31 


9 


58 


5^ 


Denmark 








_ 


2 


1 








_ 


2 


1 


England . 








3 


5 


5 


2 


6 


4 


5 


11 


9 


Finland . 










1 


1 


_ 


3 


3 


— 


4 


4 


Germany 








_ 






- 


1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


Greece 








1 


5 


2 


— 


1 


1 


1 


6 


3 


Ireland . 








1 


10 


16 


1 


15 


19 


2 


25 


35 


Italy 








3 


12 


11 


2 


15 


12 


5 


27 


23 


Latvia _ . 














— 


1 


1 


- 


1 


1 


Lithuania 








1 


1 


1 


_ 


2 


2 


1 


3 


3 


Madeira 










1 




— 


2 


— 


— 


3 


— 


Norway . 








_ 


1 


_ 


— 


1 


1 


— 


2 


1 


Poland . 








_ 


2 


2 


_ 


1 


1 


— 


3 


3 


Portugal 








_ 




1 


1 


2 


4 


1 


2 


5 


Russia 








1 


6 


5 


2 


10 


10 


3 


16 


15 


Scotland 














— 


2 


2 


_ 


2 


2 


Sweden . 








1 


1 


3 


2 


4 


3 


3 


5 


6 


Syria 














— 


1 


1 


— 


1 


1 


West Indies 








- 


1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


Total Foreign 


15 


72 


69 


19 


107 


100 


34 


179 


169 


Unknown 








- 


3 


- 


- 


1 


1 


- 


4 


1 


Grand Totals .... 


15 


75 


69 


19 


108 


101 


34 


183 


170 










124 


124 


124 


151 


151 


151 


275 


275 


275 



Table V. — Residence of Patients admitted 

Andover, 1 Lowell, 6 

Arlington, 1 Lynn, 9 

Beverly, 2 Maiden, 5 

Boston, 108 Marblehead, 1 

Cambridge, 4 Maynard, 1 

Canton, 2 Medford, 4 

Chelsea, 2 Melrose, 1 

E. Templeton, 1 Methuen, 7 

Everett, 3 Natick, 1 " 

Fall River, 19 New Bedford, 2 

Fitchburg, 8 Newton, 8 

Gloucester, 7 Peabody, 5 

Lawrence, 3 Quincy, 17 

Leominster, 5 Randolph, 1 

Lexington, 2 Reading, 1 



Revere, 3 
Salem, 3 
Saugus, 1 
Somerville, 7 
So. Belchertown, 1 
Stoughton, 2 
Tewksbury, 5 
Wakefield, 3 
Waltham, 3 
Winchester, 2 
Winthrop, 1 
Woburn, 4 
Worcester, 2 
Total, 275 



P.D. 34. 



Table VI. — Occupation of Patients admitted. 



123 





Males. 


Females. 




Males. 


Females. 


Auto mechanic 


1 


_ 


Milliner .... 


- 


1 


Cashier . 






— 


1 


Mill Operative . 






1 


- 


Chauffeur 






1 


— 


Printer . 






1 


- 


Clerk . 






3 


3 


Salesgirl . 






— 


1 


Dishwasher 






1 


— 


Salesman 






2 


— 


Dressmaker 






— 


1 


Student . 






85 


108 


Errand boy 






1 


_ 


Seamstress 






— 


1 


Factory Worker 






_ 


3 


Shoe Worker . 






— 


1 


Fireman . 






1 


— 


Stenographer . 






— 


1 


Gardener 






1 


- 


Telephone Operator 






— 


3 


Housewife 






— 


13 


Waitress 






— 


2 


Houseworker . 






— 


2 


Woodcarver 






1 


— 


Laborer . 






4 


— 


Woodworker . 






1 


- 


Longshoreman 






1 


— 


None 






15 


10 


Machinbt 
Meat Cutter . 






1 

1 














_ 


Total 


124 


151 


Metal Worker . 






1 


- 









Grand Total, 275. 



Table VII. — Stage of Disease on Admission. 





Adults. 


Children 


(under 


17 Yrs. 


OF Age). 




Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


1 Totals. 


Per- 
centage. 


Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Totals. 1 


Per- 
centage. 


Bronchial Adenitis . 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


21 


16 


37 


12.727 


Hilum Tuberculosis 


— 


— 


- 


_ 


61 


60 


121 


45.818 


Minimal 


5 


4 


9 


3.272 


3 


10 


13 


4.727 


Moderately Advanced 


17 


28 


45 


16.774 


3 


16 


19 


6.909 


Advanced 


1 


3 


4 


1.776 


4 


9 


13 


4.727 


Cervical Adenitis . 


— 


— 


_ 




1 


_ 


1 


0.363 


Non-Tuberculous (Aortic 


















Stenosis) 


— 


— 


_ 


_ 


1 


_ 


1 


0.363 


Non-Tuberculous (Lung 


















Abscess) 


_ 


1 


1 


0.363 


_ 


_ 


— 


— 


Unclassified . 


- 


- 


- 


- 


7 


4 


11 


2.181 


Total 


23 


36 


59 


22.185 


101 


115 


216 


77 815 





Table VIII. 


— Condition on Discharge 










Adults. 


Children (under 17 Yrs. 


OP Age). 




Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Totals. 


Per- 
centage. 


Males. Ji;,_ 


Totals. 1 


Per- 
centage. 


Arrested 


1 


2 


3 


1.515 


2 


_ 


2 


1.010 


Apparently Arrested 


_ 


_ 


_ 




7 


9 


16 


8.080 


Quiescent 


11 


28 


39 


19.695 


9 


5 


14 


7.070 


Improved 


11 


25 


36 


18.180 


8 


9 


17 


8.585 


Unimproved . 


20 


14 


34 


17.170 




7 


7 


3.-535 


Died . . . . 


4 


5 


9 


4.545 


2 


1 


3 


1.515 


Non-Tuberculous ( Aortic 


















Stenosis) 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


1 


0.505 


Non-Tuberculous (Lung 


















Abscess^ 


— 


1 


1 


0.505 


— 


— 


- 


- 


Not Considered 


1 


2 


3 


1.515 


9 


4 


13 


6.575 


Totals . 


48 


77 


125 


63.125 


38 


35 


73 


36.875 



Table IX. 



Deaths. 











Length of Residen 


CE 


Duration of Diseases. 


Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Totals. 


AT 


Sanatorium. 








Fe- 1 rp 
males. | 












Males. 


otals. 


Under 1 month ..... 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1 


_ 


1 


1 to 2 months . 










_ 


_ 


_ 




_ 




2 to 3 months . 










_ 


_ 


_ 


1 


_ 


1 


3 to 4 months . 










_ 


_ 


_ 




_ 




4 to 5 months . 










_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


5 to 6 months . 










_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


6 to 7 months . 










_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


7 to 8 months . 










_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


8 to 9 months . 










_ 


_ 


_ 


1 


_ 


1 


9 to 10 months . 










_ 


_ 


_ 




_ 




10 to 12 months 










_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1 


1 


12 to 18 months 










— 


2 


2 


2 


3 


5 


18 to 24 months 










_ 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


Over 2 years 










6 


3 


9 




1 


1 


Totals 










6 


6 


12 


6 


6 


12 



Tuberculosis of Lungs 



Table X. 


— Cause of Death. 








Males. 


Females. 


Totals 




15 


9 


24 



124 P.D. 34. 

RUTLAND STATE SANATORIUM. 

Resident Officers. 
Ernest B. Emerson, M.D., Superintendent. 
William B. Davidson, M.D., Assistant Superintendent. 
Mark H. Joress, M.D., Assistant Physician. 
Paul Dufault, M.D., Assistant Physician. 
Jean Albert Joannette, M.D., Assistant Physician. 
Hermenegilde Vachon, M.D:, Assistant Physician. 
Frank H. Washburn, M.D., Consulting Surgeon, Non-resident. 
William J. O'Connor, D.M.D., Dentist, Non-resident. 
Mary A. Boyle, Treasurer. 
Delya E. Nardi, Superintendent of Nurses. 
Cora A. Phillips, Head Matron. 
Olin C. Blaisdell, Steward. 
Harry U. Wendell, Chief Engineer. 
Joseph A. Carroll, Head Farmer. 
Mary E. Bell, Dietitian. 

REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 
To Dr. George H. Bigelow, Commissioner, Department of Public Health. 

I have the honor to submit the thirtieth annual report of the Rutland State 
Sanatorium for the year ending November 30, 1926. 

During the year there has been expended $278,535.10 for maintenance, a gross 
weekly per capita cost of $15.1110. There has been expended from the special 
appropriation authorized by Chapter 126, Resolves 1924, $622.99; from the spe- 
cial appropriation authorized by Chapter 211, Resolves 1925, $625.37; from the 
special appropriation authorized by Chapter 347, Resolves 1925, $732.17; from 
the special appropriation authorized by Chapter 79, Acts 1926, $770.46. 

There has been collected from miscellaneous sources (the total of all collections), 
$248,174.87, an increase of 52.11% over the collection of last year. Deducting 
this amount from the gross maintenance expense leaves a net expense of $30,360.23, 
a net weekly per capita cost of $1.6471. There has been collected from private 
sources $19,746.14; from cities and towns $55,868.62; from Worcester County 
$30,672.50; from Middlesex County $120,280.00; from the Attorney General 
$2,686.96; from the United States Veterans Bureau $108.95. 

Thirty-seven cases were supported wholly or in part from private funds; forty 
bj^ cities and towns; seventeen wholly by the. State; one hundred sixty-six by 
Middlesex County; fifty-four by Worcester County; twenty-seven by the Tuber- 
cular Hospital District of Chelsea, Revere and Winthrop. There were twenty- 
two cases on which settlement had not been determined. 

There were 349 patients in the sanatorium at the beginning of the year, 363 at 
the close. The largest number present at one time was 372 and the smallest 329. 
The daily average number of patients was 354.47, an increase of 8.49. There 
were 464 patients admitted during the year, 49 less than last year; 65 minimal, 
131 moderately advanced, 245 far advanced and 23 unclassified. There were 252 
admitted from cities and towns of over 25,000 population and 212 from cities and 
towns under 25,000 population. The average age of patients admitted was 30.88, 
a decrease of .18. Including deaths there were 450 patients discharged, 63 less 
than last year, and the average duration of residence was 268 days, 30 days more 
than last year. Of those discharged 258 gained 2,965.25 pounds, an average gain 
of 11.49 pounds per person. Of the discharges there were 7 arrested cases, 4 less 
than last year, 10 apparently arrested cases, 16 less than last year, 181 quiescent 
cases, 34 less than last year, 50 improved, 60 unimproved and 27 not considered, 
the duration of treatment being less than one month. There were 13 discharged 
non-tuberculous. There were 102 deaths, 17 more than last year. There were 
129,384 days of treatment, 3,098 more than last year. 

The following table shows the classification on the apphcation blank and our 
classification on admission: 



P.D. 34. 



125 





Classification 

ON Application 

Blanks. 


Our Classification 
ON Admission. 


Per Cent. 




1925. 1926. 


1926. 


1926. 


1926. 1 1926. 


Minimal ..... 
Moderately advanced 
Far advanced .... 
Unclassified .... 


170 125 

228 255 

60 67 

55 17 

613 464 


71 
142 
275 

25 

513 


65 
131 
245 

23 

464 


13.84 14.01 

27.68 28.23 

63.61 52.80 

4.87 4.96 



During the two years of the County contracts there have been admitted 72 less 
minimal cases than during the two year period prior to the contracts — approxi- 
mately 35 per cent. The number of advanced cases admitted has increased from 
75 per cent to 81 per cent. 

Laboratory Report. — The following is a report of the work done in the labora- 
tory during the year: Urine examinations: Routine, 625; 24 hour specimens, 13; 
Total, 638. Sputum examinations for the tubercle baciUi: Positive, 2,907; No 
tubercle bacilli found, 3,927; Total, 6,834. Urine examinations (special): Dia- 
cetic acid, 2; Acetone, 2; Quantitative sugar, 3; Kidney function, 1. Blood 
counts, 37; Guinea Pig inoculations, 18; Cultures, 22; Smears for differentiation 
of bacteria, 22; Bacteriological examination of milk, 30; Examination of feces, 5; 
Blood smear for malaria, 1. Widal reactions: Bacillus typhosus, 110; Bacillus 
paratyphosus A, 110; Bacillus para typhosus B, 110; Total, 330. Initial cultures 
made for further examination for Bacillus Typhosus: From urine, 87; From feces, 
85; Total, 172. Blood drawn for Wassermann Test: Negative, 369; Positive, 9; 
Doubtful, 6; Total, 384. 

Of 363 patients remaining in the sanatorium November 30, 1926, .6% report 
"no sputum", 77.3% have positive sputum and 22.1% no tubercle bacilli found. 

Lectures. — Twenty-four lectures given in bacteriology. 

Dentistry. — The following is a summary of the dental work done during the 
year: Office visits, 2,514; Mouth washes, 268; Amalgam fillings, 240; Cement 
fillings, 152; Gutta Percha fillings, 240; Temporary fillings, 161; Surgical dress- 
ings, 16; Extractions, 421; Post extractions, 268; Vincent's Disease, 12; Gingi- 
vitis, 60; Trismus, 1; Abscess Cases, 191; Abscesses treated, 126; Stomatitis, 
78; Bed treatments, 60; Bone dissections, 4; Hemorrhages checked, 1; Inlays, 
28; Plates repaired, 20; Bridges, 31; Crowns, 40; Extractions under novocaine, 
410; Extractions under ethyl chloride, 11; Prophylactics, 261; X-Rays teeth, 66; 
Pulp treatments, 3; Tuberculous palates, 3; Impacted teeth extracted, 14; Re- 
pairs to bridges, 2; Bedside extractions, 24; Genito-urinary Stomatitis, 3; Alveo- 
lar Process T.B., 2; Syphilitic Ranular, 6. 

X-Ray Report. — X-Ray plates (chest), 750; X-Ray plates (teeth), 66. 

Consultation Clinics. — The following tables indicate the work of the Consulta- 
tion clinics: Number of patients examined, 197; Diagnosis: Tuberculosis, 77; 
Non-tuberculosis, 52; Observation, 57; Hilum tuberculosis, 11. 

197 consultation cases reported for 257 examinations and 23 ex-patients reported 
for 62 follow-up examinations making a total of 319 examinations at the con- 
sultation clinics. 

Number of patients examined once, 171; twice, 21; three times, 4; six times, 1. 

Number of ex-patients examined once, 18; twice, 4; six times, 1. 

Number of physicians referring patients 72. 

There were 16 patients admitted to the sanatorium following examinations at the 
consultation clinics. 

The following examinations were made at the Sanatorium: Patients referred by 
physicians, 144; patients examined at own request, 97; Total, 211. Diagnosis: 
Tuberculosis, 59; Observation, 57; Non-tuberculosis, 89; Hilum tuberculosis, 6. 

211 patients reported for 237 examinations and 163 ex-patients reported for 212 
examinations making a total of 449 examinations at the sanatorium. 

Number of patients examined once, 199; twice, 10; three times, 2. 

Number of ex-patients examined once, 126; twice, 25; three times, 12. 

Number of physicians referring patients, 65. 



126 P.D. 34. 

There were 23 patients admitted to the sanatorium following examinations at the 
sanatorium. 

The total of all examinations made during the year, exclusive of routine work was 
768. 

Dr. Halbert Charles Hubbard. 

It is fitting that tribute be paid to the memory of Dr. Halbert Charles Hubbard, 
Assistant Superintendent, who after a brief illness passed away early in the year. 

Doctor Hubbard possessed sterling qualities which endeared him as a physician 
and friend to his patients and fellow workers. Firm but ever sympathetic, never 
sparing himself to relieve suffering or to bring cheer; quiet and unobtrusive, he 
nevertheless made his presence felt. His judgment and counsel were based on a 
broad knowledge of medicine. Honorable in his dealings with his co-workers, 
possessing a sense of humor and a well balanced outlook on life, the Rutland State 
Sanatorium sustains the loss of a real man. 

Changes in Personnel. 

Dr. William B. Davidson, Senior Assistant Physician, was promoted to the 
position of Assistant Superintendent. 

Dr. Jean Albert Joanette was appointed to the staff Mar. 8, 1926. 

Dr. Joseph MuUer resigned Sept. 24, 1926 to enter private practice. Doctor 
MuUer was most efficient and conscientious in the performance of his medical duties, 
and what is our loss is a gain to the community. 

The resignation of Dr. Paul Dufault to take place early in the coming year is in 
hand. 

These resignations again emphasize the difficulty, if not the impossibility, of 
maintaining a medical staff competent to carry on the medical activities which the 
public has a right to expect and to demand. The one solution of the problem which 
I can see is that suitable compensation, including quarters, be paid to attract and to 
hold the physician qualified to be charged with the care of our patients. Present 
salaries neither attract nor hold in the service the better grade of physicians further 
than as a means to an end, and that end is either private practice or higher salaried 
positions in other States. 

Training School for Nurses. 

The Training School for Nurses is now entering its nineteenth year and again is 
an exemplification of practical vocational training for both men and women, as well 
as a financial asset to the Commonwealth. The following affiliations supplement 
the course given at the Sanatorium: Cooley-Dickinson Hospital, obstetrics and 
surgery, Worcester City Hospital, pediatrics and medicine and Worcester State 
Hospital, mental diseases. There are 35 pupil nurses; 12 seniors, 9 intermediates, 
9 juniors and 5 probationers. 

The following have been awarded diplomas: 

Mary Agnes Forbes 
Isabella Freede 
Rose Evelyn Argento 
Anna Marie Beausoleil 
Mary Ruth Doherty 
Helen Cecelia Reynolds 
Alice Frances IngersoU 
Grace Marie Serafine 
Helen Anderson 
Hazel Baker 
Andrew Dominic Waldron 

Miss Ellen E. Murray was appointed Assistant Superintendent of Nurses Feb. 
10, 1926 and devotes much of her time to class room and practical instruction. 

Miss Mary E. Bell was appointed Dietitian July 1, 1926. She has classes in 
dietetics and a general supervision of the diets. 

Instruction in the training school has been given by members of the Staff supple- 
mented by a course of lectures given by Dr. G. Arnold Rice, Dr. Charles E. Ayers, 



P.D. 34. 127 

and Dr. John O'Meara. Dr. William B. Davidson has given a course of lectures 
at the Holden District Hospital and at the Heywood Hospital, Gardner, Massachu- 
setts. 

Publications. 

Dr. Mark H. Joress published the following papers during the year: "The 
Importance of the History in Tuberculosis," "Rehabilitation of the Tuberculous," 
and "The Use of Artificial Pneumothorax in the Treatment of Pulmonary Tuber- 
culosis." 

Dr. Joseph Muller read the following papers, not yet published: one to the 
Worcester District Medical Society entitled, "Treatment of Syphilis," and one to 
the Wachusett Medical Society entitled, "Treatment of Eczema." 

Recommendations. 

Preliminary plans and estimates are submitted for an employees' building for 
the housing of 44 employees. It is estimated that $64,000.00 will be required for 
the building and 16,000.00 for furnishings, a total of $70,000.00. At the present 
time half the women employees are housed in dormitories or rooms adjacent to or 
opening into ward corridors, and sharing toilet and locker room facilities with the 
patients, a condition which is subversive of discipline and a source of friction. 
Rooms and dormitories now occupied by these employees are needed for the care 
of sick patients and recreation purposes. The need of rooms for terminal cases is 
particularly emphasized during the past year as evidenced by 102 deaths as against 
53 deaths the year prior to the County contracts. The large wards are not well 
adapted for the care of so many critically ill patients. Reading and recreation 
rooms add much to the comfort and contentment of patients, and are, I believe, 
an essential factor in sanatorium treatment. During the winter months patients 
are obliged to make use of locker and lavatory rooms for reading and writing. An 
employees' building will not only relieve intolerable living conditions for women 
employees, but will, at least, help solve the problem of caring for an increasing 
number of helpless patients. The plans of this building are substantially the 
same as those of the building for male employees. 

A portable X-ray machine costing approximately $1,200.00 is needed for use on 
those cases too ill to be moved to the laboratory. 

Five thousand dollars is required for replacement of laundry equipment. 

Six hundred dollars is needed for a new silo. 

Sixteen hundred dollars is needed for retubing the boilers and four hundred dollars 
for a cement mixer. 

The work on the morgue and refrigeration is in progress and will probably be 
completed early in the year. 

The contract for the sprinkler system was given to the Rhode Island Supply & 
Sprinkler Company and this work will doubtless be completed early in the coming 
year. 

Acknowledgments, 

Reverend Father McNamara, Reverend Father Smith and Rabbi H. S. Bloom 
have served another year. Chaplain Thomas Livingston resigned and is succeeded 
by Reverend Robert French of Rutland. Reverend Milton Robison supplied 
frequently during the illness of Chaplain Livingston. They have brought, as in 
past years, comfort and peace of mind to all seeking spiritual consolation. 

In closing I wish to acknowledge with gratitude the interest and cooperation of 
all employees who have contributed their share in the work of the past year. It is 
the loyalty and spirit of the employees which is the measure of whatever success 
or efficiency may be attained in an institution. 

I am not only mindful but grateful for your confidence, consideration and counsel. 

Respectfully, 

ERNEST B. EMERSON, 
Superintendent. 



128 P.D. 34. 

Valuation. 
Land. 

Grounds, 46.837 acres $17,071 20 

Lawns and buildings, 36.S37 acres. 

Roads, 10.00 acres. 

Woodland, 89.34 acres . . 3,163 20 

Mowing, 82.06 acres . . . 8,206 00 

Tillage, 26.89 acres 2,689 00 

Tillage, 22.54 acres. 

Garden, 4.35 acres. 

Orchard, 1.64 acres 328 00 

Pasture, 88.04 acres 4,183 55 

Waste and Miscellaneous, 29.92 acres . 2,596 20 

Rough Pasture, 5.22 acres. 

Meadow Swamp, 18.22 acres. 

Sewer Beds, 5.98 acres. 

Coal Trestle, .50 acres. 

Sewerage System 15,508 32 

$53,745 47 

Buildings. 

Institution buildings $543,394 74 

Farm, Stable and Grounds 34,275 00 

Miscellaneous 58,437 48 636,107 22 



$689,852 69 
Present value of all personal property as per inventory of November 30, 1926 . . . 83,733 95 



Grand total $773,586 64 

Population. 

Males. Females. Totals. 

Number received during the year ....... 234 230 464 

Number passing out of the institution during the year . . . 237 213 450 

Number at end of the fiscal year in the institution . . . .187 176 363 

Daily average attendance (number of inmates actually present during 

year) 181.42 173.05 354.47 

Average number of employees and officers during the year . . . 121.56 68.71 190.27 

Expenditures. 

Current expenditures: 

1. Salaries and wages . . $141,934 86 

2. Clothing 281 40 

3. Subsistence 78,958 19 

4. Ordinary repairs .......... 7,491 17 

5. Office, domestic and outdoor expenses ...... 49,869 48 

$278,535 10 

Extraordinary expenses: 

1. Permanent improvements to existing buildings ....... 2,750 99 

$281,286 09 

Summary of Current Expenses. 

Total expenditure $281,286 09 

Deducting extraordinary expenses ....... 2,750 99 

$278,535 10 

Deducting amount of sales ............ 1,565 56 

$276,969 54 

Dividing this amount with the daily average number of patients 354.47, gives a 
total cost for the year of $781.33, equivalent to an average weekly net cost of 
115.0255. 

STATISTICAL TABLES. 

Table 1. — Admissions and Discharges. 

Patients in Sanatorium Nov. 30, 1925 .... 
Patients admitted Dec. 1, 1925 to Nov. 30, 1926 inclusive . 
Patients discharged Dec. 1, 1925 to Nov. 30, 1926 inclusive 
Patients remaining in Sanatorium Nov. 30, 1926 
Daily average number of patients ..... 
Deaths (included in number discharged) .... 

Table 2. — Civil Condition of Pi 

Males. 

Single 121 

Married 109 

Widowed ........ 4 

Divorced ........ - 

234 230 464 



Males. 


Females. Totals. 


. 190 


159 


349 


. 234 


230 


464 


. 237 


213 


450 


. 187 


176 


363 


. 181.42 


173. 


05 354.47 


. 59 


43 


102 


tients admitted. 






Females. 




Totals. 


114 




235 


104 




213 


12 




16 



P.D. 34. 



Under 14 years 
14 to 20 years 
20 to 30 years 
30 to 40 years 
40 to 50 years 
Over 50 years 
Average age 



129 



Table 3. — Age of Patients admitted. 



Per- 



Malcs. Females. Totals, centage. 



34 


37 




71 




15.. 30 


SO 


111 




197 




42.46 


56 


51 




107 




23.06 


39 


24 




63 




13.58 


19 


7 




26 




5.60 


32.. 56 


29. 


17 


30. 


88 


- 



234 



230 



Table 4. — Nativitij and Parentage of Patients admitted. 





Males. 


Females. 


Totals. 


Place of N.^tivity. 


c 
.2 


o 


o 


a 

a 
CM 


a) 


-a 
o 


.2 

a 


a 


.a 
o 


United States: 

Massarhusetts .... 
Other New England States . 
Other States .... 


lis 

14 
14 


31 

20 
14 


33 
13 
13 


141 

9 

13 


33 

20 
9 


37 
17 

7 


2.59 
23 
27 


64 
40 
23 


70 
30 
20 


Total Native .... 
Other Countries (27; : 

Total Foreign .... 
Unknown ..... 


146 

SS 


65 

166 
3 


59 

172 
3 


163 
67 


62 

164 
4 


61 

i65 
4 


309 
155 


127 

330 

7 


120 

337 

7 


Grand Totals ... 


234 


234 


234 


2.30 


230 


230 


464 


464 


464 



Table 5. — Residence of Patients admitted. 



Place Number 

Acton, 1 
Arlington, 9 
Ashburnham, 1 
Athol, 2 
Attleboro, 1 
Auburn, 1 
Belmont, 4 
Blackstone, 3 
Boston, 62 
Cambridge, 7 
Chelmsford, 3 
Chelsea, 17 
Chicopee, 2 
Clinton, 5 
Concord, 3 
Deerfield, 2 
Dudley, 1 
Everett, 21 
Fall River, 3 
Fitchburg, 1 
Framingham, 10 
Gardner, 14 
Grafton, 2 
Greenfield, 1 
Hardwick, 2 
HoUiston, 1 
Holyoke, 2 
Hopkinton, 2 



Place Number 

Hudson, 5 
Leominster, 7 
Lexington, 2 
Lowell, 4 
Ludlow, 2 
Maiden, 24 
Marlborough, 12 
Maynard, 1 
Medford, 14 
Melrose, 3 
Mendon, 1 
Milford, 5 
Millbury, 1 
Millville, 2 
Natick, 4 
New Bedford, 2 
Newton, 10 
Northbridge, 10 
North Brookfield, 1 
Norwood, 1 
Oxford, 1 
Petersham, 1 
Quincy, 1 
Reading, 4 
Revere, 14 
Royalston, 1 
Russell, 1 
Rutland, 2 



Place Number 

Sherborn, 2 
Shrewsbury, 2 
Somerville, 25 
Southborough, 2 
Southbridge, 7 
South Hadley, 2 
Springfield, 6 
Sterling, 1 
Stoneham, 1 
Templeton, 1 
Tewksbury, 1 
Uxbridge, 3 
Wakefield, 5 
Waltham, 19 
Watertown, 6 
Webster, 14 
Westborough, 2 
Westford, 1 
Wilmington, 1 
Winchendon, 6 
Winchester, 5 
Winthrop, 3 
Woburn, 11 
Worcester, 18 
AVoonsocket, R. I., 1 
Total, 464 



130 



P.D. 34. 



Table 6. — Occupation of Cases admitted. 





Males. 


Females. 




Males. 


Females. 


Agent, Insurance 


2 


- 


Manager, Floor 


1 


_ 


Architect . . . . 


1 


- 


Manager, Store 


2 


_ 


Attendant 


3 


1 


Manager, Service Station 


1 


_ 


Baker . . . . 


2 


— 


Manager, Gas Station 


1 


_ 


Barber . . . . 


4 


- 


Mechanic 


4 


_ 


Bookkeeper 


2 


4 


Merchant 


3 


_ 


Brakeman 


1 


- 


Metal Plater . 


1 


_ 


Bricklayer 


2 


- 


Mill Work 


10 


5 


Butcher . . . . 


1 


- 


Millwright 


1 




Cabinet Worker 


1 


— 


Moulder . . . . 


2 


_ 


Carpenter 


6 


- 


Nurse, Graduate 


— 


5 


Cashier . . . . 


- 


2 


Nurse, Practical 


— 


3 


Chauffeur 


9 


- 


Nurse, Student 


1 


3 


Checker (B. & A. R.R.) . 


1 


- 


No occupation . 




5 


Clerk, Drug 


1 


— 


Officer, Police . 


1 


_ 


Clerk, Mail 


1 


- 


Operator, Telephone . 


— 


6 


Clerk, Office . 


26 


19 


Operator, Telegraph . 


1 


_ 


Confectioner 


1 


— 


Optometrist 


1 


_ 


Cook . . . . 


1 


1 


Painter . . . . 


5 


_ 


Cutter, Clothing 


1 


- 


Pharmacist 


2 


_ 


Cutter, Stone . 


2 


— 


Plumber . . . . 


2 


_ 


Dancer . . . . 


1 


— 


Printer . . . . 


2 


_ 


Die Maker 


1 


- 


Repairman 


1 


_ 


Draftsman 


1 


- 


Salesman . . . . 


11 


_ 


Dressmaker 


- 


3 


Saleslady . . . . 




2 


Electrician 


2 


- 


Seamstress 


- 


2 


Engineer, Civil 


1 


— 


Secretary 


1 


1 


Expressman 


1 


- 


Sheet Metal Worker . 


1 




Factory Worker 


19 


22 


Shipper . . . . 


1 


_ 


Farmer . . . . 


3 


- 


Shoe Worker . 


8 


6 


Fireman . . . . 


1 


- 


Silversmith 


1 




Foreman . . . . 


3 


- 


Stenographer 




8 


Gardener . . . . 


5 


- 


Student . . . . 


11 


4 


General Work . 


5 


2 


Superintendent, Ass't 


1 


— 


Guard, Boston Elevated 


1 


— 


Tailor . . . . 


3 


_ 


Housekeeper 


- 


5 


Teacher . . . . 




6 


Housewife 


— 


88 


Teamster 


3 


— 


Housework 


— 


16 


Trainman 


1 


_ 


Inspector 


1 


- 


Truckman 


2 


— 


Illustrator 


1 


- 


Typist . . . . 




1 


Janitor . . . . 


3 


- 


Undertaker 


1 


— 


Junk Collector . 


1 


_ 


Waiter . . . . 


2 


_ 


Kitchen Work . 


— 


1 


Waitress . . . . 


_ 


3 


Laborer . . . . 


12 


— 


Weaver . . . . 


4 


6 


Leather Worker 


3 


— 


Welder . . . . 


1 




Machinist 


6 


- 









Total number of occupations, 91. Number of males, 234; number of females, 230; Total, 464. 

Table 7. — Stage of Disease at Admission. 



Minimal . 
Moderately advanced 
Far advanced . 
Unclassified 



Arrested . 
Apparently arrested 
Quiescent 
Improved 
Unimproved 
Deaths 

Non-tuberculous 
Not considered . 



Males. 


Females. 


29 


36 


73 


58 


115 


130 


17 


6 



230 



Totals. Percentages. 

65 ' 14.01 
131 28.23 

245 52 . SO 

23 4.96 

464 



Table 8. — Condition on Discharge. 



Males. 


Females. 


Totals. 


Percentages 


2 





7 


1.56 


5 


5 


10 


2.22 


93 


88 


181 


40.22 


24 


26 


50 


11.11 


31 


29 


60 


13.33 


59 


43 


102 


22.67 


9 


4 


13 


2 . 89 


14 


13 


27 


6.00 



450 



P.D. 34. 



131 









Table 9. 


— Deaths. 




















Length of Rest 


DENCE 


Duration of 


Disease. 




Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


Totals. 


AT 


Sanatorium. 






Fe- 
Males. 
















Males. 


Totals. 


Under 1 month . 






- 


_ 


- 


8 


6 


14 


1 to 2 months 








— 


- 


— 


9 


6 


15 


2 to 3 months 








— 


_ 


— 


5 


5 


10 


3 to 4 months 








- 


1 


1 


5 


4 


9 


4 to 5 months 








2 


_ 


2 


6 


2 


8 


5 to 6 months 








1 


1 


2 


5 


3 


8 


6 to 7 months 








1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


4 


7 to 8 months 








4 


- 


4 


2 


4 


6 


8 to 9 months 








— 


1 


I 


3 


2 


5 


9 to 10 months 








2 


1 


3 


3 


— 


3 


10 to 12 months 








2 


5 


7 


3 


- 


3 


12 to 18 months 








8 


11 


19 


5 


3 


8 


18 to 24 months 








8 


3 


11 


2 


4 


6 


Over 2 years 








31 


19 


50 


1 


2 


3 








59 


43 


102 


50 


43 


102 



Table 10. — Cause of Death. 



Males. 
Pulmonary tuberculosis ..... 57 

Pulmonary abscess ...... 1 

Carcinoma of lung ...... 1 

59 



Females. 


Totals 


43 


100 


— 


1 


- 


1 



43 



102 



WESTFIELD STATE SANATORIUM. 

Resident Officers. 

Henry D. Chadwick, M.D., Superintendent. 

Roy Morgan, M.D., Acting Superintendent. 

Heman B. Chase, M.D., Physician. 

Joseph W. Reddy, M.D., Physician. 

Samuel Isserlis, Dentist. 

Emily B. Morgan, Superintendent of Nurses and Matron. 

Sara R. Skerry, Dietitian. 

Josephine E. French, Treasurer. 

Florence I. Smith, Steward. 

Benjamin J. Sandiford, Chief Engineer. 

William G. Atkinson, Farmer. 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT. 

To George H. Bigelow, M.D., Commissioner, Department of Public Health. 

I have the honor to submit the seventeenth annual report of the Westfield State 
Sanatorium for the year ending November 30th, 1926. 

During the year there has been expended $232,056.24 for Maintenance, a gross 
weekly per capita cost of $15,715. 

There has been collected from miscellaneous sources $88,578.83. Deducting 
this amount from the gross maintenance expense, leaves a net expense of $143,- 
477.41, or a net weekly per capita cost of $9,716. There has been collected from 
private funds $2,984.00; from cities and towns $82,108.90. 18 cases were sup- 
ported wholly or in part from private funds; 198 by cities and towns; 50 wholly 
by the state; 13 by the Department of Public Welfare; 39 status undetermined; 
2 part city and part state. 

We had 287 patients at the beginning of the year and 269 at the close. Our 
daily average was 283.96. The largest number present was 313, the smallest 247. 
Total of cases admitted was 320. These were classified as shown in the following 
table: 



Classification on 
Application Blank. 


Our Classification 
on Admission. 

39 


59 


210 


155 


19 


40 


30 


5 


14 


2 


1 


- 


2 


7 


1 


- 


1 


- 


1 


1 


- 


- 


1 


51 


1 



132 P.D. 34. 

Bronchial Adenitis 

Hilum Tuberculosis 

Minimal 

Moderately Advanced .... 

Advanced 

Bone Tuberculosis 

Pulmonary Abscess 

Cervical Adenitis 

Tuberculous Empyema .... 
Unresolved Pneumonia .... 

Tuberculous Mastoid 

Non-Tuberculous 

Unclassified 

320 320 

223 cases were admitted from cities and towns of over 25,000 population; 97 
from cities and towns of less than 25,000. The average age of patients was 11.68 
years. There were 338 discharges. Of these 51 were Apparently Well; 133 
Apparently Arrested; 109 Improved; 24 Unimproved; 14 were not considered as 
they stayed less than 30 days. There were 7 deaths. Of those discharged, 315 
gained 3,376 pounds, or an average gain of 10.7 pounds. There were 103,649 
hospital days of treatment. 

Comment. 

Our gross per capita cost has been $1.13 per week higher than the previous year. 
This is accounted for by the fact that we have had several vacancies during a good 
part of the year. Our collections have been higher this year so that the net per 
capita remains practically the same as the year before. The average age of patients 
admitted is one year higher than the previous year, due to the fact that we have 
admitted a few women to the institution. Except for the women, we have ad- 
mitted younger children than usual, which accounts for the smaller average gain 
in weight. 

Clinics. 

We have held 23 examination clinics in Hampden County; 2 in Franklin, and 
have assisted Dr. O'Brien at one clinic in Hampshire County. Consultation 
clinics have been continued as usual, but in November the clinic in Holyoke was 
discontinued. Holyoke is so near to Westfield that the doctors preferred to send 
their patients directly to the sanatorium. The results of our Clinic and Out- 
Patient work are shown in the following table: 

Re- 
Positive. Negative. Suspicious, examined. Total. 

1. Consultation Clinics 29 38 14 25 106 

2. Examination CUnics 11 502 157 359 1,029 

3. Out-Patients ...'.. 105 268 48 100 521 

145 808 219 484 1,656 

This table shows that 145 new cases of tuberculosis were diagnosed, or 8.7% of 
the total number examined. 

Out-Patient X-Rays 719 

Dentist's Report. 
The following is a report of the dental work performed at the clinic of the West- 
field State Sanatorium for the year 1925-1926.' During this time a total of 3,292 
operations were performed for the benefit of the patients. The aggregate would 
indicate that on an average each patient at the institution has been to the clinic for 
necessary dental work five or six times during the year. The total number of 
operations includes the following: Examinations, 563; Prophylaxis, 476; Ex- 
tractions, 121; Deciduous Extractions, 289; Injections, 226 (Procaine); Devitali- 
zations, 14; Root Canal Dressings, 46; Root Canal Fillings, 13; Amalgam Restora- 
tions, 64; Amalgam Fillings, 414; Cement Fillings, 457; Sedative Fillings, 308; 



P.D. 34. 133 

Gutta-Percha Fillings, 144; X-Rays, 18; Irrigation, 12; Ethyl Chloride, 58; 
Treatments, 42; Gold Filling, 1 ; Plate repair, 1 . 

Examinations. — Each patient soon after arriving comes to the clinic for oral 
examination. The conditions are noted, and at this appointment the mouth is 
given a thorough prophylaxis (cleaning) ; the patient at this time is also personally 
instructed in the use of the toothbrush and value of oral hygiene. At subsequent 
appointments, corrective work is done. 

Extractions. — All teeth beyond hope of repair, such as many with advanced 
caries and pulp exposures, others abscessed and putrescent; those with which the 
patient has suffered pain (odontalgia), and badly infected roots, are extracted as 
soon as possible. This is done painlessly by the use of conduction anesthesia and 
ethyl chloride. In the past year it has been necessary to use a general anesthetic 
in only one case. 

Cavittj Preparation and Fillings. — Whenever it is possible to do so, teeth having 
cavities varying in degree from the fissure cavity of first degree to those in which 
the pulp is practically exposed, fillings are inserted. In some cases the cavities 
are prepared under local anesthesia. Fillings of amalgam, cement and sedative 
material are used wherever each is indicated. 

Treatments. — A most common manifestation in the mouths of the patients is 
known as Gingivitis or "swollen bleeding gums". As this is a forerunner of 
pyorrhea, which would undoubtedly result in years to come, the present day 
prophylactic measures are used. These cases are treated by scaling and probing 
and such medicinal applications to the gums as seem advisable. They are in- 
structed especially in the correct method of brushing the teeth and gums and the 
value of "home" treatment. Patients unable to come to the clinic are visited and 
treated in the wards. 

In conclusion I wish to mention Miss O'Brien, who has included in her course of 
instruction talks to the children on the value of oral health which have helped the 
dental program considerably; also Miss Macdonald for her assistance and at- 
tention which at times it has been necessary to enlist. 



Sanatorium School. 
Average Daily Attendance, December 1925 to December 1926. 



Grade I 
Grade II 
Grade III 
Grade IV 
Grade V 
Grade VI 
Grade VII 
Grade VIII 
Manual Training 



Total Average 
Total Enrolment 



22.73 
20.34 
23.67 
25.17 
23.82 
25.21 
26.63 
19.62 
25.30 

212.49 

477 



Improvements made during the Year. 

The Staff Dining-Room was enlarged at an expense of 11,250. An addition was 
built to the Recreation Room of the East Ward at a cost of $2,250. The Carpenter 
Shop was completed. This has released space for the enlargement of our Store- 
room. This has been re-arranged and enlarged so that our store-room facilities 
are greatly increased. A new Record Room for the State Clinic work has been 
completed and is now in use. Other new work has been in the nature of ordinary 
repairs and renewals. 

Power House. — In December 1925, our Power Plant was practically put out of 
commission through the bagging of our boilers. A special appropriation was 
granted to remedy this condition. Under the direction of the Consulting Engineer, 
the Power House has been enlarged; one new 200 H. P. Boiler has been installed 
and is now in operation; the old boilers have been patched, and our Power House 



134 P.D. 34. 

has been connected with the Westfield city water mains. This water is much more 
suitable than our own for boiler and laundry work. The plant is now giving very 
good service but will not give maximum efficiency until the old boilers are re- 
placed. 

New Constmction. — Our greatest need at present is a building for female em- 
ployees. We have asked for a special appropriation for this purpose. Our present 
sewerage system is inadequate. The mains are too small and should be replaced. 
Considerable work is also needed on the swimming pool to put it in more sanitary 
condition. 

Acknowledgments. 

Religious services have been conducted as usual during the year. We owe our 
thanks to the clergymen for the efficient manner in which this work has been carried 
on. 

Our personnel has averaged very high for the year and has done very commend- 
able work. 

In this connection I should also mention the Bureau of Administration. They 
have been a great help to us by their efficient work and by their friendly spirit of 
co-operation. In particular, I might mention the Supervising Engineer. The 
situation in our Power House during the year has been very trying. The Engineer 
by his efficient planning has greatly reduced our burden in this respect. 

ROY MORGAN, 

Acting Superintendent. 
Valuation. 
Land. 

Grounds, 26.8 Acres $5,17.5 00 

Lawns and Buildings, 26.8 Acres. 

Woodland, 95.6 Acres 4,664 00 

Mowing, 35.6 Acres 2,670 00 

Tillage, 30.5 Acres 2,082 50 

Tillage, 22 Acres. 

Garden, 12 Acres. 

Orchard, 2.0 Acres 400 00 

Pasture, 62.5 Acres 1,049 50 

Waste and Miscellaneous, 10.6 Acres ....... 680 50 

Rough pasture, 5.6 Acres. 

Sewer beds, 4.0 Acres. 

New coal trestle, 1.0 Acre. 

$16,721 50 

Sewerage system 13,642 80 „„„, 

Total $30,364 30 

Buildings. 

Institution Buildings $203,002 29 

Farm, Stable and Grounds . 26,370 00 

Miscellaneous ........... 75,836 48 „ . ^ „ 

Total — 305,20 8 77 

$335,573 07 
Present value of all personal property as per Inventory of Nov. 30, 1926 .... 109,157 12 

Grand total . . $444,730 19 

Population. 

Males. Females. Totals. 

Number received during the year ....... 147 173 320 

Number passing out of the Institution during the year . . . 167 171 338 

Number at end of the fiscal year in the Institution .... 120 149 269 

Daily average attendance (number of inmates actually present during 

the year) . . 138.35 145.61 283,96 

Average number of employees and officers during the year ... 75 45 120 

Expenditures. 

Current Expenditures: 

1. Salaries and wages ......... $106,310 45 

2. Clothing 5.445 43 

3. Subsistence ^f'Sf^ o? 

4. Ordinary repairs .......... cc tin ni 

5. Office, domestic and outdoor expenses ...... 56,179 91 

$222,787 73 

Extraordinary Expenses: 

1. Permanent improvements to equipment and existing buildmgs ..... 9,26851 

$232,056 24 



P.D. 34. 135 

Summary of Current Expenses. 

Total expenditure $232,036 24 

Deducting extraordinary expenses ....... 9,268 51 

$222,787 7.3 

Deducting amount of sales ............ 2,927 42 

$219,860 31 

Dividing this amount by the daily average number of patients, 283.96 gives a 
cost for the year of $774,265, equivalent to an average weekly net cost of $14,889. 



STATISTICAL TABLES. 



Table L 



Admissions and Discharges. 



Number of patients admitted Dec. 1, 192.5 to Nov. 30, 1926, inclusive 
Number of patients discharged Dec. 1, 192.5, to Nov. 30, 1926, inclusive 
Number of deaths (including those in previous items) 
Number in Sanatorium Dec. 1, 1925 ...... 

Number remaining Nov. 30, 1926 ....... 



Males. 
147 
167 
1 
140 
120 



Females. 
173 
171 
6 
147 
149 



Table 2. — Civil Condition of Patients admitted. 



Single 

Married 

Divorced 



Males. 
147 



147 



Females. 
165 
7 
1 

173 



Totals. 
320 
338 

7 
287 
269 



320 



1 to 13 years 
14 to 20 years 
21 to 30 years 
31 to 40 years 
41 to 50 years 
51 to 60 years 



Table 3. — Ages of Patients admitted. 

Males. Females. 

102 100 

45 57 

- 9 

- 5 

- 1 

- 1 



147 173 

Table 4. — Nativity and Parentage of Patients admitted. 



Totals. 
202 
102 
9 
5 
1 
1 

320 















Males. 


Females. 


Totals. 






m 


n 


i 


£ 


£ 


5 


£ 


M 


Place of Nativity. 


a 
a 

"S 




.a 
o 


1 

PM 


1 


a 
o 


.2 




o 


United States: 




















Massachusetts 


115 


40 


49 


135 


47 


52 


250 


87 


101 


Other N. E. States . 


8 


9 


12 


7 


10 


7 


15 


19 


19 


Other States .... 


12 


18 


10 


10 


15 


12 


22 


33 


22 


Total Natives 


135 


67 


71 


152 


72 


71 


287 


139 


142 


Other Countries: 




















Africa . . 


— 


— 


— 


- 


1 


~ 


~ 


1 


~ 


Armenia . 










— 


1 


1 


— 


- 


— 


— 


1 


1 


Austria 










— 


3 


3 


— 


1 


1 


— 


4 


4 


Azore Islands 










— 


— 


1 


— 


- 


— 


— 


— 




Canada 










4 


17 


16 


9 


17 


24 


13 


34 


40 


Czecho-Slovakia 










— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


1 


— 


Denmark . 










— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


England 












- 


1 


3 


1 


2 


1 


1 


3 


4 


Finland 












— 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


1 


3 


3 


France 












- 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


Greece 












2 


3 


3 


- 


7 


1 


2 


10 


4 


Holland 












— 


2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


■ — 


Hungary 












~ 


9 


7 


2 


1 

15 


1 
17 


2 


1 
24 


1 
24 


Italy . 












1 


14 


10 


2 


11 


11 


3 


25 


21 


Lithuania 












— 


2 


2 


— 


4 


3 


— 


6 


5 


Poland 












1 


11 


12 


1 


24 


23 


2 


35 


35 


Portugal 












— 


1 


1 


— 


— 


1 


— 


1 


2 


Russia 












— 


8 


7 


1 


2 


2 


1 


10 


9 


Scotland 












1 


- 


1 


- 


3 


2 


1 


3 


3 


Spain . 












— 


— 


— 


— 


1 


1 


— 


1 


1 


Sweden 












— 


- 


— 


— 


1 


1 


— 


1 


1 


Syria . 












- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


2 


~ 


2 


2 




9 


73 


70 


17 


95 


93 


26 


168 


163 


Unknown. .... 


3 


7 


6 


4 


6 


9 


7 


13 


15 




12 


SO 


76 


21 


101 


102 


33 


181 


178 




135 


67 


71 


152 


72 


71 


287 


139 


142 














147 


147 


147 


173 


173 


173 


320 


320 


320 



136 



P.D. 34. 



Table 5. — Residence of Patients admitted. 



Adams, 3 
Attleboro, 1 
Barnstable, 1 
Boston, 45 
Braintree, 1 
Brookline, 1 
Cambridge, 4 
Canton, 1 
Chelsea, 2 
Chicopee, 10 
Clinton, 2 
Dalton, 2 
Dedham, 1 
Dudley, 2 
Easthampton, 1 
East Hartford, Conn., 1 
East Longmeadow, 1 
Everett, 1 
Fall River, 7 
Fitchburg, 5 
Florence, 1 
Framingham, 1 
Gardner, 2 
Gloucester, 1 
Greenfield, 2 



Harvard, 1 
Hinsdale, 2 
Holyoke, 13 
Hudson, 1 
Lancaster, 1 
Lee, 1 

Leominster, 4 
Lowell, 2 
Lynn, 9 
Maiden, 4 
Medford, 2 
Melrose, 2 
Methuen, 4 
Milford, 3 
New Bedford, 1 
Newton, 1 
North Adams, 4 
Northampton, 2 
Northborough, 1 
Orange, 1 
Palmer, 3 
Pittsfield, 24 
Prescott, 1 
Providence, 2 
Quincy, 5 



Reading, 1 
Revere, 1 
Rutland, 2 
Sherborn, 2 
Somerville, 4 
Southborough, 1 
Southbridge, 1 
South Hadley, 1 
Southwick, 1 
Springfield, 41 
State Minor Wards, 12 
Tewksbury, 3 
Worcester, 28 
Walpole, 2 
Westfield, 12 
Woburn, 1 
Winchendon, 1 
Webster, 2 
Waverly, 3 
Washington, 1 
West Springfield, 5 
Westport, 1 
Watertown, 1 
Total, 320 



Bookkeeper 

Bootblack 

Dressmaker 

Factory 

Hairdresser 

Housekeeper 

Pupil Nurse 

Stenographer 

School 

Telephone Operator 

Waitress . 



Table 6. — Occupation of Cases admitted. 

Males. 
1 
1 



Females. 
1 



145 



147 



2 
4 
1 
7 
1 
1 
152 
2 
2 

173 



Totals. 
1 
1 
2 
5 
1 
7 
1 
1 
297 
2 
2 

320 



Table 7. — Stage of Disease on Admission. 



Bronchial Adenitis 
Hilum Tuberculosis 
Minimal . 
Moderately Advanced 
Advanced 
Bone Tuberculosis 
Tubercular Empyema 
Cervical Adenitis 
Pulmonary Abscess 
Non-tubercular . 
Unresolved Pneumonia 
Not Classified . 



[ales. 


Females. 


Totals. 


Percentages 


20 


19 


39 


12.19 


110 


100 


210 


65.63 


6 


13 


19 


5.94 


4 


26 


30 


9.38 


3 


11 


14 


4.38 


1 


— 


1 


.31 


1 


_ 


1 


.31 


1 


— 


1 


.31 




2 


2 


.62 


— 


1 


1 


.31 


_ 


1 


1 


.31 


1 


- 


1 


.31 



173 



320 



Table 8. — Condition on Discharge. 



Apparently Well 
Apparently Arrested 
Improved . 
Unimproved 
Not Considered 
Died 



Males. 


Females. 


Totals. 


Percentages 


30 


21 


51 


15.09 


76 


57 


133 


39.35 


49 


60 


109 


32.251 


8 


16 


24 


7.08 


3 


11 


14 


4.16 


1 


6 


7 


2.07 



167 



171 



338 



P.D. 34. 



Table 9. 



Deaths. 



137 



Duration or 


Disease. 






Males. 


Females. 


Totals. 


Length of Residence 

AT Sanatorium. 




Males. Females. Totals. 


Under 1 month . 

1 to 2 months . 

2 to 3 months . 

3 to 4 months . 

4 to 5 months . 

5 to 6 months . 

6 to 7 months . 

7 to 8 months . 

8 to 9 months . 

9 to 10 months 
10 to 12 months 
12 to 18 months 
18 to 24 months 
Over 2 years 










1 1 

1 - 1 
1 1 

- 2 2 

- 2 2 


1 1 

1 - 1 
1 1 

- 2 2 

- 2 2 












1 6 7 


1 6 7 



Table 10. — Cause of Death. 



Cause. 
Tuberculosis of the Lungs . 



Males. 
1 



Females. 



Totals. 

7 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

Aberjona River, condition of ........... . 24 

Abington, water supply ............. 12 

Accord Pond, analysis of water ............ 13 

Actinomycosis .............. 80, 81, 94 

Activated sludge process ............. 53 

Acton (West and South Water Supply District) water supply ...... 15 

Adams (Fire District) water supply . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 15 

Administration, Division of: 

Appropriations and expenditures of ......... . 9 

Personnel ............... 7 

Aeration, purification of sewage by .......... . 53 

Amesbury, water supply ............. 15 

Amethyst Brook Reservoir, analysis of water ......... 12 

Amherst, water supply ............. 12 

Andover, water supply ............. 12 

Anterior poliomyelitis 4, 72, 80, 81, 84, 86, 88, 90, 92 

Anthrax . . . . 80, 81, 94 

Antimeningococcic serum. Distribution of ......... . 96 

Antipneumococcic serum, Distribution of ......... . 96 

Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory: 

Appropriations and expenditures of ......... . 9 

Personnel ............... 7 

Report of 96 

Buildings, New ............. 98 

Discussion .............. 97 

Educational activities ............ 97 

Expenses .............. 97 

Improvements ............. 97 

Inspection .............. 98 

Personnel .............. 97 

Products, Distribution of ........... . 96 

Appropriations and expenditures for year ended November 30, 1926 ..... 9 

Arsphenamine: 

Appropriations for manufacture and distribution of ....... 9 

Distribution of ............. . 78 

Artichoke River, analysis of water ........... 13 

Ashburnham, water supply ............ 12 

Ashby Reservoir, analysis of water ........... 13 

Ashfield, water supply ............. 12 

Ashland, water supply ............. 15 

Ashland Reservoir, analysis of water ........... 12 

Ashley Brook, analysis of water ............ 14 

Ashley Lake, analysis of water ............ 14 

Assabet River, condition of ........... . 24 

Assawompsett Pond, analysis of water .......... 14 

Athol, water supply .............. 12 

Attleboro, water supply ............. 15 

Auburn, water supply ............. 15 

Austin Brook Reservoir, analysis of water .......... 12 

Avon, water supply .............. 15 

Ayer, water supply .............. 15 

Bacterial methods .............. 41 

Bacterial quality of water supplies ........... 41 

Bacteriological Laboratory ............. 74 

Bakeries, inspection of ............ . 57 

Barnstable, water supply ............. 15 

Barre, water supply .............. 12 

Basin Pond Brook, analysis of water ............ 13 

Bassett Brook, analysis of water ............ 12 

Bear Hole Brook: 

Analysis of water ............. 14 

Analysis of filtered water ............ 14 

Bear Swamp Brook, analysis of water ........... 12 

Bedford, water supply ............. 15 

Bichloridol, Distribution of ............ 78 

Big Sandy Pond, analysis of water ........... 12 

Billerica, water supply ............. 15 

Biologic Laboratories, Division of: 

Appropriations and expenditures of ......... . 9 

Personnel ............... 8 

Report of: 

Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory .......... 96 

Wassermann Laboratory ............ 98 

Biologic products. Distribution of .......... . 96 

Birch Reservoir, analysis of water ........... 13 

Black Brook, analysis of water ............ 14 



P.D. 34. 139 

PAGE 

Blackstone River, condition of ........... . 24 

Blandford (Fire District), water supply .......... 12 

Bondsville (Palmer), water supply ........... 16 

Bottomly Reservoir, analysis of water ........... 14 

Braintrec, water supply ............. 15 

Breastfeeding campaign ............. 101 

Breed's Reservoir, analysis of water ........... 13 

Bridgewater, water supply ............. 15 

Broad Brook, analysis of water ............ 13 

Brockton, water supply ............. 12 

Brookfield, water supply ............. 12 

Brookline, water supply ............. 15 

Buckman Brook Reservoir, analysis of water ......... 12 

Buckmaster Pond, analysis of water ........... 14 

Buttery Brook Reservoir, analysis of water .......... 14 

Cady Brook, analysis of water ............ 12 

Cambridge, water supply ............. 12 

Camps, Summer .............. 73 

Cancer : 

Clinics ............... 2 

Committees .............. 2 

Education ............... 2 

Hospital ............... 2 

Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 

Canton, water supply ............. 15 

Cape Pond, analysis of water ............ 14 

Cerebrospinal meningitis (Epidemic) ........ 80, 81, 84, 86, 88, 90, 92 

Charles River: 

Analysis of filtered water ............ 13 

Condition of ............. • 24 

Chelmsford (North Chelmsford Fire District), water supply ....... 15 

Chelmsford (Water District), water supply .......... 15 

Cherry Valley and Rochdale Water District (Leicester), water supply . . . . . 15 

Chester (Fire District), water supply ........... 12 

Chestnut Hill Reservoir, analysis of water .......... 12 

Chicken pox 3, 72, 80, 81, 84, 86, 88, 90, 92 

Chicopee, water supply ............. 12 

Chicopee River, condition of ........... • 24 

Clinics, tuberculosis Ill, 119, 125, 132 

Clinton, water supply ............. 12 

Codding Brook Reservoirs, analysis of water ......... 13 

Cohasset, water supply ............. 15 

Cold Brook Reservoir, analysis of water .......... 13 

Cold Spring, analysis of water ............ 17 

Cold storage statistics ............. 65 

Collinsville (Dracut), water supply . . . . . . . . . ... 15 

Color in water and color-yielding soils and other materials, Studies of the origin and characteristics 

of 44 

Color removal filters .............. 48 

Color studies with deep tanks ............ 47 

Colrain (Fire District No. 1), water supply .......... 12 

Colrain (Griswoldville), water supply ........... 12 

Commissioner of Public Health, Report of the ......... 2 

Appropriations and expenditures for year ended Nov. 30, 1926 . . . . . '9 

Cancer ......'......... 2 

Disease prevalence ............. 3 

Health of the child 6 

New legislation .............. 8 

Personnel ............... 6 

Sanitary problems ............. 6 

Tuberculosis .............. 5 

Communicable Diseases, Division of: 

Appropriations and expenditures of . . . . . . . ... . 9 

Personnel ............... 7 

Report of .............. • 72 

Bacteriological Laboratory ........... 74 

District health officers ............ 74 

Epidemiologist, Report of the ........... 75 

Milk legislation ............. 73 

Personnel, Changes in ........... . 75 

Summer camps ............. 73 

Venereal disease ............. 73 

Work of the division ............ 72 

Concord, water supply ............. 12 

Concord River, condition of ........... . 25 

Conferences, Well child . . . . . . . . . . . . .6, 100 

Connecticut River, condition of ........... . 25 

Control of tuberculosis ............. 107 

Cooley Brook (Chicopee), analysis of water .......... 12 

Cooley Brook (Longmeadow), analysis of water ......... 13 

Cooley Hill Reservoir, analysis of water .......... 12 

Crystal Lake (Gardner), analysis of water .......... 13 

Crystal Lake (Haverhill), analysis of water .......... 13 

Crystal Lake (Wakefield), analysis of water .......... 14 

Cummington, water supply ............ 15 

Dalton (Fire District), water supply ........... 12 

Danvers, water supply . . . . . . ... . . . . 12 



140 P.D. 34. 

PAOB 

Dedham, water supply ............. 15 

Deerfield (Fire District), water supply ........... 15 

Deerfield (South Deerfield Water Supply District), water supply ...... 13 

Dental hygiene ............... 102 

Dental hygiene policy ............. 6 

Dike's Brook Reservoir, analysis of water .......... 13 

Diphtheria . _ . . _ 3, 4, 72, 74, 75, 76, 77, 80, 81, 84, 86, 88, 90, 92 

Diphtheria antitoxin. Distribution of .......... . 96 

Diphtheria toxin. Distribution of ........... 96 

Diphtheria toxin-antitoxin mixture, Distribution of ....... . 96 

Disease prevalence .............. 3 

District Health Officers ............. 74 

List of . _ 8 

Doane Pond, analysis of water ............ 14 

Dog bite 81, 94 

Douglas, water supply ............. 15 

Dow's Brook Reservoir, analysis of water .......... 13 

Dracut (Collinsville), water supply ........... 15 

Dracut (Water Supply District), water supply ......... 15 

Drug samples collected during 1926 ........... 64 

Dry Brook, analysis of water ............ 12 

Dudley, water supply ............. 15 

Dunstable, water supply ............. 15 

Duxbury (Fire and Water District), water supply . ........ 15 

Dysentery 80, 81, 94 

East Brookfield, water supply ............ 15 

Easthampton, water supply ............ 15 

East Mountain Reservoir (Great Barrington), analysis of water ...... 13 

East Mountain Reservoir (West Stockbridge), analysis of water ...... 14 

Easton (North Easton Village District), water supply ........ 15 

Edgartown, water supply ............. 15 

Egremont (South), water supply ............ 13 

Egypt Brook Reservoir, analysis of water .......... 12 

Elder's Pond, analysis of water ............ 14 

Encephalitis lethargica . . . . . . . . . . . . 80, 81, 94 

Epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis 80, 81, 84, 86, 88, 90, 92 

Epidemiologist, Report of the ............ 75 

Essex County, Water supply of municipalities in ........ . 37 

Fairhaven, water supply ............. 15 

Fall Brook Reservoir, analysis of water .......... 13 

Fall River, water supply ............. 13 

Falmouth, water supply ............. 13 

Falulah Brook, analysis of water ........... 13 

Farnham Reservoir, analysis of water ........... 14 

Filtration of water .............. 48 

Fitchburg, water supply ............. 13 

Fomer Reservoir, analysis of water ........... 13 

Food and Drugs, Division of: 

Appropriations and expenditures of ... .^ ..... . 9 

Personnel ............... 7 

Report of .............. . 57 

Cold storage statistics ............ 65 

Drug samples collected during 1926 .......... 64 

Food samples collected during 1926 .......... 64 

Liquor, Summary of samples examined during 1926 ....... 64 

Milk statistics. Summary of .......... . 63 

Prosecutions, List of ............ 5Q 

Food samt)les collected during 1926 ........... 64 

Foxborough (Water Supply District), water supply ........ 15 

Fox Brook, analysis of water ............ 14 

Framingham Reservoirs, analysis of water .......... 12 

Framingham, water supply ............ 15 

Franklin, water supply ............. 15 

Freeland Brook, analysis of water ........... 12 

French River, condition of ............ . 25 

Fresh Pond, analysis of water ............ 12 

Fulling Mill Pond, analysis of water ........... 13 

Gardner, water supply .............. 13 

Gates Pond, analysis of water ............ 13 

German measles 72, 80, 81, 84, 86, 88, 90, 92 

Glanders . . _ . . . . 80 

Glen Brook Reservoirs, analysis of water .......... 13 

Gloucester, water supply ............. 13 

Gonorrhea 4, 72, 74, 75, 7C, 77, 80, 81, 84, 86, 88, 90, 92 

Goodale Brook, analysis of water ........... 13 

Grafton, water supply ............. 15 

Granville, water supply ............. 15 

Gravel Pond, analysis of water ............ 13 

Great Barrington (Fire District), water supply ......... 13, 15 

Great Barrington (Housatonic), water supply ......... 13 

Great Pond (North Andover), analysis of water ......... 13 

Great Pond (Randolph), analysis of water .......... 14 

Great Pond (Weymouth), analysis of water .......... 14 

Great Quittacas Pond, analysis of water .......... 13 

Great South Pond, analysis of water ........... 14 

Greenfield, water supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 15 



P.D. 34. 

Griswoldville (Colrain), water supply .... 

Groton, water supply ...... 

Groton (West Groton Water Supply District), water supply 

Hadley (Water Supply District), water supply 

Haggett's Pond, analysis of water 

Hart's Brook Reservoir, analysis of water 

Haskell Brook Reservoir, analysis of water 

Hatchet Brook Reservoirs, analysis of water 

Hatfield, water supply 

Hathaway Brook, analysis of water 

Haverhill, water supply 

Hawkes Reservoir, analysis of water 

Haynes Reservoir, analysis of water 

Health education and informational service 

Health of the child .... 

Hicks Spring, analysis of water . 

Hilum tuberculosis .... 

Hingham, water supply 

Hinsdale (Fire District), water supply . 

Hobbs Brook Reservoirs, analysis of water 

Holden Reservoirs, analysis of water 

Holliston, water supply 

Holyoke, water supply 

Hookworm ..... 

Hoosick River, condition of 

Hopkinton, water supply 

Hopkinton Reservoir, analysis of water 

Horn Pond (Chester), analysis of water 

Housatonic (Great Barrington), water supply 

Housatonic River, condition of . 

Household septic tanks. Operation of . 

Hubbard, Dr. Halbert Charles 

Hudson, water supply 

Huntington (Fire District), water supply 

Hygiene, Division of: 

Appropriations and expenditures of 
Personnel ..... 
Report of . 

Dental hygiene . . 

Health education and informational service 

Maternal, infant and pre-school hygiene 

Nutrition .... 

School hygiene 

ImhoflF tanks ..... 
Industrial wastes: 

Laundry wastes ...... 

Patent Medicine Company, Wastes^ from the works of a 
Infant and maternal mortality. Studies in 
Infant, pre-school and maternal hygiene 
Infantile paralysis (Poliomyelitis) 
Influenza ...... 

Iodine in Massachusetts water supplies 

Ipswich, water supply 

Ipswich River, analysis of water . 

Jonathan Pond, analysis of water 
Johnson's Pond, analysis of water 
Johnson's Spring, analysis of water 
Juvenile tuberculosis .... 

Kendall Reservoir, analysis of water 
Kenoza Lake, analysis of water . 
Kent Reservoir, analysis of water 
Kitchen Brook, analysis of water 

Lake Averic, analysis of water 
Lake Cochituate, analysis of water 
Lake Pleasant, analysis of water . 
Lake Saltonstall, analysis of water 
Lakeville State Sanatorium 

Report of the .... 

Expenditures .... 

Population .... 

Statistical tables 

Superintendent, Report of the . 

Valuation .... 

Lake Williams, analysis of water . 
Laundry wastes _ . 
Laurel Lake, analysis of water 
Lawrence city filters .... 
Lawrence, water supply 
Leaping Well Reservoir, analysis of water 
Lee, water supply .... 
Legislation, New .... 

Legislation, Milk .... 

Leicester (Cherry Valley and Rochdale Water District), water supply 
Leicester (Water Supply District), water supply .... 



141 

PAGE 
12 
15 

15 

13 

12 
13 
13 
14 
13 
14 
13 
13 
13 
102 
6 
16 

80, 81, 94 
13, 15 
13 
12 
14 
15 
13 

80, 81, 94 
25 
15 
12 
12 
13 
25 
52 
126 
13 
13 

9 
8 
100 
102 
102 
100 
101 
101 

51 

56 

56 
100 
100 

4, 72. 80, 81, 84, 86, 88, 90, 92 
72, 73, 80, 81, 85, 87, 89, 91, 93 
40 
13 
14 

14 

13 

17 

106 

14 
13 
14 
12 

14 

12 

13 

13 

5, 105 

10& 

113 

113 

114 

lOS 

113 

13 

56 

13 

50 

13 

14 

13 

S 

73 

15 

15 



142 P.D. 34. 

PAGE 

Leicester Reservoir, analysis of water ........... 14 

Lenox, water supply . . . . . . . . . . . ... . 13 

Leominster, water supply ............. 13 

Leprosy 80, 81, 95 

Lincoln, water supply ............. 13 

Liquor, Summary of samples examined .......... 64 

Little Quittacas Pond, analysis of water .......... 13 

Little South Pond, analysis of water ........... 14 

Littleton, water supply ............. 16 

Lobar pneumonia 79, 80, 81, 85, 87, 89, 91, 93 

Longham Reservoir, analysis of water ........... 14 

Longmeadow, water supply ............ 13 

Long Pond (Falmouth), analysis of water .......... 13 

Long Pond (Great Barrington) , analysis of water ........ 13 

Lowell, water supply .............. 15 

Lynn, water supply .............'. 13 

Malaria 74, 75, 80, 81 

Manhan River, condition of ........... . 25 

Mann Reservoir, analysis of water ........... 14 

Mansfield (Water Supply District), water supply ......... 16 

Marblehead, water supply ............. 15 

Marion, water supply ............. 16 

Marlborough, water supply ............ 13 

Marshfield, water supply ............. 16 

Massachusetts statistics for 1926 ........... 9 

Maternal and Infant Hygiene: 

Appropriation and expenditures for .......... 9 

Maternal and infant mortality. Studies in ......... . 100 

Maternal, infant and pre-school hygiene .......... 100 

Mattapoisett, water supply ............ 16 

Maynard, water supply ............. 13 

McClellan Reservoir, analysis of water .......... 12 

Measles 3, 72, 79, 80, 81, 85, 87, 89, 91, 93 

Measles, German 72, 80, 81, 84, 86, 88, 90, 92 

Mechanical filtration of water ............ 49 

Medfield, water supply ............. 16 

Medway, water supply ............. 16 

Meetinghouse Pond, analysis of water ........... 13 

Merrimac, water supply ............. 16 

Merrimack River: 

Analysis of filtered water ............ 13 

Condition of ............. . 25 

Flow of 22, 23 

IMethuen, water supply ............. 16 

Metropolitan Water District, water supply .......... 12 

Metropolitan water supply ............. 10 

Middleborough (Fire District), water supply ......... 16 

M^iddlesex County, Water supply of municipalities in portion of ..... . 37 

Middleton Pond, analysis of water ........... 13 

Milford, water supply ............. 13 

Milk legislation . 73 

Milk statistics, Summary of ........... . 63 

iMill Brook, analysis of water ............ 14 

Millers River, condition of ............ . 25 

Millham Brook Reservoir, analysis of water .......... 13 

Millbury, water supply ............. 16 

Millis, water supply .............. 16 

Mill River, condition of ............ . 25 

Millvale Reservoir, analysis of water ........... 13 

Monson, water supply ............. 16 

Montague, water supply ............. 13 

Monterey, water supply ............. 16 

Montgomery Reservoir, analysis of water .......... 14 

Morse Reservoir, analysis of water ........... 13 

Morton Brook, analysis of water ........... 12 

Mountain Brook Reservoir, analysis of water ......... 12 

Mountain Street Reservoir, analysis of water ......... 13 

Mount Williams Reservoir, analysis of water ......... 13 

JMuddy Pond Brook, analysis of water .......... 14 

JVIumps 72, 80, 81, 85, 87, 89, 91, 93 

Muschopauge Lake, analysis of water ........... 14 

Nagog Pond, analysis of water ............ 12 

Nantucket, water supply ............. 13, 16 

Nashua River: 

Condition of ..........■■• . 25 

Flow of . _ 20, 22, 23 

Rainfall on drainage area ............ 21 

Natick, water supply . . . . . . . . . , . . . ... 16 

Needham, water supply ............. 16 

Neponset River: 

Condition of ....•.......•• • 26 

Sewer in valley of .........-•• • 37 

New Bedford, water supply ............ 13 

Newburyport, water supply . . . . . . . . . • • . 13, 16 

Newton, water supply ............. 16 

Normal serum. Distribution of ......■•••• • 96 

North Adams, water supply .........•■■ 13 



P.D. 34. 143 

PAGE 

Northampton, water supply ............ 13 

North Andover, water supply ............ 13 

North Attleborough, water supply ........... 16 

Northborough, water supply ............ 13 

Northbridge, water supply ............. 16 

North Brookfield, water supply ............ 14 

North Chelmsford Fire District (Chelmsford), water supply ....... 15 

North Easton Village District (Easton), water supply ........ 15 

Northfield, water supply ............. 14 

North Pond, analysis of water ............ 14 

North Reading State Sanatorium ........... 5, 105 

Report of 118 

Expenditures .............. 121 

Population .............. 121 

Statistical tables ............. 121 

Superintendent, Report of the ........... 108 

Valuation .............. 121 

North Watuppa Lake, analysis of water .......... 13 

Norton, water supply ............. 16 

Norwood, water supply ............. 14, 16 

Notch Brook Reservoir, analysis of water .......... 13 

Nuisances from noisome trades ............ 37 

Nurses Training School a j Rutland ........... 126 

Nutrition 101 

Oak Bluffs, water supply ............. 16 

Onset (Wareham), water supply ............ 14 

Ophthalmia neonatorum 72, 80, 81, 85, 87, 89, 91, 93 

Orange, water supply ............. 14 

Organization of the department ............ 7 

Outbreaks traced to external agencies ........... 75 

Otter River, condition of ............ • 25 

Oxford, water supply .............. 16 

Palmer (Bondsville), water supply ........... 16 

Palmer (Fire District No. 1), water supply .......... 14 

Patent medicine company, wastes from the works of a ....... 56 

Paul Brook, analysis of water ............ 14 

Peabody, water supply ............. 14 

PeUagra 80, 81, 94 

Pentucket Lake, analysis of water ........... 13 

Pepperell, water supply ............. 16 

Personnel . . 6, 75, 108. 109, 118, 120, 124, 126, 131 

PhUlipston Reservoir, analysis of water .......... 12 

Pine Hill Reservoir, analysis of water ........... 14 

Pittsfield, water supply ............. 14 

Plymouth, water supply ............. 14 

Pneumonia ............... 72, 74 

Lobar 79, 80, 81, 85, 87, 89, 91, 93 

Poliomyehtis (Anterior) 4, 72, 80, 81, 84, 86, 88, 90, 92 

Pre-school, maternal and infant hygiene .......... 106 

Prosecutions for violations of the Food and Drug laws . . . . . . . . 59 

Provincetown, water supply . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 

Public health nursing consultant service .......... 101 

Public Health Council, Report of the ........... 1 

Puhnonary tuberculosis ... . , . . . . . 5, SO, 81, 85, 87, 89, 91, 93 

Quaboag River, condition of ........... . 24 

Rabies . . . . . 72, 80, 81 

Rainfall: 

In Massachusetts ............. 18 

On Nashua River drainage area ........... 21 

On Sudbury River drainage area ........... 19 

Randolph, water supply ............. 14 

Rattlesnake Brook, analysis of water ' . . . . . . . . . . . 14 

Reading, water supply . . . . . ' . . . . . . . . 16 

Rivers, examination of . . " . . . * . . . . . ' . . . 24 

Roaring Brook, analysis of water ........... 13 

Rockport, water supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 

Running Gutter Brook Reservoir, analysis of water ........ 13 

Russell, water supply ............. 14 

Rutland State Sanatorium ............. 5, 104 

Report of the 124 

Expenditures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 

Population .............. 128 

Statistical tables . . .'..■. . . . . . . . 128 

Superintendent, Report of the ........... 124 

Valuation .............. 128 

Rutland, water supply ............. 14 

Sacket Brook, analysis of water ............ 14 

Salem, water supply .............. 14 

SaUsbury, water supply ............. 16 

Sanatoria . 5, 37, 104, 105, 108, 118, 124, 131 

Sandy Pond, analysis of water . . . . . • . . . . . . . 13 

Sanitary Engineering, Division of: • ■ 

Appropriations and expenditures of ......... . 9 

Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 

Report of . .•.-.-. . . . . . . . . . . 10 



144 P.D. 34. 

PAGE 

Sanitary problems .............. 6 

Scarlet fever . . . _ . _ . _ . _ . . . 3, 72, 75, 78, 80, 81, 85, 87, 89, 91, 93 

Scarlet fever streptococcus antitoxin. Distribution of ....... . 96 

Schick outfits, Distribution of ........... . 96 

School hygiene ............... 101 

Scituate, water supply ............. 16 

Scott Reservoir, analysis of water ........... 13 

Septic sore throat . . 80, 81, 95 

Sewage disposal works. Examination of ......... . 26 

Sewage, purification of, by aeration ........... 53 

Sewage, treatment of . _ . . ... . . . . . . . . 51 

Sewer outlets discharging into the sea, examination of ....... . 37 

Sharon, water supply ............. 16 

Shaw Pond, analysis of water ............ 14 

Sheffield, water supply ............. 16 

Shelburne (Shelburne Falls Fire District), water supply ....... 14 

Shellfish, examination of shellfish-bearing areas ......... 37 

Shellfish studies . , 42 

Sherman Spring, analysis of water ........... 17 

Shirley (Shirley Village Water District), water supply ........ 16 

Shrewsbury, water supply ............. 16 

Silver Lake (Brockton), analysis of water .......... 12 

Smallpox . . 4, 72, 73, 76, 80, 81, 95 

Smallpox vaccine virus. Distribution of .."....... . 96 

Snake Brook Reservoir, analysis of water .......... 14 

Southbridge, water supply ............. 14 

South Deerfield Water Supply District (Deerfield), water supply ...... .13 

South Egremont (Egremont) , water supply .......... 13 

South Hadley (Fire District No. 1), water supply ......... 14 

South Hadley (Fire District No. 2), water supply 16 

Spencer, water supply ............. 14 

Spot Pond, analysis of water ............ 12 

Springfield, water supply ............. 14 

Spring Pond, analysis of water ............ 14 

State Sanatoria, water supply and sewerage of ........ . 37 

Statistics: 

Cold storage .............. 65 

Food and drug .............. 59 

Tuberculosis 114, 121, 128, 135 

Stockbridge, water supply ............. 14 

Stony Brook Reservoir, analysis of water .......... 12 

Stoughton, water supply ............. 14 

Sudbury Reservoir, analysis of water ........... 12 

Sudbury River: 

Condition of ............. . 25 

Flow of 18, 22, 23 

Rainfall on drainage area ............ 19 

Sulpharsphenamine, Distribution of .......... . 78 

Summer camps ............... 73 

Sunderland, water supply ............. 16 

Suntaug Lake, analysis of water ............ 14 

Swan Pond, analysis of water ............ 13 

Syphilis 4, 72, 76, 77, 80, 81, 85, 87, 89, 91, 93 

Taunton, water supply ............. 14 

Taunton River, condition of ........... . 26 

Ten Mile River, condition of ........... . 26 

Ten Year Juvenile Tuberculosis Program .......... 5, 106 

Tetanus 72, 80, 81, 95 

Thousand Acre Meadow Brook, analysis of water ......... 12 

Thunder Brook, analysis of water ........... 12 

TiUotson Brook Reservoir, analysis of water ......... 14 

Tisbury, water supply ............. 16 

Trachoma . , 80, 81, 95 

Trichinosis 80, 81, 95 

Tuberculosis ............... 74, 75 

Hilum . 5, 80, 81, 94 

Pulmonary . . 5, 78, 80, 81, 85, 87, 89, 91, 93 

Other forms 79, 80, 81, 85, 87, 89, 91, 93 

Tuberculosis cases. Reporting of . . . . _ . . . . . . . . 104 

Tuberculosis, clinic units, Appropriations and expenditures for ...... 9 

Tuberculosis, Control of ............ . 107 

Tuberculosis, Division of: 

Appropriations and expenditures of ......... . 9 

Personnel ............... 8 

Report of 104 

Lakeville State Sanatorium, Report of ........ . 108 

North Reading State Sanatorium, Report of ....... . 118 

Records of reported cases ............ 104 

Rutland State Sanatorium, Report of ......... 124 

Sanatoria .............. 104 

Available beds for tuberculous patients ......... 105 

Control of tuberculosis ............ 107 

Juvenile tuberculosis ............ 106 

Lakeville State Sanatorium ........... 105 

North Reading State Sanatorium .......... 105 

Rutland State Sanatorium . ... ....... 104 

Summary of result of second year's examinations ....... 106 

Ten Year Program ............ 106 



P.D. 34. 145 

PAGE 

Tuberculosis, Division of — Concluded. 
Report of — Concluded. 
Sanatoria — Concluded. 

Wcstficld State Sanatorium .'.... 105 

Summary of the task before us .......... . 107 

Tuberculosis cases, Reporting of .......... 104 

Westfield State Sanatorium ........... 131 

Tuberculosis, Juvenile ............. 106 

Typhoid fever 3, 4, 72, 73. 74, 75, 76, 77, 80, 81, 85, 87, 89, 91, 93 

Typhoid paratyphoid vaccine. Distribution of ........ . 96 

Typhus fever ............... 80 

Upper Naukeag Lake, analysis of water .......... 12 

Uxbridge, water supply ............. 16 

Venereal diseases .............. 73 

Appropriations and expenditures of ......... . 9 

Clinics ............... 78 

Wachusett Lake, analysis of water ........... 13 

Wachusett Reservoir, analysis of water .......... 12 

Wakefield, water supply ............. 14 

Walden Reservoir, analysis of water ........... 13 

Wallace Reservoir, analysis of water ........... 13 

Walpole, water supply ............. 16 

Waltham, water supply ............. 16 

Wannacomet Pond, analysis of water ........... 13 

Ware, water supply .............. 16 

Wareham (Fire District), water supply .......... 16 

Wareham (Onset), water supply ............ 14 

Ware River, condition of ............ . 24 

Warren, water supply ............. 16 

Wassermann Laboratory: 

Appropriations and expenditures of ......... . 9 

Personnel ............... 7 

Report of 98 

Expenses .............. 99 

Investigation .............. 99 

Teaching 99 

Tests and examinations • , . .• • • • • • • • • • • 98 

Water and Sewage Laboratories, Division of: 

Appropriations and expenditures of ......... . 9 

Personnel ............ . . 7 

Report of ... 39 

Water, consumption of, in cities and towns .......... 17 

Water, filtration of ............. . 48 

Water supplies: 

Analyses of ground water sources ........... 15 

Analyses of surface-water sources ........... 12 

Examination of public ............. 12 

Sanitary protection of . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 

Water supply and sewerage. Report regarding ......... 10 

Wayland, water supply ............. 14 

Webster, water supply ............. 16 

Well child conferences ............. 6, 100 

Wellesley, water supply ............. 16 

Wenham Lake, analysis of water ........... 14 

Westborough, water supply ............ 17 

West Brookfield, water supply ............ 17 

Westfield Little River, analysis of filtered water ......... 14 

Westfield State Sanatorium 5, 105 

Report of 131 

Expenditures .............. 134 

Population .............. 134 

Statistical tables ............. 135 

Superintendent, Report of the ........... 131 

Valuation .............. 134 

Westfield, water supply ............. 14 

Westford, water supply ............. 17 

West Groton Water Supply District (Groton), water supply ....... 15 

Weston, water supply ............. 17 

Weston Reservoir, analysis of water ........... 12 

West Springfield, water supply ............ 14 

West Stockbridge, water supply . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 17 

Weymouth, water supply ............. 14 

White Pond, analysis of water ............ 13 

White Reservoir, analysis of water ........... 13 

Whiting Street Reservoir, analysis of water .......... 13 

Whooping cough 3, 72, 79, 80, 81, 85, 87, 89, 91, 93 

Williamsburg, water supply ............ 14 

Williamstown, water supply . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 17 

Winchendon, water supply ............. 17 

Winchester, water supply ............. 14 

Windsor Reservoir, analysis of water ........... 12 

Woburn, water supply ............. 17 

Worcester, water supply ............. 14 

Worthington (Fire District), water supply .......... 17 

Wrentham, water supply ............. 17 

Wright and Ashley Pond, analysis of water .......... 13 



THIRTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

Department of Public Health of Massachusetts 

REPORT OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH COUNCIL. 

At the end of the fiscal year closing November 30, 1927, the State Department 
of Public Health was constituted as follows : 
Commissioner of Public Health . . . . " . George H. Bigelow, M.D. 

Public Health Council. 
Gordon Hutchins, 1928. Sylvester E. Ryan, M.D., 1928. 

Francis H. Lally, M.D., 1930. Richard P. Strong, M.D., 1929. 

Roger I. Lee, M.D., 1930. James L. Tighe, B.A.Sc, C.E., 1929. 

During the year fourteen formal meetings of the Department were held, as well 
as meetings of standing committees. The standing committees of the Council 
are as follows: 

Sanitary Engineering (including Housing and Rural Hygiene). 
Mr. Tighe, Dr. Bigelow and Mr. Hutchins. 

Preventive Medicine and Hygiene. 

Drs. Lee, Bigelow, Lally, Ryan and Strong. 

Food and Drugs. 

Drs. Lally and Ryan and Mr. Hutchins. 

Laboratory Work and Research. 
Drs. Strong and Bigelow and Mr. Tighe. 

Publications. 
Drs. Lally and Ryan and Mr. Tighe. 

The Committee on Sanitary Engineering has met prior to the meeting of the 
Public Health Council regularly, as is customary, and has considered in detail all 
matters coming before the Department having to do with water suppUes, sewage 
disposal and sanitation generally, subsequently submitting recommendations 
thereon to the Public Health Council. 

The policy has been adopted of having at least two meetings of the Council 
held at the various hospitals under the direction of the Department. This year 
these were held at the North Reading and Westfield State Sanatoria. This gives 
an opportunity for a review of the work and the problems of the institutions. Also 
the Council attended the opening in June of the Pondville Hospital at Norfolk for 
cancer and visited the MetropoUtan sewer outlets in Boston Harbor as well as 
certain areas around Quincy Bay about which complaints had been received of 
certain objectionable conditions existing. 

As provided by statute the Department has held twelve public hearings on plans 
for sewerage and sewage disposal, taking of lands for the protection of public 
water supplies and an appeal from action of a local board of health in refusing to 
grant permission to sell certain milk. The PubUc Health Council has considered 
and approved appointments submitted to it by the Commissioner as required by 
law, and has also considered and given advice relative to various matters submitted 
to it by the Commissioner arising in connection with the activities of the Depart- 
ment. 

As directed by Chapter 391, Acts of 1926, the Department has opened the 
PondviUe Hospital at Norfolk for the treatment of all forms of cancer, and has 
purchased approximately a gram of radium, as authorized by Chapter 328, Acts 
of 1927, for use at this hospital. 

Under the authority of Chapter 259, Acts of 1927, the Department promulgated 
rules and regulations for the Ucensing by the local health authorities of all 
pasteurizing plants. 

Chapter 30 of the Resolves of 1927 directed the Department to still further 
investigate the water supply needs for the cities and towns of Essex County and 
adjacent sections of Middlesex County. This study has been made and a report 
submitted. 



2 P.D. 34. 

Under the authority of Chapter 42 of the Resolves of 1927 the Metropolitan 
District Commission and this Department jointly have studied and reported on 
the taking of water from the Charles River Basin for fire protection and sale for 
manufacturing purposes. 

As authorized by Chapter 33 of the Resolves of 1927 the Department of Conserva- 
tion requested the Department to assist in a study of the feasibiUty and practicabil- 
ity of rendering shellfish taken from contaminated areas safe for use as food by 
means of disinfection or otherwise and this Department has made a report to the 
Department of Conservation. 

As directed by Chapter 32 of the Resolves of 1927, the Commissioner of Public 
Health, acting jointly with the Commissioners of Mental Diseases and the Metro- 
poUtan District Commission, has studied the problem of sewage disposal from the 
proposed Metropolitan Hospital in Waltham, Belmont and Lexington. 

At a meeting of the Department on January 10, 1928, the Commissioner of 
Pubhc Health presented to the Council a report of the activities of the Department 
for the fiscal year 1927, and it was voted that this report, together with the fore- 
going brief summary of the doings of the Public Health Council, be approved and 
adopted as the report of the State Department of Pubhc Health for the year 1927. 

THIRTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF PUBLIC 

HEALTH. 

To the Public Health Council: 

Gentlemen : — I have the honor to submit herewith my annual report for the 
fiscal year ending November 30, 1927. 

There are certain outstanding matters in disease prevalence, causation and 
control practice during the past year that may well be enumerated: The occur- 
rence of 1189 cases of anterior poliomyelitis during the calendar year (all disease 
figures will be given for the calendar rather than the fiscal year), which next to 
1916 is the highest prevalence of this disease ever recorded in this State; the 
opening of the cancer hospital, local cancer clinics, and the initiation of extensive 
cancer education; the fall flood in the Connecticut Valley and west; the shortage 
of 1,000 beds for the tuberculous in city and county institutions where a few years 
ago we felt the number of beds to be adequate; the lowest death rate that the 
State has ever had from typhoid fever (1.0 deaths per 100,000 population), the 
increased realization of the importance of the carrier in the spread of this disease, 
and the total lack of authority vested in health officers to identify carriers, much 
less control them; the promulgation by the Department of revised minimum 
quarantine requirements which had been approved by the Massachusetts Associa- 
tion of Boards of Health and which are being quite generally adopted by the local 
boards of health; the improved protection of the milk supply through the enforce- 
ment of the pasteurization plant licensing law passed at the last session; the 
doubling of the size of the Biological Laboratory after many years of inadequate 
quarters ; the quite general increase in diphtheria prevalence which was anticipated 
following the phenomenally low prevalence of the two preceding years; the grow- 
ing appreciation of the movement to increase the physical fitness of the children 
about to enter school; the sudden alarming increase in rabies among dogs during 
the latter half of the year; the clumsiness and inadequacy of the shellfish super- 
vision as at present vested in the Department with lack of complete satisfaction 
from either the health or industrial aspects; the unsolved problem in this State of 
how adequate public health service according to present standards can be made 
available to the 283 towns of less than 10,000 people. These points will be elabo- 
rated in this report and in those of the Division Directors which follow. 
I — Communicable Disease. 

This calendar year there were 83,817 cases of communicable disease reported as 
compared with 100,375 cases in 1926 or a decrease of 16.5 per cent. The principal 
increases were in infantile paralysis, scarlet fever (mostly mild), diphtheria, mumps 
and dog-bites, while the most striking decreases were in influenza, measles, whoop- 
ing cough and typhoid fever. 

Minimum Quarantine Requirements. — It is pretty generally conceded that 
quarantine alone has not protected the public against the common diseases spread 
by the upper respiratory tract. These include the prevalent communicable dis- 



P.D. 34. 3 

eases of childhood. This being so, the ultimate solution must come with active 
immunization such as we already have in diphtheria. But while our knowledge 
is limited and our application of that knowledge is still more so, we must do what 
we reasonably can to protect the individual through quarantine. It is fair to say 
that except in cases of general public alarm quarantine will be no more effective 
than the public cares to make it, however the health officers may rave. 

It is also generally true that the shorter the quarantine interval and the fewer 
the times the individual family is called on to cooperate, the greater will be the 
degree of cooperation. This being true, the Department in its Minimum Rules 
for the Control of Communicable Diseases has included the shortest intervals that 
present knowledge and sound practice would indicate. Perhaps the most radical 
recommendations are that contacts with chicken pox, German measles and mumps 
shall not be quarantined, neither shall these diseases be placarded. It was felt 
that respect for quarantine should be maintained for the more kiUing and maiming 
diseases such as measles, whooping cough, scarlet fever and the like. The Massa- 
chusetts Association of Boards of Health recommended that these same rules be 
adopted, and this has been done by many cities and towns. Much confusion will 
be avoided when they have become universal throughout the State. 

Typhoid Fever. — If, as has been said, a health officer's efficiency can be judged 
by his typhoid rate the rest of the country may look to the local health officers of 
Massachusetts with envy. This year the death rate of 1.0 per 100,000 population 
is the lowest, so far as we know, ever obtained by any State in the Union. Of course, 
individual cities have had lower rates. However, complacency is not in order even 
with this disease, since well over a million of our people are served raw milk daily, 
many more eat food three times a day handled by thousands of food handlers, 
many of whom have no respect for the rudiments of personal cleanliness. There 
are not a few inadequately protected water supplies. There is the almost universal 
practice of introducing into our factories as an auxiliary supply a polluted water, 
a condition which we have been studying this last summer. Finally, there is the 
menace of the great outbreaks of this disease in adjacent communities, like Montreal. 
Here well over 4,500 cases were traced to milk passing through a pasteurizing plant 
raw. At a conservative estimate there will be 200 recovered persons who are 
permanent carriers of the disease with an average life expectancy of some 40 years. 
This is equivalent to one person being able to spread the disease for 8,000 years. 
Some of these will come to Massachusetts and handle our food. Surely Montreal 
menaces Massachusetts. 

This year there have been three outbreaks traced to carriers, one a milker, one 
handling food at a church supper, and one working in a school kitchen. Local 
boards are more generally requiring that cases of typhoid fever be discharged only 
on laboratory examination. Since all carriers were at one time cases, by this 
method most of the new carriers would be detected. In response to a general 
request addressed to the dairy industry, many samples of stools and urine were 
sent for examination. The form application for a pasteurization plant license 
requires information as to past history of typhoid among the workers. Certain 
local health officers, notably in Fall River, have been furthering the examination 
of restaurant workers as well as milk handlers. Through our District Health 
Officers the Department has checked up all carriers identified in the past and with 
the special attention given this matter by our Epidemiologist has discovered 16 
new carriers, making the total of known carriers 60. But there are presumably 
2,000 carriers in the state on the basis of the number of cases reported in the past 
20 years, and considering that at least five per cent become permanent carriers. 

At present if a suspected individual refuses to submit specimens of blood, urine 
and feces, his carrier state cannot be proved or disproved. We have records of 
about 170 persons so refusing to cooperate. At the last session of the Legislature 
a bill authorizing examination of suspected persons and control of proved carriers 
who refused to cooperate in protecting the public was not passed. Fourteen 
states have such authority. This year we are asking authority for any health 
officer to examine any food handler on suspicion of any communicable disease or 
carrier condition. This would seem the irreducible minimum of authority for any 
control program. Wholesale examination of all food handlers which is theoreti- 
cally sound, does not give a protection conunensurate with the great expenditure. 



4 P.D. 34. 

and may give a false sense of security. Such examinations should be made by 
individual emploj^ers interested in protecting their product from the disaster of 
disease. 

This year three carriers, all professional milk handlers, have had their gall 
bladders removed at the expense of the Department. These persons had all been 
carriers for some time, had all caused sickness, and all showed positive duodenal 
cultures. Fecal examinations have shown no typhoid bacilli in any of these post- 
operative cases. If at the end of a year duodenal as well as stool examinations 
are still negative these individuals can presumably handle food safely as far as 
typhoid fever is concerned and they will be given a statement to that effect. For 
the professional food handler who has no other occupation to which he can turn 
this seems the only solution, and is a sound expenditure of public funds, since it 
removes a public menace. The operation can, of course, be performed only with 
the entire consent of the carrier, but he benefits since the threat of gall stones, 
almost universal in typhoid carriers, is removed. 

A statistical study of typhoid fever from 1850 has been made by our Statistical 
Consultant, Dr. Carl R. Doering, and is published elsewhere in the report. Con- 
trary to experience elsewhere, and except for our three largest cities, the typhoid 
rate increases with density of population. Since carriers now play so large a part 
in spread, their contacts should generally increase with the congestion of popula- 
tion. Control of the environment is a large factor in control of this disease. Any 
gross breakdown of such control should be registered by an excessive fluctuation 
from the trend of the disease. No such excessive fluctuation has occurred, the 
decrease in death rate having been quite constant. It is pointed out statistically, 
as has been suspected, that the typhoid rate in this State is to a certain degree 
dependent on that of neighboring states through importation. Some interesting 
observations are made on the decrease in the proportion of deaths from this disease 
in the higher age groups since 1850. Was there possibly a lower incidence previous 
to available statistics which accounted for a highly susceptible group over 60, 
and with our continued drop will we again create such a susceptible population 
with corresponding increased incidence in this age group in the future? This is 
mere speculation but if it should be so, a rise in incidence of the disease among 
the increasingly susceptible older age groups can be controlled through further 
control of the carrier and recourse increasingly to artificial immunization through 
vaccine. 

This year enough vaccine was distributed to immunize 35,470 persons. For the 
traveler and the vacationist this protection should be regularly employed, and 
since this disease still kills appreciably and causes prolonged sickness, and since 
any protection against the carrier, who largely stalks unnoticed in our midst, wiU 
be incomplete, it should be seriously considered by those remaining at home. 

Tuberculosis. — The county and city hospitals for tuberculosis show 1,000 beds 
less than are needed on the basis of one bed for every annual death from this 
disease. Yet five years ago the Department felt that the number of beds was 
adequate to meet the demands. What has happened? During this interval two 
State sanatoria have been withdrawn from service to adult pulmonary tuberculosis, 
the North Reading institution now serving children, and the Lakeville institution 
now serving non-pulmonary cases. This took away about 400 beds. Again, five 
years ago 35 per cent of all pulmonary cases were demanding hospital care. Now 
53 per cent are demanding such care. Under such circumstances with a decreasing 
prevalence of the disease the hospital demands may increase. This increase 
accounts for over 500 beds. To meet this and because of the constant waiting 
list for admission to the Rutland State Sanatorium, the Department has refused 
to renew its contract for service at this sanatorium to the hospital districts of 
Middlesex and Worcester Counties. When these counties provide the 375 beds 
which are indicated, when Boston increases its beds as tentatively planned, when 
some of the other counties make the additions needed, and the whole 350 beds at 
the Rutland State Sanatorium are available to the entire State, the 1,000 bed need 
will be approximately met. 

A study of the first 50,000 children examined in the school clinics under the 
Ten- Year Juvenile Tuberculosis Program during the first three years suggests that 
certain infected children are being missed by exalmining only the contacts and 



P.D. 34. 5 

underweights. Thus this year an effort is being made to examine all children in 
the grade schools. This will presumably mean that instead of 15 per cent about 
60 per cent will actually be examined. Our examinations show that from the ages 
of five to seven the proportion of infected children about trebles. Is this because 
of age susceptibility, or is there something inherent in our school system to which 
all children must submit, that accounts for this? Surely from this Ten-Year 
Program we have much to learn. 

The 500 beds at Westfield and North Reading largely occupied by children 
discovered in our school clinics have been filled. The County Tuberculosis Hospi- 
tals may now give preventorium service which is so much needed by this group. 
The follow-up work in schools and homes is done with varying degrees of adequacy. 
In the Boston schools an excellent system of open window classes giving extra rest 
and nourishment has been devised at minimum cost and minimum interference 
with school routine. The tuberculosis clinic service in the various cities has been 
studied and varies from excellent to grossly inadequate. Where local clinicians 
with special interest and time are not available, this preeminently important 
service can probably most effectively be given from the various sanatoria. But 
as this grows it will inevitably mean growth of sanatoria staff. 

The Lakeville State Sanatorium for non-pulmonary tuberculosis has a waiting 
list. More beds are needed to increase the capacity to 300. As the overturn of 
these cases is slow, the stay varying from two to five years, at best the pressure 
will be very acute before an increase in capacity is made available. With the 
opening of the medical building surgery can now be combined with helio-therapy 
and the service to the patients can meet the most exacting demands. Preliminary 
studies in the sanatorium laboratory indicate that some twenty-five per cent of 
the children have been infected with bovine tuberculosis. This gives added 
impetus to the legislation which would eventually exclude from sale all raw milk 
from cows that have not been found uninfected by the tuberculin test. 

Anterior Poliomyelitis (Infantile Paralysis). — This year 1,189 cases of anterior 
poliomyelitis were reported. Through a cooperative arrangement with the Harvard 
Infantile Paralysis Commission the services of a clinician were retained for diag- 
nostic work and the administration, in selected cases, of convalescent serum. The 
Commission has expanded its excellent after-care clinics to cover the particularly 
affected areas in the northeastern part of the State. The results of epidemiological 
studies, serum therapy and after-care are being worked up for publication. While 
the serum must largely come from children, even with the fullest possible coopera- 
tion, its supply will be sharply limited and cannot be as generally available as are 
biologicals prepared from laboratory animals. 

Venereal Diseases. — This year arrangement has been made under a five-year 
contract for the purchase instead of the manufacture of arsenicals for the treat- 
ment of syphilis. A very favorable rate at less than half our production cost was 
obtained though there were few companies willing to bid on such a long term con- 
tract. A similar contract for biologicals will be suggested, but experience in other 
states has invariably shown that short contracts with steadily increasing rates are 
the rule. 

Dr. William A. Hinton of our staff has devised a serological test for syphilis 
which may well prove to be simpler and more economical than the Wassermaim. 
A real need that is felt is a reorganization of the program of the Massachusetts 
Society for Social Hygiene so that it will supplement the excellent but limited 
educational work of the Department. It should take a position in this field similar 
to that occupied by the state societies in tuberculosis and mental hygiene. We 
also feel a great need of a full time, competent, thoughtful physician to study the 
program against gonorrhea and syphilis and guide expansion. 

Smallpox. — There have been but two cases of smallpox, both in individuals 
never successfully vaccinated. One was a contact with a case imported into 
Rhode Island; the origin of infection of the other was not found. Illogically this 
good record will be used as evidence of the needlessness of continuing compulsory 
vaccination in the public schools. This very vaccination has made possible a 
certain indifference to smallpox, which will be cured only by a return of the disease. 

Diphtheria. — This year there were 4,750 cases, as compared with 3,401 in 1926. 
Experience would indicate that this increase will continue for some years. Eight 



6 P.D. 34. 

per cent of the cases die. Toxin-antitoxin is the only hope of preventing this 
increase but to do this it must be far more extensively used than in the past. 

Rabies. — An alarming increase in the prevalence of this disease occurred in the 
last six months, largely around Metropolitan Boston. Control in this State means 
eUmination of the stray dog. In rural states where this control is practically im- 
possible they are helpless save for the protection afforded by immunization of dogs. 
In response to the menace 70 cities and towns in the Metropolitan area recently 
put on a restraint order. Lynn alone has refused, preferring to profit by the pro- 
tection afforded by its neighbors without itself contributing. There have been 
378 persons reported as bitten and taking Pasteur treatment. Undoubtedly many 
more have been subjected to the discomfort and worry of the fourteen or more 
injections without being reported. "Only" two people have died, hideously, of 
rabies, as we are told. Whether the restraint order is effective in control depends 
entirely upon the extent to which the police pick up the stray dogs, and this in 
turn depends upon the support they get from the public. 

Inoculation of dogs, though not completely effective yet, is giving increasing 
evidence of its value, and it is recommended to dog owners who desire to contribute 
toward the protection of their pets, their children and the general public. The 
time, however, is not yet to advocate universal compulsory inoculation. 

Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory. — The long needed addition to the laboratory 
at Forest Hills has at last been made. The original building was put up twenty- 
three years ago by Harvard University to produce diphtheria antitoxin and small- 
pox vaccine and to house seven employees. Now there are a dozen products and 
a staff of about forty, the whole costing less than we would have had to pay for 
the diphtheria antitoxin alone, if we had purchased it at the "favorable rate" 
obtained by another state. 

This year Harvard University has about doubled the size of the laboratory and 
stables at an increase in rent very favorable to the State. There is ample chance 
for expansion in production and the manufacture of new products as they become 
estabUshed. Also there will be opportunity for research and a small number of 
graduate students, both of which are a great stimulus to any laboratory. Here is 
an excellent example of cooperative action by a pubUc and private agency fco the 
interests of both and of the general public. 

II — NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES. 

From the defects of infancy and childhood to the degenerative diseases associated 
with advancing years non-communicable diseases are more and more being forced 
on the health officer's attention and constitute what the late Dr. Eugene R. Kelley 
called "the broadening field of preventive medicine." 

Cancer: (a) Hospital. — On June 21, Governor Alvan T. Fuller spoke at the 
opening exercises of the Pondville Hospital at Norfolk for treatment of all types 
and stages of cancer. This institution was originally built some twelve years ago 
for the treatment of alcoholic and narcotic addicts. During the war it was taken 
over by the government and had recently been lying idle. It has been entirely 
renovated, with complete operating facilities, as well as diagnostic and therapeutic 
X-ray, and a gram of radium. Dr. Robert B. Greenough has been appointed 
Chief of the Consultative Staff of four. Dr. Ernest M. Daland the Chief of the 
Visiting Staff of eight, and Dr. Lyman A. Jones the Superintendent. There are 
ninety beds. 

During the fiscal year 125 patients have been admitted. Nineteen have died 
while sixty-eight have been discharged to their homes. Unfortunately it does not 
mean that they were cured, but they were sufficiently benefited to leave and will 
return from time to time for further treatment as indicated. The average stay 
has been less than a month. This is a third of what was anticipated. The number 
leaving the hospital benefited, the relative shortness of the stay, the excellence of 
the staff and adequacy of equipment indicate that a quality of service second to 
none is being given. If this can be maintained, the service of the institution will 
be great. 

(b) Clinics. — Six cancer chnics have been opened, five in cooperation with the 
local medical profession in Lowell, Lynn, Newton, Springfield and Worcester, and 
one at the Pondville Hospital. Five others are in process of organization. A 
local medical committee is responsible for the quality of chnical service, while a 



P.D. 34. 7 

sub-committee of lay men and women handle the educational and publicity work 
and assist the social worker in her problems. Close cooperation between these 
chnics and the hospital is being developed so that they may use the Pondville 
facilities to the best advantage. Of the 1,360 persons seen at the clinics this year 
(the first opened in December, 1926, and the latest in July, 1927) 23.1% had cancer, 
and of these 68.8% were classed as "operable." This does not mean "curable" 
unfortunately but does mean that for two out of every three persons with cancer 
something definite could be done in the way of benefit or cure. 

Nearly two-thirds of the patients came as a result of newspaper publicity. 
When we reahze that for every patient which this publicity sends to the clinic 
there are from one to three or more (the exact number will never be known) who 
seek advice from their physician privately, we realize that we are on the road 
toward saving the 1,200 or more persons dying from cancer in this State annually 
which our present knowledge, if applied sufficiently early, might save. Thus the 
program is further extension of readily available skilled diagnostic and therapeutic 
resources (clinics), and a much more general and early use of them by the pubUc 
(education), as well as an intelligent foUow-up of those found cancerous (social 
service) . 

(c) Education and Studies. — Education through the spoken and printed word 
must be extended. We have a central advisory committee headed by Mr. Robert 
W. Kelso of the Boston Council of Social Agencies. We have nine speakers on 
call, and much printed material. Regularly material is sent to the newspapers, 
particularly the small newspapers. Locally the educational committees are doing 
admirable work and more must be created. 

Our studies are based on death records, the Newton Morbidity Reporting Area, 
the uniform clinic records, extensive data from visiting nursing associations, 
special social investigations at the Massachusetts General Hospital and Boston 
Dispensary, and house to house canvasses of selected cities and towns. From 
these valuable data on the distribution of the disease, available resources, needed 
extension of service and the like will come. An interesting study on the higher 
prevalence of the disease among those with foreign born parents as compared with 
those with native born parents was pubhshed. 

All this activity seems in the right direction but for permanent success responsible 
local groups must give both medical and lay service of quality, which can be supple- 
mented and directed centrally. For the State to assume responsibility for actually 
giving all this varied service while the local community remained passive would 
spell utter failure. 

Child Hygiene. — Here again the State demonstrates and advises in the best 
methods of obtaining the best service for the child of all ages. We succeed in so far 
as the local communities adopt and give this service themselves. 

(a) Well Child Conferences. — These conferences aim to interest the parents in 
regular health examinations for their children, to promote closer relationships 
between family and family physician and to show communities how to conduct 
these conferences themselves. This year they were held in 60 communities, while 
in eight they were established as a community activity. 

(b) School Hygiene. — A school physician and school nursing consultant are 
available to school departments for study of their problems and for advice. 
Eighteen communities so used this service this year. Also this Department has 
cooperated with the Department of Education in carrying on state-wide conferences 
for school physicians, nurses and superintendents, as well as giving summer courses 
at the Hyarmis Normal School for nurses and teachers. This training and im- 
proving of personnel is fundamental. 

(c) May Day and Summer Round-Up. — This is perhaps the most far-reaching 
activity for child welfare on our program. This year efforts were made to organize 
a child hygiene committee in every community in the State. Utilizing the interest 
in children associated with May Day it was the object of this committee to see 
that every child entering school in the fall should be examined and have physical 
and hygienic defects corrected to the end that he may enter school "fit to learn". 
The possibility for future activities by these committees is enormous. 

(d) Dental Hygiene and Nutrition. — The Department's Dental Policy has the 
endorsement of the dental profession of the State. Our consultant has constantly 



8 P.D. 34. 

stressed nutrition and the importance of concentrating on the care of the younger 
children's teeth. Nutritionists have worked with our tuberculosis clinics in the 
schools and have given summer courses and lectures to teachers and other important 
groups. 

All this is directed at the end of the age scale where a minimum invested in 
correction gives a maximum in return. 

Ill — The Flood. 

In November a series of unusual climatic conditions gave rise to a heavy rainfall 
producing devastating floods in the Coimecticut and Berkshire districts as well as 
in the states to the north of us. Through the failure of power dams there was 
much property damage, but the water supply dams all held to the great credit of 
those responsible. Through the breaking of mains and the flooding of wells and 
small storage reservoirs there was the menace of faecal pollution. Local health 
and water authorities were active in repair work, advice as to boihng and prophy- 
lactic immunization, etc. The anticipated typhoid increase did not materialize. 
Neither did the pneumonias due to exposure. Here again local initiative in promptly 
supplying heated quarters and suppUes for those driven from their homes may be 
credited with a splendid accomplishment. 

IV — Milk 

A recent study of milk-borne disease in the State shows that the decrease in 
cases of sickness spread by milk has been more rapid than has the total number of 
outbreaks so spread. As it is the number of outbreaks rather than cases that 
indicates the vuLnerabihty of a milk supply we should not feel too sanguine in the 
matter. While there has apparently been a ten per cent increase in the per capita 
consumption of milk in the last three years, the figure now being 0.55 quarts, a 
stiU further increase of 25% seems desirable from the nutritional standpoint. But 
is our supply sufficiently safe to warrant health authorities in urging such added 
consumption? 

Under recent legislation the Department promulgated rules and regulations for 
the licensing of pasteurizing plants, said Ucenses to be issued by local boards of 
health. Multiple conferences preceded such promulgation. We sent an inspector 
to Chicago to study the admirable work being done there in cooperation with the 
United States Public Health Service in meeting the mechanical difficulties in the 
way of adequate pasteurization. Following this an inspector has visited 202 plants 
with local inspectors and has indicated infractions of our rules and regulations. 
Extensive changes have been made and new equipment purchased by dealers at 
great expense. But the inspections showed conditions varying from the clean to 
the filthy. On reinspection certain licenses will inevitably have to be revoked 
since as always there were a few dealers interested in knowing how little they could 
do without being closed down. In general it is safe to say that there never was, 
in all probability, more nearly adequate pasteurization throughout the State than 
there is today. But only about 60% of our citizens are protected in this way. 

What of the safety of the raw milk? This year there has been but one typhoid 
outbreak traced to it and that producer now pasteurizes. More and more pro- 
ducers are sending in stool and urine specimens from their farm help to detect 
typhoid carriers but this is still only a negligible fraction of the milk handlers. 
The Department of Agriculture is active in improving dirty methods of handling. 
About 3^% of the milk is certified. Two towns over 10,000 have no milk inspector. 
For every 100,000 quarts sold in cities and towns over 10,000 population there is 
an average of 30 dairy inspections, 20 bacteriological examinations and 10 chemical 
examinations. Among the cattle tested for the first time this year by the Division 
of Animal Industry 26% showed infection with tuberculosis, and over a million 
people are getting this milk raw. 

Now thirty-one cities and towns require that all milk come from non-tuberculous 
cattle or be pasteurized. This is an increase of eight over last year. At this rate 
it will take forty years to get aU towns into hne. We now have a standard ordinance 
to this effect to recommend. For the third time we are introducing legislation 
which would in four years extend this protection to all towns except the very 
smallest, which it seems must be exempted for expediency. 

Again we are asked is raw milk in Massachusetts safe? For those producers, 
dealers, economists and doctors who feel that raw milk has a place in the dietary 



P.D. 34. 9 

of a civilized community today there is an enormous burden of responsibility for 
having it produced from healthy cattle, under cleanly conditions, and handled 
with the most scrupulous respect. Unless they assume this burden more effectively 
in the future than in the past, health authorities will be in an unenviable position 
in recommending without qualifications a 25% increase in general milk consump- 
tion for nutritional reasons since the calories and vitamines and calcium can be 
obtained from other and safer foods. 

V — Sanitation. 

The number of appUcations from cities, towns and others for advice relative to 
water supply, drainage and sewage continues to increase and to infringe dangerously 
on the most important single activity in this field, the supervision of pubUc water 
supplies. Of necessity we have had to refuse to examine private water supplies 
except when requested by the local health authorities. Also we have not the 
resources nor the technique for supervision of such matters as the sanitation of 
simimer camps, rural schools, roadside stands and the like. This year because of 
the high river flow in August, September and October few complaints have been 
received relative to nuisances from the various rivers examined. 

A rather exhaustive investigation has been made during the past year of cross 
connections existing at industrial plants between auxiliary sources of water supply 
and the public supply. This shows that there are many instances where reliance 
is placed on the proper operation of a gate and check valve to prevent polluted 
water entering a pubhc supply. Such a condition has been repeatedly proven to 
be a menace and the Department has notified local water and health authorities, 
insurance inspection bureaus and industrial plants of the conditions found and has 
offered to assist in further investigations. 

Much time has been spent on the special legislative investigations. 

VI — Shellfish. 

Because of an interpretation of the shellfish statute by the Attorney General's 
Oflfice which differed radically from that of the previous incumbent in that office 
there was long delay in issuing certificates, which caused general irritation. 
Further, much time has been devoted to developing safe methods of supervising 
the transplanting of shellfish from contaminated to clean areas as an aid to the 
industry. The method is clumsy. Again, additional areas in Boston Harbor have 
been found grossly polluted and closed to shellfishing, to the irritation of those 
affected. Contaminated products have been found in the market and court action 
taken. A study of methods of purifying soft shelled clams has been made at the 
request of the Department of Conservation. It would seem that transplanting to 
clean waters is not practical while chlorination is, if the pollution is not too gross. 
But application on a large scale may show unforeseen difficulties and supervision 
of the digging and processing will entail certain probably complex machinery. 
During all this the Division of Fisheries and Game of the Department of Conserva- 
tion has done an admirable piece of work in enforcing, so far as a totally inadequate 
force will permit, the prohibition of digging in contaminated areas. 

AU this suggests that the industrial, economic, and police aspects of the complex 
shellfish situation should be under central direction, with this Department advising 
as to the health aspects of the matter. As it is now we are spending an entirely 
disproportionate amount of time on aspects of the problem only most remotely 
connected with health. 

VII — Rural Health Administration. 

How can the small town in Massachusetts afford to obtain adequate public 
health administration? In many rural states county health units are popular, 
using as standards a population of 20,000, a budget of $10,000 and a full time 
personnel composed of a health officer, public health nurse, sanitary inspector and 
secretary. In Barnstable County a county health board is functioning satis- 
factorily. But most of our other counties have too large a population. 

It might be said that with the field staff of the Department, including district 
health officers, tuberculosis nurses, and child welfare nurses all functioning in 
districts, and with our engineers and food inspectors we should be able to sufficiently 
supplement fimited local effort to give adequate results. But when it is realized 
that there are 283 towns with less than 10,000 population each, the amount of 
time that the above mentioned staff can give to an individual town is very limited. 



10 P.D. 34. 

Add this to the local staff, largely part time, of nurses, agents, physicians, and 
inspectors and it is no wonder that confusion rather than a clear health program 
results. So the question of adequate public health service to this population group 
still remains unanswered, 

VIII — Personnel. 
The organization of the PubUc Health Council has not changed during the past 
year, the Governor having reappointed Dr. Lee and Dr. Lally at the expiration of 
their terms. 

The Department was fortunate in having Dr. Sumner H. Remick accept rein- 
statement as Director of the Division of Tuberculosis (Sanatoria) in AprU. Dr. 
Henry D. Chadwick, who had been Acting Director in addition to his other duties 
since Dr. Remick's resignation, is devoting his attention to his work as Superin- 
tendent of the Westfield State Sanatorium and Chief of the Tuberculosis Clinics. 
Dr. George T. O'Donnell, State District Health Officer of the Eastern District, 
resigned in June, and Dr. Edward A. Lane, who had been Acting District Health 
Officer, was given this district. 

On May first Dr. Lyman Asa Jones, District Health Officer in the Northeastern 
Health District, accepted appointment as Superintendent of the Pondville Hospital, 
and Dr. George M. Sullivan, who had been cormected with the Tuberculosis Clinics, 
was transferred to this district. 

Mr. Merton P. Young, Assistant Director of the Division of Administration, re- 
signed on September first to accept an appointment with another State department. 
Dr. Chester S. Stirrett was appointed as Veterinary Food Inspector in June 
and has devoted his entire time to the inspection of pasteurization plants, as 
authorized by Chapter 259 of the Acts of 1927. 

The expansion of the work of the Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory with the 
erection of the new building has made additions to the staff necessary. Dr. James 
A. McComb was appointed in June, vice Dr. Gerald F. O'Malley, resigned, and in 
addition four new positions (bacteriologist, janitor, laborer and stableman) have 
been created. 

Organization. 
The organization of the Department is as follows: 

Commissioner of Public Health George H. Bigelow, M.D. 

Pubhc Health Council 6 

Division of Administration: 

Secretary (1), Statistical Consultant (1), Clerks and Stenographers (11). 13 
(Cancer Section) : 
Epidemiologists (2), Social Worker (1), Clerks and Stenographers (5). 8 
Division of Biologic Laboratories: 
Benjamin White, Director. 

Assistant Director (1), Chemists and Bacteriologists (6), Laboratory 
Assistants (5), Laboratory Helpers (7), Stable Foreman (1), Stable- 
men and Laborers (14), Janitor (1), Clerks and Stenographers (3). 
(Wassermann Laboratory) : 
Chief of Laboratory (1), Bacteriologists (2), Laboratory Helpers (4), 
Clerks and Stenographers (3). 49 

Division of Communicable Diseases: 

Clarence L. Scamman, M.D., Director and Deputy Commissioner. 
District Health Officers (6), Epidemiologist (1), Clerks and Stenographers 
(5). 
(Diagnostic Laboratory) : 
Bacteriologists (4), Laboratory Assistant (1), Laboratory Helpers (5), Clerks 
and Stenographers (1) 
(Venereal Disease) : 
Special Investigator (1), Social Worker (1), Lecturer (1), Clerks and Stenogra- 
phers (2) 29 
Division of Food and Drugs : 

Hermann C. Lythgoe, Director. 

Chemists (6), Veterinary Inspectors (3), Food Inspectors (5), Laboratory 
Assistant (1), Laborers (2), Clerks and Stenographers (6). 24 



P.D. 34. 11 

Division of Hygiene: 

Merrill E. Champion, M.D., Director. 

Dental Hygienist (1), Nutritionists (4), Educational Workers (2), Child 
Welfare Physician (1), Clerks and Stenographers (7). 
(Maternal and Infant Hygiene) : 
Child Welfare Physician (1), Nursing Supervisors (4), Clerks and Ste- 
nographers (4). 25 
Division of Sanitary Engineering: 

X. H. Goodnough, Chief Sanitary Engineer. 

Engineers and Engineering Assistants (16), Clerks and Stenographers 
(10). 27 

Division of Tuberculosis: 

Sumner H. Remick, Director. 

Assistant Director (1), Field Nurses (5), Superintendent of Sanatoria 
Construction (1), Examiner of Settlements and Support Claims (1), 
Clerks and Stenographers (6). 
(Tuberculosis Clinics) : 
Child Welfare Physicians (5), Nurses (3), Clerks and Stenographers (7), 
Chauffeur (1). 31 

Division of Water and Sewage Laboratories : 
Harry W. Clark, Director. 

Chief of Laboratory (1), Chemists and Bacteriologists (8), Laboratory 
Assistants (2), Mechanical Handyman and Laborers (3), Clerks and 
Stenographers (2). 17 



Total 223 

IX — Publications. 
The following articles have been published by members of the staff: 

Division of Administration. 
Profession of Nursing 

Dr. George H. Bigelow 

Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 196:355-357 March 3, 1927 
Cancer Problem in Massachusetts 

Dr. George H. Bigelow 

Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, 196:684-685 April 28, 1927 
The Flood in Massachusetts 

Dr. George H. Bigelow 

American Journal of Public Health, Vol. XVII, No. 12 December, 1927 
The State Cancer Hospital 

Dr. George H. Bigelow 

The Massachusetts Elephant, Vol. 4, No. 10 

Cancer Section. 
The Care of Chronic Cancer Patients in Massachusetts 
Dr. Mary R. Lakeman 
Hospital Social Work, Vol. 15, p. 473 

Cancer Studies in Massachusetts. 1. The Relationship between Cancer and 
Density of Population in Massachusetts 

Dr. Herbert L. Lombard and Dr. Carl R. Doering 

Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, Vol. 13, No. 10, October, 1927 

Investigation of Cases of Unidentified Illness in Haverhill, Mass. 
Dr. Lyman A. Jones and Dr. Herbert L. Lombard 
Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, Vol. 197, No. 1, pp. 19-21, July 7, 1927 

Scarlet Fever Outbreak Due to Infected Food 

Dr. Clarence L. Scamman, Dr. Herbert L. Lombard, Edith A. Beckler, S.B., 

and George M. Lawson 
American Journal of PubUc Health, Vol. XVII, No. 4, April, 1927 



12 P.D. 34. 

The Opening of the Pondville Cancer Hospital at Norfolk, Mass. 

Opening Address, His Excellency Alvan T. Fuller, Gov. of Massachusetts 
Cancer and the Medical Profession, John M. Birnie, M.D. 
Cancer and the Public, Robert W. Kelso 

National Aspects of the Cancer Problem, George A. Soper, Ph.D. 
Cancer Clinics, William T. Hopkins, M.D. 
Cancer and the Public Dependents, John H. Nichols, M.D. 
The Service of the Pondville Hospital at Norfolk, Robert B. Greenough, M.D. 
Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, Vol. 197, No. 14, October 6, 1927, 
pp. 551-561 
Whats and Whys of Cancer 
Dr. Herbert L. Lombard 

The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, Vol. 196, No. 23, June 9, 1927, 
pp. 968-970 

Division of Biologic Laboratories — Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory. 
An Anti-Measles-Diplococcus Serum, Ruth Tunnicliff and Benjamin White 
Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, Vol. 197, No. 7, pp. 272-273, August 18, 
1927 

Wassermann Laboratory. 
A Glycerol-Cholesterol Precipitation Reaction in SyphiUs, William A. Hinton 
Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, Vol. 196, No. 24, pp. 993-996, June 16, 
1927 

Division of Communicable Diseases. 

Contagious Diseases: The Variety of Administrative Methods for their Control, 
Clarence L. Scamman, M.D. 
Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, Vol. 196, pp. 232-4, February 10, 1927 
Diphtheria Immunization in Providence, Clarence L. Scamman, M.D. and A. S. 
Pope, M.D. 
Joiirnal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 88, pp. 563-565, February 
19, 1927 
Scarlet Fever Outbreak Due to Infected Food, Clarence L. Scamman, M.D., and 
others 
American Journal of PubUc Health, Vol. 17, pp. 311-316, April, 1927 
To Increase Effectiveness, Edward A. Lane, M.D. 

Public Health Nurse, November, 1927 
A Brief Statement as to the Method of Deriving the Prosodemic and Epidemic 
Indices, Filip C. Forsbeck, M.D., and others 
Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, Vol. 197, pp. 283-284, August 18, 1927 
Milk Borne Disease in Massachusetts, Filip C. Forsbeck, M.D., and George H. 
Bigelow, M.D. 
American Journal of Public Health, October, 1927 

Division of Food and Drugs. 
'Water, The Universal Adulterant, Hermann C. Lythgoe 

The Nucleus, March, 1927 
The Ammonia Content of Cold Storage Eggs, Hermann C. Lythgoe 

Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, p. 922, August, 1927 

Division of Water and Sewage Laboratories. 
An Outhne of Sewage Purification Studies at the Lawrence Experiment Station 

Harry W. Clark 

Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Vol. 19, No. 4, p. 448, April, 1927 
The Effect of Pipes of Different Metals upon the Quality of Water SuppHes 

Harry W. Clark 

Journal of the New England Water Works Association, Vol. XLI, No. 1, p. 31, 
March, 1927 
Iron as a Carrier of Oxygen in Sewage Purification, Harry W. Clark 

Engineering News-Record, Vol. 98, No. 14, p. 578, April 7, 1927 



P.D. 34. 13 

Submerged Contact Aerators in Sewage Purification, Harry W, Clark 
Engineering News-Record, Vol. 98, No. 14, p. 578, April 7, 1927 

Division of Tuberculosis. 
Sanatorium Treatment of Extra Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Dr. Leon A. Alley, 
Supt. Lakeville State Sanatorium 
Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, Tuberculosis Section, June 7, 1927 
Tuberculous Diaphysis, Dr. Harold Ragolsky, Asst. Supt. Lakeville State Sana- 
torium 
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 
Observations in the Underweight Clinics in Massachusetts, Dr. Henry D. Chadwick 
and Dr. David Zacks 

Journal of the American Medical Association, August, 1927 
Tuberculosis Case Finding in Children, Dr. Henry D. Chadwick 

American Review of Tuberculosis, May, 1927 
The Tuberculosis Situation in Massachusetts, Dr. Henry D. Chadwick 

Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, September, 1927 
Incidence of Contagious Diseases in Sanatoria, Dr. E. C. Willoughby, Asst. Supt., 
North Reading State Sanatorium 

Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, September, 1927 
Treatment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Dr. E. B, Emerson, Supt. Rutland State 
Sanatorium 
Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, September, 1927 

Division of Hygiene. 
Maternal and Infant Hygiene Activities in Massachusetts, Susan M. Coffin, M.D. 

Women's Medical Journal, November, 1927 
Breast Feeding Campaign in Fall River, Helen M. Hackett, R.N. 

Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, September 22, 1927 
The Crack in the Dam, Eleanor B. Gallinger, S.B. 

Good Health, February, 1927 

X — New Legislation. 

The Department is asking for important milk legislation and authority for 
health officers to examine on suspicion any food handler to determine if he can 
spread communicable disease as a case or as a carrier. 

We recommend legislation which would protect the people of the State from 
bovine tuberculosis. It requires that eventually, by 1931, all milk sold should be 
either pasteurized or from non-tuberculous cattle, except in towns of less than 5,000 
population, where it is optional. This does not mean that in these small towns 
there is no menace. Quite the contrary. Nor does it mean that their health is of 
less importance. But it does mean that the small town has been the principal 
rallying point of the opposition, and the exemption is, therefore, expedient rather 
than rational. 

The last Legislature passed bills requiring licensing of pasteurizing plants 
which is increasing the effectiveness of this important proceeding, regarding the 
control of the sale of tuberculin, and "the area testing" of cattle. This year we 
understand that bills will be introduced for increased remuneration to the farmer 
for condemned cattle and for some form of quarantine to keep infected animals 
out of tuberculosis "clean" areas. This bill fits in admirably with the general aims 
of all these bills, which are to increase the safety of our most important single food 
product and to increase the health of the cattle, which means the profit of the 
farmer. 

Bovine tuberculosis is an important factor in the non-pulmonary forms of the 
disease in man. Milk from infected cattle has been repeatedly found infected. 
The less adequate the supervision of the milk supply the higher the proportion of 
infected children. Twenty-four cities and towns in the State now have such local 
regulations. About 60 per cent of the population are protected against tuberculosis 
from milk. But varying regulations in adjoining communities are a hardship on 



14 P.D. 34. 

the producer. Uniformity is needed, as is protection for the other 40 per cent of 
our people, particularly the heavy milk consumers, the children. 

This bill is extremely moderate and even in 1931 would not protect the entire 
State as New York and New Jersey will protect in 1928. 

We also recommend legislation which would require any food handler, without 
cost to himself and in the presence of his own physician if he so desires, to submit 
on suspicion of the State or local health officer to an examination to determine 
whether he is suffering from a communicable disease or is a "carrier" of such 
disease. It is generally recognized that persons suffering Avith such diseases aa 
open pulmonary tuberculosis, measles, leprosy, and dysentery should not come in 
contact with food to be consumed by others. The bakery law recognizes this 
(Section 45, Chapter 111, General Laws) by allowing examination on suspicion of 
disease. But there are many points in the handling of food far more menacing 
than the bakery. 

It is not so generally recognized that the well person carrying the germs of 
diseases such as typhoid fever and diphtheria may be fully as much, if not more, of 
a menace than the person sick with the disease. Since they are "well" they will 
continue indefinitely at work and will not attract attention as would the sick 
person. Yet many investigations of disease outbreaks have been completely 
frustrated by the unwillingness of certain food handlers to submit to examination 
of blood, stool, urine, sputum or throat cultures. The records of the Department 
show twice as many persons suspected of being typhoid "carriers" but refusing 
examination as were actually proven to be "carriers." Many of the "suspects" 
would undoubtedly have been found not to be "carriers." But some through 
their refusal were not recognized and continue as a menace to handle food. The 
Montreal typhoid of last summer menaces Massachusetts through the hundreds 
of carriers produced. In the course of time many will come to us, some as food 
handlers. Health officers must have authority to recognize them on reasonable 
suspicion. 

This bill gives no authority for handling the recognized "carrier" as was re- 
quested in the rejected typhoid carrier legislation of last year. Fourteen states 
have such legislation but here we apparently prefer to depend on the sometimes 
fragile reed of cooperation. But this biU gives the first step in effective control, 
which is recognition of the sick individual or the carrier of a disease that may be 
spread by handUng food. 



Financial Statement. 
Appropriations and Expenditures for the Year ended November 30, 1927. 



Division of Administration 
Division of Hygiene .... 

Maternal and Infant Hygiene . 
Division of Communicable Diseases . 
Venereal Diseases ..... 
Manufacture and Distribution Arsphenamine 
Division of Food and Drugs 
Division of Biologic Laboratories: 

Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory . 

Wassermann Laboratory 
Division of Tuberculosis .... 

Subsidies to Cities and Towns 
Tuberculosis Clinic Units .... 
Division of Sanitary Engineering 
Division of Water and Sewage Laboratories 
Cancer Clinics ..... 



Appropriations . 
$37,400.00 
44,180.00 
28,780.00 
71,250.00 
28.820.00 
14,460.00 
55,400.00 

84,855.00 
17,900.00 
42,420.00 
222,000.00 
53,200.00 
76,700.00 
43,700.00 
45,000.00 



Expended. 

$35,843.79 
43.692.54 
26,735.48 
70,029.73 
24,213.63 
11,961.82 
52,146.66 

84,730.30 
17,559.57 
41,478.86 
220,403.86 
50,417.27 
73,666.90 
43,008.33 
32,355.29 



$866,065.00 $828,244.03 



Special Appropriations and Expenditures for Year ended November SO, 1927. 



Antitoxin and Vaccine Equipment — New Bldg. . . . . . 

Shellfish Information, Ch. 33 — Res. 1927 

Merrimack Valley Water Supply Investigation, Ch. 30 — Res. 1927 
Salem, Beverly, Peabody and Danvers Water Supply Investigation, Ch. 30 — 
Res. 1927 



Appropriation. 

$29,500.00 

2,000.00 

12,000.00 

1,000.00 



Expended. 

$29,483.19 
1,898.43 
7,853.53 

834.10 



$44,500.00 $40,069.25 

GEORGE H. BIGELOW, M.D., 

Commissioner of Public Health. 



P.D. 34. 15 

REPORT OF THE DIVISION OF SANITARY ENGINEERING. 

X, H. GooDNOUGH, Director and Chief Engineer. 

Oversight and Care of Inland Waters. 

Water Supply and Sewerage. 

During the year 1927 there was a further increase in the number of applications 
for the approval of plans for systems of water supply, drainage and sewerage and 
for the advice of the Department relative thereto The total number of such 
applications and petitions received during the year aggregated 436 as compared 
with 322 in the previous year, an increase of 35 per cent. Of the total number of 
applications received, 336 related to water supply, 5 to sources of ice supply, 38 
to sewage and sewage disposal, 10 to pollution of streams, and 47 to miscellaneous 
matters. 

A new water supply was introduced during the year into the town of Somerset, 
making the total number of cities and towns supplied with water from public 
works 220 out of the total of 355 cities and towns in the State. 

The rainfall for the year 1927 amounted to 46.94 inches or 2.40 inches in excess 
of the normal as determined from observations at eight stations in different parts 
of the State having rainfall records for more than 50 years. The distribution of 
the rainfall was most remarkable in that there was a deficiency of 6.86 inches in 
the first six months of the year, January to June inclusive, and an excess of rain- 
fall amounting to 9.26 inches in the remaining months, excepting in the month of 
September in which the rainfall was about normal. 

On November 3 and 4 a great rain storm passed across New England causing 
excessive floods in Vermont and western Massachusetts and in the southeastern 
part of Massachusetts and adjacent sections of Rhode Island and Connecticut. 
A great loss of life was caused by the freshets in Vermont and one life was lost in 
Becket, Mass., due to the failure of a dam on a reservoir on one of the tributaries 
of the West Branch of the Westfield River. Large property damage was caused 
in the sections visited by the storm. 

The total rainfall during the year 1927 on the watershed of Wachusett Reser- 
voir, which is located approximately in the center of the State, was 54.67 inches, 
which is 9.31 inches above the normal. For the first six months in the "year the 
rainfall was 16.99 inches, or 5.38 inches less than the normal, and for the last six 
months the total was 37.68 inches, or 14.69 inches in excess of the normal. The 
rainfall was very greatly in excess of the normal in all of the last six months of 
the year with the exception of September, which had slightly less than the normal. 
The average yield of the watershed during the year was 1,389,000 gallons per 
square mile per day, which was about 298,000 gallons per day in excess of the 
normal, or about 27 per cent. The average flow for the last six months in the 
year was about 1,609,000 gallons per square mile per day, which was 983,000 
gallons per day or nearly 157 per cent in excess of the average in those months. 
In consequence of the deficiency of rainfall in the three preceding years the reser- 
voir had been drawn down in the early part of 1927 to a level about 32 feet below 
high water. The excessive rains of the latter half of the year raised the level of 
the water in the reservoir by the end of the year to a point about 10 feet below 
high water. Owing to the danger of shortage of water indicated by the low rain- 
fall in the early part of the year, works were constructed for utilizing the water 
of the upper reservoirs in the Sudbury River watershed, known as the Ashland, 
Hopkinton and Whitehall reservoirs, as a temporary water supply for the Met- 
ropolitan District. These works permit the diversion of the waters of Hopkinton 
and Whitehall reservoirs into the Sudbury Reservoir, and the water of Ashland 
Reservoir into the Sudbury aqueduct, so that these waters which are less objec- 
tionable than other portions of the Sudbury River watershed may be drawn upon 
for emergency use. A large quantity of water was also used during the year from 
Lake Cochituate. On account of the pollution of this lake the water was treated 
with chlorine before being suppUed to the district. Because of these conditions 
the quality of the water supplied to the Metropolitan District during the year 



16 P.D. 34. 

has been less satisfactory than for many years, a condition which very probably 
may continue until the additional supplies from the Ware and Swift rivers have 
been made available by the construction of the works already authorized. 

Metropolitan Water Supply. 
Under the legislation of 1926 a commission known as the Special Metropolitan 
District Water Supply Commission was created by Chapter 375 of the Acts of 
that year and directed to construct a tunnel to the W^are River at Coldbrook 
Springs and to acquire property and water rights in the valley of the Swift River 
for the further extension of the system which is to include the Ware and Swift 
rivers. In 1927 under the provisions of Chapter 321 of the Acts of that year 
the Special Metropolitan District Water Supply Commission was authorized and 
directed to extend the works for the Metropolitan water supply to the Swift River 
and to take from the latter stream all of its flow excepting the amount necessary 
to maintain a flow of 20 million gallons per day in the mill pond at Bondsville in 
the town of Palmer about seven miles below the dam of the proposed reservoir on 
the Swift River. It was also provided that no water should be taken from the 
Millers River under the provisions of that act. The act thus modifies the recom- 
mendations of the Joint Board on which the legislation of 1926 was based in that 
it provides for a much larger taking of the flow of water from the Swift River than 
was recommended by the Joint Board of 1922 and excludes for the present, at 
least, the taking of water from the Millers River. Work was begun early in 
1927 upon the construction of a tunnel from Wachusett Reservoir to the Ware 
River at Coldbrook and also on acquiring property in the valley of the Swift 
River at the site of the proposed new storage reservoir. 

Sanitaey Protection of Public Water Supplies. 

Rules and regulations were established during the year for the protection of the 
water supply of Scituate. 

The cities, towns and districts for which rules and regulations have been estab- 
lished for the sanitary protection of their water supplies up to the end of the year 
are the following: 

Abington and Rockland Greenfield North Andover 

Adams Haverhill Northborough 

Amherst Hingham and Hull Norwood 

Andover Holden Peabody 

Ashburnham Holyoke Pittsfield 

Ashfield Hudson Plymouth 

Attleboro Lakeville (State Sanatorium) Randolph and Holbrook 

Braintree Lee Rockport 

Brockton and Whitman Leicester (Cherry Valley Russell 
Cambridge and Rochdale) Rutland 

Chester ' Leominster Salem and Beverly 

Chicopee Lincoln and Concord Scituate 

Cohasset Lynn Springfield 

Concord Marlborough Springfield and Ludlow 

Dalton Maynard Stockbridge 

Danvers and Middleton Medfield (State Hospital) Taunton 
Easthampton Metropolitan Water Wakefield 

Fall River District Westfield 

Falmouth Milford West Springfield 

Fitchburg Montague Weymouth 

Gardner Newburjrport Williamsburg 

Great Barrington Norfolk (State Hospital) Winchester 

• (Housatonic) Northampton Worcester 

Connection of Auxiliary Fire Supplies with Public Water Stipply Systems. 

It is the general practice in manufacturing establishments throughout the 

State to provide connections with auxiliary sources of water supply from which 

water may be drawn by pumps of large capacity for fire or industrial use. The 

pipes of many of these supplies are in general connected directly with the public 



P.D. 34. 17 

water supply system with check valves so arranged as to close when the pressure 
in the auxiliary supply becomes greater than that in the pubUc water supply 
system. In addition to the check valves positive gates are usually installed in 
the neighborhood of the check valves. The emergency water supply is usually 
drawn from the nearest available body of water regardless of its sanitary quality, 
and in case of any failure in the operation of the check valves water from the 
emergency supply may enter the pipes of the public water supply system. 

Recognizing the danger from the possible failure of operation of the check valves, 
it has been the custom in recent years to introduce two check valves on the auxil- 
iary water supply pipe for fire purposes near the connection with the public supply. 
These double check valves are placed generally in a chamber so arranged as to be 
subject to inspection for possible leakage, and such connections are usually also 
further protected by a gate valve so that the connection may be shut off entirely 
when necessary. There are also many cases where an auxiliary supply is used 
for supplying boilers or for other purposes in the establishment which may also 
be connected with the public supply, making possible the entrance of water from 
the auxiliary system into the public water supply mains. Furthermore,^ there are 
sometimes connections from both the public and the auxiliary supplies into vats, 
tanks, etc., from which there is sometimes danger that water of the latter supplies 
may be siphoned into the public system. The general results of these investiga- 
tions to the end of the year showed the following conditions: 

Number of plants inspected to date 799 

Nimiber of plants where no cross connections exist 162 

Number of plants where cross connections were found 637 

Of this total, 

379 plants had fire service cross connections 
258 plants had mill service cross connections 
Number of plants having both fire service and mill service cross connections . 493 
Of the total of 379 plants having fire service cross connections 
137 plants had double check valve protection 
212 plants had single check valve protection 
8 plants had gate valve protection only 
14 plants had fire service meters only 

8 plants where the existence of any protection is not definitely known 
were found. 

It will be noted that many of the auxiliary or secondary supplies are connected 
with the public system with a single check valve as the only means of protection, 
and the investigation shows that these valves are in many cases deeply covered 
in the ground and inaccessible except by digging up the pipe. Furthermore, 
thfere are many of these which have not been inspected for many years. The 
connection of an auxiliary or secondary supply with public water works systems 
is objectionable in any case, though frequent and regular inspections would re- 
duce greatly any danger therefrom. The existence of single check valves which 
cannot be readily inspected is unquestionably a menace to the public health and 
should be removed. 

Following the examinations made during the past year all of the cities and 
towns in which objectionable connections exist were notified of the conditions 
found, as were also the proprietors of establishments involved and the insurance 
inspection bureaus interested. 

Examination of Public Water Supplies. 
Inspections have been made of many of the sources of water supply during the 
year and the condition of the waters in nearly all of them has been determined by 
analysis. The number of microscopical and bacterial examinations has been 
increased considerably over previous years, especially those pertaining to the 
condition of the Metropolitan auxihary supplies which it has been necessary to 
use for the Metropolitan water supply. The average yearly results of chemical 
analyses of water from the various sources examined during the year 1927 are 
given in the following table : 



18 



P.D. 34. 



Analyses of the Water of Public Water Supplies. 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Surface-Water Sources for the Year 1927. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









u 


d 
o 

mrv] 


Ammonia. 1 








Source. 


1 


albuminoid. 


S 


Cnr OB Town. 


1 


hi 


03 


MetropolitanWater Dis- 


















trict .... 


Wachusett Reservoir, upper end 


.36 


4.43 


.0031 


.0163 


.0029 


.26 


1.2 




Wachusett Reservoir, lower end 


.11 


3.78 


.0019 


.0116 


.0019 


.26 


1.2 




Sudbury Reservoir 


.14 


4.09 


.0019 


.0133 


.0022 


.30 


1.5 




Framingham Reservoir No. 3 . 


.14 


4.23 


.0019 


.0136 


.0029 


.32 


1.6 




Hopkinton Reservoir . 


.41 


4.60 


.0022 


.0143 


.0012 


.38 


1.3 




Ashland Reservoir 


.49 


4.70 


.0021 


.0159 


.0021 


.39 


1.3 




Framingham Reservoir No. 2 . 


.61 


6.23 


.0062 


.0191 


.0028 


.64 


1.8 




Lake Cochituate .... 


.16 


7.49 


.0027 


.0174 


.0036 


.82 


3.0 




Chestnut Hill Reservoir . 


.13 


4.36 


.0015 


.0116 


.0014 


.34 


1.7 




Weston Reservoir 


.12 


4.23 


.0017 


.0125 


.0017 


.32 


1.6 




Spot Pond 


.06 


4.05 


.0015 


.0127 


.0019 


.31 


1.6 




Tap in State House . 


.12 


4.13 


.0013 


.0115 


.0016 


.33 


1.7 




Tap in Revere .... 


.05 


3.98 


.0011 


.0116 


.0019 


.31 


1.6 




Tap in Quincy .... 


.11 


4.29 


.0009 


.0102 


.0011 


.37 


1.9 


Abington. 


Big Sandy Pond .... 


.05 


3.69 


.0052 


.0125 


.0015 


.68 


0.8 


Adams (Fire District) . 


Dry Brook 


.23 


7.06 


.0012 


.0110 


.0015 


.10 


4.6 




Bassett Brook .... 


.01 


4.74 


.0009 


.0048 


.0007 


.11 


3.2 


Amherst .... 


Amethyst Brook large reservoir. 


.51 


4.04 


.0015 


.0125 


.0014 


.13 


0.9 




Amethyst Brook small reservoir. 


.19 


3.49 


.0022 


.0099 


.0017 


.16 


1.2 


Andover .... 


Raggett's Pond .... 


.12 


4.64 


.0019 


.0148 


.0013 


.40 


1.8 


Ashburnham . 


Upper Naukeag Lake . 


.10 


2.71 


.0017 


.0074 


.0010 


.16 


0.6 


Ashfield .... 


Bear Swamp Brook 


.25 


4.87 


.0017 


.0106 


.0018 


.11 


2.7 


Athol .... 


Phillipston Reservoir . 


.68 


4.98 


.0050 


.0272 


.0093 


.19 


1.4 




Buckman Brook Reservoir 


.25 


3.77 


.0028 


.0250 


.0110 


.13 


0.9 




Thousand Acre Meadow Brook . 


1.43 


5.68 


.0042 


.0258 


.0036 


.14 


1.4 




Inlet of filter .... 


.43 


3.99 


.0075 


.0189 


.0037 


.16 


1.3 




Outlet of filter .... 


.30 


3.87 


.0040 


.0144 


.0026 


.16 


1.2 


Barre .... 


Reservoir 


.10 


3.60 


.0015 


.0098 


.0011 


.16 


1.4 


Blandford (Fire District) 


Freeland Brook .... 


.01 


3.60 


.0024 


.0031 


.0005 


.20 


1.2 


Brockton 


Silver Lake 


.07 


4.01 


.0015 


.0132 


.0023 


.57 


0.9 


Brookfield 


Cooley Hill Reservoir. . . 


.14 


4.02 


.0017 


.0113 


.0015 


.19 


1.1 


Cambridge 


Lower Hobbs Brook Reservoir . 


.14 


5.74 


.0032 


.0213 


.0036 


.45 


2.4 




Upper Hobbs Brook Reservoir . 


.35 


5.94 


.0036 


.0232 


.0031 


.43 


2.3 




Stony Brook Reservoir 


.48 


7.24 


.0031 


.0189 


.0020 


.57 


2.6 




Fresh Pond 


.08 


8.41 


.0110 


.0203 


.0035 


.71 


4.2 


Cheshire .... 


Thunder Brook .... 


.05 


5.00 


.0037 


.0059 


.0009 


.08 


3.4 




Kitchen Brook .... 


.03 


5.10 


.0029 


.0047 


.0013 


.09 


3.1 


Chester (Fire District) . 


Austin Brook Reservoir . 


.11 


3.68 


.0011 


.0085 


.0006 


.12 


1.6 




Horn Pond 


.20 


3.92 


.0017 


.0127 


.0015 


.13 


1.8 


CracopEE 


Morton Brook .... 


.05 


5.12 


.0039 


.0054 


.0014 


.27 


1.5 




Cooley Brook .... 


.71 


5.52 


.0075 


.0176 


.0030 


.19 


1.7 


Clinton .... 


Tap in town 


.19 


4.06 


.0010 


.0115 


.0018 


.20 


1.4 


Cobain (Griswoldville) . 


McClellan Reservoir . 


.09 


6.87 


.0025 


.0104 


.0021 


.17 


4.6 


Colrain (Fire District 


















No. 1) . . . 


Moimtain Brook Reservoir 


.03 


8.37 


.0005 


.0036 


.0007 


.13 


5.5 


Concord .... 


Nagog Pond 


.05 


3.63 


.0026 


.0112 


.0014 


.37 


1.4 


Dalton (Fire District) . 


Egypt Brook Reservoir 


.17 


3.17 


.0018 


.0102 


.0015 


.10 


1.3 




Windsor Reservoir 


.44 


5.00 


.0033 


.0163 


.0019 


.12 


2.5 




Cady Brook 


.22 


4.64 


.0022 


.0103 


.0014 


.11 


2.3 


Danvers .... 


Middleton Pond .... 


.29 


5.05 


.0036 


.0176 


.0020 


.41 


1.7 




Swan Pond . . . . . 


.19 


5.04 


.0058 


.0199 


.0040 


.38 


2.0 


Deerfield (South Deer- 


















field Water Supply 


















District) 


Roaring Brook .... 


.04 


6.71 


.0010 


.0061 


.0004 


.13 


3.9 


Egremont (South) . 


Goodale Brook . 




.05 


4.15 


.0005 


.0025 


.0005 


.11 


5.3 


Fall River . 


North Watuppa Lake 




.08 


4.00 


.0030 


.0130 


.0018 


.50 


1.1 


Falmouth 


Long Pond . 




.06 


4.17 


.0014 


.0095 


.0014 


1.03 


0.8 


FlTCHBUBQ 


Meetinghouse Pond 




.07 


3.22 


.0061 


.0157 


.0032 


.20 


1.0 




Scott Reservoir . 




.12 


3.29 


.0048 


.0146 


.0029 


.20 


1.0 




Wachusett Lake . 




.07 


2.75 


.0051 


.0130 


.0019 


.19 


1.0 




Falulah Hrook 




.14 


3.16 


.0022 


.0113 


.0021 


.16 


0.8 




Ashby Reservoir . 




.22 


3.34 


.0063 


.0202 


.0044 


.17 


0.7 


Gardner. 


Crystal Lake 




.04 


4.93 


.0022 


.0128 


.0020 


.29 


2.1 


Gloucester . 


Dike's Brook Reservoir 


.34 


4.60 


.0058 


.0119 


.0016 


.84 


0.8 




Wallace Reservoir 


.44 


4.95 


.0025 


.0197 


.0052 


.98 


0.9 




Haskell Hrook Reservoir . 


.10 


4.28 


.0020 


.0094 


.0013 


.81 


0.8 


Great Harrington (Fire 


















District) 


East Mountain Reservoir . 


.15 


5.85 


.0020 


.0084 


.0011 


.11 


3.6 


Great Harrington 


















(Housatonic) 


Long Pond 


.02 


8.52 


.0044 


.0192 


.0040 


.13 


7.5 


Greenfield 


Glen Hrook Upper Reservoir 


.03 


6.31 


.0010 


.0050 


.0006 


.17 


3.4 




Glen Hrook Lower Reservoir . 


.04 


6.14 


.0016 


.0072 


.0010 


.17 


3.4 


Hadley (Water Supply 


















District) 


Hart's Brook Reservoir 


.09 


4.65 


.0007 


.0059 


.0009 


.16 


2.4 


Hatfield .... 


Running Gutter HrookReservoir 


.11 


6.82 


.0010 


.0041 


.0007 


.20 


2.7 


Haverhill 


.Johnson's Pond .... 


.12 


5.32 


.0026 


.0172 


.0021 


.43 


2.5 



P.D. 34. 

Averages of Chemical Analyses of Surface-Water Sources, etc. — Continued. 

(Parts in 100.000] 



19 



CiTT OR Town. 



Source. 





a 




o 




Oa 










^ 


"0^ 




aiW 


o 


rt 



ALBUMINOID. 






Haverhill (cent.) 



Hingham .... 
Hinsdale (Fire District) 

HOLYOKE. 



Hudson . . . . 
Huntington (Fire Dis- 
trict) . . . . 
Ipswich . . . . 
Lawrence 
Lee 



Lenox 
Leominster 



Lincoln 

Longmeadow 

Lynn 



Manchester 
Marlborough 

Maynard 
MUford . 
Montague 
Nantucket 
New Bedfobd 

Newburypobt 
North Adams 



Northampton 

North Andover 
Northborough . 

North Brookfield . 

Northfield 

Norwood . 

Orange 

Palmer (Fire District 

No. 1) . . . 
Peabody . 

PiTTSFTELD 



Plymouth 

Randolph 
Rockport . 
Russell 
Rutland . 
SaI/EM 



Shelburne (Shelburne 
Falls Fire District) . 
Southbridge . 



Cry.stal Lake 
Kenoza Lake 
Lake Saltonstall . 
Pentucket Lake . 
Millvale Reservoir 
Accord Pond 
Fulling Mill Pond 
Reservoir 

^V hiting Street Reservoir 
Fomcr Reservoir . 
Wright and Ashley Pond 
High Service Reservoir 
White Reservoir . 
Gates Pond . 

Cold Brook Reservoir. 

Dow's Brook Reservoir 

Merrimack River, filtered 

Codding Brook Upper Reservoir 

Codding Brook Lower Reservoir 

Basin Pond Brook 

Reservoir 

Laurel Lake . 

Morse Reservoir . 

Haynes Reservoir 

Fall Brook Reservoir . 

Sandy Pond . 

Cooley Brook 

Birch Reservoir . 

Breed's Reservoir 

Walden Reservoir 

Hawkes Reservoir 

Gravel Pond 

Lake Williams 

Millham Brook Reservoir 

White Pond . 

Charles River, filtered 

Lake Pleasant 

Wannacomet Pond 

Little Quittacas Pond. 

Great Quittacas Pond 

Artichoke River . 

Notch Brook Reservoir 

Broad Brook 

Mount Williams Reservoir 

Middle Reservoir 

Mountain Street Reservoir 

Great Pond . 

Lower Reservoir 

Upper Reservoir 

Doane Pond . 

North Pond . 

Reservoir 

Buckmaster Pond 

Reservoir 

Lower Reservoir 
Spring Pond . 
Suntaug Lake 
Ashley Lake . 
Ashley Brook 
Hathaway Brook 
Mill Brook . 
Sacket Brook 
Farnham Reservoir 
Little South Pond 
Great South Pond 
Great Pond . 
Cape Pond 
Black Brook . 
Muschopauge Lake 
Wenham Lake 
Longham Reservoir 
Ipswich River at pumping 
tion . 

Fox Brook . 

Hatchet Brook Reservoir No. 3 

Hatchet Brook Reservoir No. 4 



.12 


3.88 


.14 


5.57 


.07 


7.10 


.12 


4.70 


.66 


6.45 


.14 


4.16 


.58 


6.01 


.10 


2.37 


.07 


5.77 


.30 


4.07 


.08 


5.34 


.09 


4.35 


.16 


3.82 


.07 


3.66 


.13 


3.76 


.35 


6.44 


.39 


5.67 


.10 


3.59 


.12 


3.67 


.57 


3.92 


.04 


7.82 


.10 


14.08 


.14 


2.93 


.12 


3.20 


.10 


3.17 


.03 


3.30 


.07 


5.39 


.11 


5.38 


.28 


6.28 


.54 


7.09 


.61 


7.86 


.04 


4.33 


.07 


6.13 


.50 


5.56 


.09 


3.38 


.27 


5.27 


.02 


3.35 


.08 


7.86 


.23 


4.15 


.43 


4.31 


.37 


7.20 


.03 


7.24 


.15 


4.03 


.01 


6.36 


.25 


4.85 


.08 


4.26 


.10 


4.98 


.78 


4.76 


.75 


4.98 


.42 


3.91 


.44 


4.13 


.22 


4.15 


.09 


4.73 


.03 


3.62 


.20 


4.32 


.17 


6.11 


.47 


6.33 


.12 


6.09 


.14 


6.53 


.07 


7.95 


.35 


4.27 


.11 


7.30 


.53 


4.32 


.02 


3.05 


.01 


2.94 


.45 


5.24 


.24 


9.64 


.18 


3.96 


.06 


3.81 


.43 


8.21 


1.31 


8.06 


.88 


10.82 


.05 


6.53 


.20 


3.21 


.21 


3.31 



.0019 
.0029 
.0067 
.0019 
.0035 
.0033 
.0200 
.0005 
.0039 
.0032 
.0027 
.0027 
.0035 
.0041 

.0010 
.0051 
.0059 
.0012 
.0014 
.0028 
.0003 
.0069 
.0037 
.0081 
.0039 
.0022 
.0097 
.0073 
.0064 
.0070 
.0074 
.0028 
.0063 
.0060 
.0009 
.0009 
.0031 
.0032 
.0019 
.0019 
.0113 
.0024 
.0045 
.0019 
.0036 
.0013 
.0031 
.0052 
.0057 
.0076 
.0078 
.0008 
.0077 
.0006 

.0024 
.0094 
.0076 
.0201 
.0047 
.0009 
.0028 
.0016 
.0057 
.0027 
.0033 
.0034 
.0016 
.0014 
.0013 
.0084 
.0131 

.0080 

.0005 
.0030 
.0042 



.0154 
.0152 
.0197 
.0163 
.0210 
.0131 
.0236 
.0068 
.0146 
.0161 
.0157 
.0188 
.0178 
.0154 

.0063 
.0183 
.0102 
.0075 
.0068 
.0144 
.0043 
.0217 
.0110 
.0174 
.0121 
.0107 
.0143 
.0136 
.0179 
.0207 
.0264 
.0128 
.0204 
.0191 
.0103 
.0082 
.0059 
.0217 
.0162 
.0176 
.0365 
.0054 
.0094 
.0070 
.0117 
.0077 
.0151 
.0233 
.0217 
.0228 
.0239 
.0067 
.0188 
.0021 

.0139 
.0177 
.0217 
.0126 
.0104 
.0061 
.0166 
.0086 
.0213 
.0151 
.0132 
.0170 
.0195 
.0124 
.0115 
.0214 
.0358 

.0268 

.0040 
.0130 
.0151 



.0017 


.32 


.0017 


.42 


.0035 


.61 


.0025 


.38 


.0018 


.40 


.0019 


.65 


.0054 


.68 


.0013 


.09 


.0021 


.27 


.0030 


.16 


.0024 


.18 


.0030 


.18 


.0032 


.15 


.0017 


.24 


.0005 


.13 


.0028 


.66 


- 


.58 


.0007 


.10 


.0008 


.10 


.0017 


.08 


.0003 


.09 


.0037 


.22 


.0010 


.16 


.0028 


.18 


.0020 


.18 


.0017 


.29 


.0058 


.25 


.0023 


.71 


.0027 


.70 


.0030 


.74 


.0038 


.87 


.0018 


.78 


.0037 


.75 


.0027 


.42 


.0028 


.24 


_ 


.29 


.0007 


.14 


.0075 


2.73 


.0024 


.50 


.0024 


.50 


.0098 


.60 


.0014 


.08 


.0011 


.08 


.0012 


.08 


.0015 


.15 


.0008 


.13 


.0014 


.43 


.0050 


.26 


.0030 


.27 


.0035 


.20 


.0038 


.21 


.0013 


.12 


.0058 


.43 


.0002 


.13 


.0017 


.20 


.0036 


.80 


.0036 


.78 


.0020 


.10 


.0017 


.11 


.0010 


.11 


.0021 


.11 


.0019 


.13 


.0030 


.11 


.0022 


.65 


.0015 


.64 


.0011 


.72 


.0043 


3.22 


.0025 


.13 


.0022 


.37 


.0031 


.92 


.0065 


.98 


.0070 


.80 


.0001 


.11 


.0016 


.19 


.0031 


.19 



20 



P.D. 34. 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Surface-Water Sources, etc. — Concluded. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









"o 
O 


d 
o 

It 
1" 


Ammonia. 


1 

o 






Source. 


6 
1 


ALBUMINOID. 


i 


City or To-wt*. 


i 




1 


South Hadley (Fire Dis- 


















trict No. 1) . 


Leaping Well Reservoir 


.06 


3.46 


.0025 


.0124 


.0034 


.17 


1.1 




Buttery Brook Reservoir . 


.18 


5.01 


.0041 


.0090 


.0022 


.34 


1.5 


Spencer .... 


Shaw Pond 


.03 


3.01 


.0027 


.0141 


.0025 


.20 


1.2 


Spkinofield . 


Westfield Little River, filtered . 


.14 


4.15 


.0008 


.0062 


- 


.13 


1.3 


Stockbridge . 


Lake Averic 


.09 


7.55 


.0017 


.0117 


.0017 


.13 


5.1 


Stoughton 


Muddy Pond Brook 




.19 


4.15 


.0009 


.0087 


.0006 


.34 


1.0 


Taunton. 


Assawompsett Pond 




.26 


4.04 


.0034 


.0176 


.0028 


.48 


1.0 




Elder's Pond 




.09 


3.71 


.0024 


.0153 


.0018 


.49 


0.9 


Wakefield 


Crystal Lake 




.13 


6.95 


.0059 


.0156 


.0021 


.92 


2.9 


Wareham (Onset) . 


Jonathan Pond . 




.00 


2.97 


.0012 


.0109 


.0008 


.63 


0.5 


"Way land .... 


Snake Brook Reservoir 


.84 


5.47 


.0041 


.0180 


.0029 


.32 


1.7 


Westfield 


Montgomery Reservoir 


.41 


3.27 


.0054 


.0144 


.0025 


.13 


0.6 




TiUotson Brook Reservoir . 


.11 


3.64 


.0020 


.0077 


.0015 


.14 


0.8 


West Springfield . 


Bear Hole Brook .... 


.11 


7.75 


.0028 


.0075 


.0009 


.18 


4.4 




Bear Hole Brook, filtered . 


.05 


7.92 


.0017 


.0040 


- 


.18 


4.8 


West Stockbridge . 


East Mountain Reservoir . 


.03 


5.50 


.0001 


.0035 


.0012 


.13 


3.1 


Weymouth 


Great Pond 


.55 


4.16 


.0012 


.0162 


.0038 


.48 


0.9 


Williamsburg . 


Reservoir 




.13 


5.02 


.0011 


.0077 


.0025 


.11 


2.2 


Williamstown . 


Rattlesnake Brook 




.01 


8.22 


.0003 


.0037 


.0015 


.06 


7.4 




Paul Brook . 




.01 


4.58 


.0015 


.0042 


.0007 


.09 


3.1 


Winchester 


North Reservoir . 




.03 


4.53 


.0031 


.0133 


.0023 


.41 


1.9 




South Reservoir . 




.03 


3.81 


.0021 


.0108 


.0018 


.37 


1.6 




Middle Reservoir 




.10 


3.98 


.0044 


.0225 


.0065 


.38 


1.7 


Worcester . 


Bottomly Reservoir 




.61 


5.71 


.0031 


.0259 


.0068 


.22 


2.1 




Kent Reservoir . 




.13 


4.12 


.0019 


.0126 


.0024 


.21 


1.6 




Leicester Reservoir 




.17 


4.14 


.0032 


.0151 


.0026 


.22 


1.4 




Mann Reservoir . 




.11 


3.91 


.0024 


.0129 


.0023 


.22 


1.5 




Upper Holden Reservoir . 


.14 


3.52 


.0020 


.0137 


.0035 


.20 


1.0 




Lower Holden Reservoir . 


.14 


3.50 


.0018 


.0133 


.0030 


.19 


1.0 




Kendall Reservoir 


.19 


3.66 


.0032 


.0144 


.0020 


.19 


1.2 




Pine Hill Reservoir . 


.42 


4.24 


.0132 


.0203 


.0038 


.24 


1.4 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Ground-Water Sources for the Year 1927. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 









d 




1 




Nitrogen 












g-l 


Ammonia. 1 




AS 






City ob Town. 


Source. 




1 


i 


13 


i 
•g 

3 


1 


1 


a 
as 


i 






o 


rt 


^ 


^ 


o 


g 


2 


w 


t-i 


Acton (West and South 






















Water Supply Dis- 






















trict) 


Tubular wells 


.00 


8.77 


.0004 


.0015 


.41 


.0990 


.0000 


3.6 


.007 


Adams (Fire District) 


Tubular wells 


.00 


12.85 


.0000 


.0011 


.16 


.0385 


.0000 


16.0 


.004 


Amesbury . 


Tubular wells 
Tubular wells, fil- 


.18 


15.92 


.0101 


.0041 


.50 


.0070 


.0000 


8.0 


.473 




tered . 


.00 


14.66 


.0028 


.0030 


.49 


.0048 


.0000 


7.9 


.008 


Ashland 


Tubular wells, new 






















supply 


.00 


6.38 


.0011 


.0028 


.44 


.0070 


.0001 


2.6 


.007 


Attleboro . 


WeUs . 


.00 


5.48 


.0008 


.0034 


.44 


.0125 


.0000 


2.3 


.007 


Auburn 


Tubular wells 


.00 


7.50 


.0009 


.0013 


.50 


.1725 


.0001 


3.7 


.008 


Avon .... 


Wells . 


.00 


6.58 


.0003 


.0015 


.59 


.1780 


.0000 


2.7 


.008 


Ayer .... 


Large well . 


.00 


7.73 


.0006 


.0017 


.66 


.0767 


.0000 


3.3 


.017 




Tubular wells 


.06 


7.30 


.0009 


.0021 


.33 


.0094 


.0000 


3.1 


.044 


Barnstable . 


Tubular wells 


.01 


4.67 


.0013 


.0019 


1.10 


.0053 


.0001 


1.5 


.011 


Bedford 


Large well . 


.00 


4.22 


.0003 


.0018 


.33 


.0075 


.0000 


1.7 


.005 


Billerica 


Wells . 


.21 


10.75 


.0010 


.0065 


.44 


.0176 


.0000 


4.6 


.043 


Blackstone . 


Tap (supply from 
Woonsocket, 






















R. L). . . 


.42 


8.37 


.0009 


.0087 


.65 


.0337 


.0000 


3.7 


.027 


Braintree . 


Filter-gallery 


.02 


14.76 


.0013 


.0066 


1.58 


.4708 


.0001 


5.1 


.012 


Bridgewater 


Wells . 


.00 


6.12 


.0017 


.0012 


.65 


.0617 


.0000 


1.9 


.007 


Brookline . 


Tubular wells and 
filter-gallery, fil- 






















tered . 


.06 


9.72 


.0005 


.0057 


.73 


.0237 


.0000 


4.4 


.008 


Canton. 


Springdale well . 
Well near Henry's 


.10 


5.75 


.0012 


.0037 


.46 


.0277 


.0000 


2.1 


.010 




Spring 


.15 


5.62 


.0015 


.0050 


.56 


.0482 


.0000 


2.8 


.015 




Ward well 


.01 


6.55 


.0007 


.0047 


.47 


.0072 


.0000 


2.5 


.009 


Chelmsford (North 






















Chelmsford Fire 






















District) . 


Tubular wells 


.10 


6.53 


.0144 


.0086 


.50 


.0633 


.0003 


2.3 


.024 



P.D. 34. 

Averages of Chemical Analyses of Ground-Water Sources, etc. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



21 



Continued. 









d 








NlTBOQEN 








Source. 


"3 


o 


Ammonia. 


J 

o 
3 


AS 


1 

OJ 




Cmr OR Town. 


6 




1 
+3 


.1 


§ 






O 


« 


£ 


< 


O 


z 


g 


K 


»i 


Chelmsford (Water 






















District) . 


Tubular wells 


.00 


7.94 


.0004 


.0017 


.56 


.0828 


.0013 


3.2 


.022 


Cohasset 


Tubular wells 


.08 


13.49 


.0008 


.0073 


1.83 


.1577 


.0000 


6.2 


.007 




Dug well, filtered. 


.21 


7.17 


.0054 


.0115 


1.02 


.0110 


.0001 


2.4 


.022 


Cuminington 


Tubular wells 


.10 


6.07 


.0017 


.0022 


.10 


.0043 


.0000 


3.8 


.038 


Dedham 


Large well and 






















tubular wells . 


.05 


9.98 


.0020 


.0043 


.95 


.1180 


.0000 


4.6 


.009 


Deerfield (Fire Dis- 






















trict) 


Wells . 


.00 


5.50 


.0007 


.0014 


.13 


.0035 


.0000 


2.8 


.006 


Douglas 


Tubular wells 


.00 


5.25 


.0002 


.0010 


.35 


.0640 


.0000 


2.0 


.010 


Dracut (Water Supply 






















District) . 


Tubular wells 


.04 


12.33 


.0012 


.0022 


.73 


.1957 


.0001 


6.0 


.028 


Dracut (CoUinsville) . 


Tubular wells 


.12 


5.65 


.0010 


.0073 


.45 


.0282 


.0000 


2.1 


.023 


Dudley. 


Tubular wells 


.01 


4.37 


.0013 


.0021 


.25 


.0060 


.0001 


1.3 


.007 


Dunstable . 


Well . 


.00 


5.00 


.0005 


.0021 


.24 


.0033 


.0000 


2.1 


.006 


Duxbury (Fire and 






















Water District) 


Tubular wells 


.00 


4.30 


.0001 


.0009 


.79 


.0073 


.0000 


1.2 


.005 


East Brookfield . 


Tubular wells 


.00 


4.37 


.0001 


.0017 


.24 


.0267 


.0000 


1.4 


.009 


Easthampton 


Tubular wells 


.00 


7.13 


.0001 


.0012 


.15 


.0250 


.0000 


4.0 


.005 


Easton (North Easton 






















Village District) . 


WeU . 


.02 


6.05 


.0013 


.0025 


.52 


.0940 


.0003 


2.6 


.014 


Edgartown . 


Large well . 


.00 


4.37 


.0006 


.0012 


.94 


.0040 


.0000 


0.8 


.005 


Fairhaven . 


Old weUs 


.32 


8.20 


.0023 


.0087 


1.07 


.0694 


.0000 


3,2 


.010 




New wells 


.00 


6.40 


.0000 


.0034 


.96 


.0730 


,0002 


2.0 


.031 


Foxborough (Water 






















Supply District) 


Tubular wells 


.00 


5.55 


.0003 


.0010 


.42 


.0570 


.0000 


1.8 


.006 


Framingham 


Filter-gallery 


.00 


17.42 


.0017 


.0062 


1.41 


.0813 


.0000 


8.3 


.068 


Franklin . 


Tubular wella 


.00 


6.07 


.0001 


.0017 


.55 


.0237 


.0000 


2.2 


.008 


Grafton 


Filter-gallery 


.07 


13.55 


.0003 


.0043 


1.55 


.2675 


.0000 


5.5 


.012 


Granville 


WeU . 


.00 


3.80 


.0005 


.0013 


.12 


.0037 


.0000 


1.5 


.005 


Great Barrington 


WeU near Green 






















River . 


.01 


8.79 


.0011 


.0050 


.12 


_ 


_ 


7.9 


.007 




Filter-gallery near 






















Green River 


.12 


5.37 


.0022 


.0079 


.13 


_ 


_ 


3.2 


.009 


Greenfield . 


WeU near Green 






















River . 


.01 


5.25 


.0002 


.0025 


.13 


.0027 


.0000 


3.6 


.011 


Groton .... 


Large well . 


.00 


6.33 


.0012 


.0025 


.23 


.0040 


.0000 


3.3 


.006 


Groton (West Groton 






















Water Supply Dis- 






















trict) 


Tubular weUs 


.04 


5.48 


.0006 


.0014 


.21 


.0132 


.0001 


3.3 


.024 


Hingham 


Wells . 


.17 


5.98 


.0021 


.0067 


.65 


.0136 


.0001 


2.0 


.012 


Holliston 


Large well . 


.39 


4.97 


.0034 


.0150 


..33 


.0053 


.0000 


1.6 


.030 


Hopkinton . 


Tubular wells 


.00 


8.74 


.0006 


.0017 


.58 


.1380 


.0000 


3.7 


.012 


Kingston 


Tubular weUs 


.00 


5.00 


.0005 


.0012 


.66 


.0040 


.0000 


1.4 


.011 


Leicester (Water Sup- 






















ply District) . 


Wells . 


.19 


6.07 


.0009 


.0043 


.25 


.0600 


.0000 


2.1 


.015 


Leicester (Cherry Val- 






















ley and Rochdale 






















Water District) 


WeUs . 


.23 


5.77 


.0033 


.0115 


.37 


.0063 


.0000 


2.3 


.014 


Littleton 


Tubular wells 


.00 


4.30 


.0003 


.0013 


.25 


.0233 


.0000 


1.8 


.007 


Lowell 


Boulevard wells 






















(tubular) 


.77 


7.52 


.0449 


.0067 


.51 


.0224 


.0002 


2.8 


.342 




Boulevard wells, 






















filtered 


.05 


6.74 


.0006 


.0038 


.54 


.0368 


.0000 


2.8 


.020 


Manchester . 


WeUs . 


.01 


10.77 


.0006 


.0020 


1.69 


.1063 


.0000 


4.2 


.020 


Mansfield (Water Sup- 






















ply District) . 


Large well . 


.00 


4.20 


.0005 


.0012 


.29 


.0222 


.0000 


1.6 


.010 


Marblehead. 


Inlet of filter 


.18 


18.32 


.0078 


.0056 


1.73 


.0082 


.0002 


9.9 


.131 




Outlet of filter . 


.03 


19.75 


.0004 


.0059 


1.45 


.0078 


.0000 


12.8 


.010 




WeU . 


.04 


22.19 


.0003 


.0039 


3.16 


.0161 


.0000 


13.0 


.014 


Marion. 


Tubular wells 


.00 


4.57 


.0001 


.0014 


.71 


.0412 


.0000 


1.8 


.005 


Marshfield . 


Tubular wells at 






















HumarockBeach 


.00 


7.55 


.0004 


.0010 


2.01 


.0410 


.0000 


2.2 


.006 




New wells at Brant 






















Rock . 


.00 


10.00 


.0000 


.0008 


2.54 


.0250 


.0000 


2.3 


.003 


Mattapoisett 


Tubular weUs 


.00 


6,17 


.0005 


.0012 


.93 


.0340 


.0000 


2.8 


.008 


Medfield 


Spring . ; 


.01 


4.50 


.0015 


.0043 


.30 


.0130 


.0000 


1.6 


.010 


Medway 


Wells . 


.00 


8.03 


.0048 


.0029 


.77 


.0472 


.0001 


3.2 


.013 


Merrimac . 


Tubular weUs 


.00 


9.19 


.0006 


.0014 


.48 


.0314 


.0000 


3.7 


.014 


Methuen 


Tubular wells at 






















Harris Brook . 


.54 


7.06 


.0048 


.0145 


.47 


.0151 


.0000 


2.7 


.068 




Tubular wells at 






















Pine Island 


.03 


9.89 


.0014 


.0030 


.73 


.1306 


.0006 


5.9 


.031 


Middleborough (Fire 






















District) . 


WeU 


.28 


7.13 


.0124 


.0050 


.61 


.0445 


.0001 


2.8 


.334 




Filtered water 


.06 


6.28 


.0008 


.0029 


.62 


.0462 


.0003 


2.4 


.022 


Millbury 


WeU . 


.01 


5.70 


.0007 


.0033 


.36 


.0210 


.0000 


2.1 


.008 


Millis .... 


Spring . 


.00 


12.95 


.0009 


.0018 


.91 


.3067 


.0000 


5.9 


.009 


Monson 


Large well 


.07 


3.88 


.0002 


.0031 


.18 


.0070 


.0000 


1.2 


.006 



22 



Averages of Chemical Analyses of Ground-Water Sources, etc. 



P.D. 

Concluded. 



34. 



[Parts in 100,000.] 



City or Town. 



Source. 





d 




o 








C^ 








ij 


o 


£W 


O 


a 



Ammonia. 



^ H 



Nitrogen 



Monterey 
Nantucket 



Natick . 
Needham 



Newburyport 
Newton 



Nortli Attleborough 

Northbridge 

Norton . 

Norwood 

Oak Bluffs . 

Oxford . 

Palmer (Bondsville) 

Pepperell 

PVovincetown 

Reading 

Salisbury 

Scituate 
Sharon . 

Sheffield . 

Shirley (Shirley Village 

Water District) 
Shrewsbury . 
South Hadley (Fire 

District No. 2) 
Sunderland . 
Tisbury 
Uxbridge 
Walpole 
Waltham 

Ware . 

Wareham (FireDistrict) 

Warren 

Wayland 

Webster 

Wellesley 



Westborough 
West Brookfield . 
Westford 
Weston 



West Stockbridge 
Williamstown 

Winchendon 



WOBURN 

Worthington 

District) ' 
Wrentham . 



(Fire 



Springs . 

Wells at Wyers 

Valley 
Large well . 
Wells . 
Hicks Spring 
W ells and Artichoke 

River, filtered 
Tubular wells and 

filter-gallery 
WeUs 

Tubular wells 
Tubular wells 
Tubular wells 
Springs . 
Tubular wells 
Tubular wells 
Tubular wells 
Tubular wells 
Filter-gallery 
Filtered water 
Old well 
New well 
Tubular wells 
Well 

Tubular wells 
Spring . 

Well 
Tubular wells 

Large well . 

Springs . 

WeU 

Tubular wells 

Tubular wells 

Old well 

New well 

Wells 

Large well 

Tubular wells 

Tubular wells 

Wells . 

Wells 

Tubular wells 

Well at Williams 

Spring 
Filter-gallery 
Filter basin . 
Tubular wells 
Tubular wells 
Well atWarren Ave 
Tubular wells at 

Kendal Green 
Johnson's Spring 
Cold Spring . 
Sherman Spring 
Old wells 
New wells 
Filter-gallery 

Springs . 
Tubular wells 



8.60 

5.40 
10.90 

8.20 
11.75 

6.48 

8.74 
6.72 
3.87 
5.07 
9.47 
4.30 
5.57 
6.63 
4.53 
7.67 
9.78 
12.70 
8.07 
9.38 
13.84 
18.85 
6.70 
4.37 

5.15 
6.20 

4.93 
6.60 
3.70 
5.50 
5.73 
9.71 
7.32 
8.10 
7.19 
4.53 
3.90 
7.87 
4.27 
10.30 

10.65 
10.60 
3.62 
4.43 
5.57 
7.47 

7.60 
9.85 

12.23 
9.83 
4.02 
4.52 

10.45 

4.40 
4.90 



.0003 

.0001 
.0004 
.0001 
.0001 

.0013 

.0032 
.0010 
.0004 
.0001 
.0034 
.0001 
.0002 
.0003 
.0009 
.0004 
.0170 
.0097 
.0017 
.0009 
.0010 
.0005 
.0006 
.0003 

.0004 
.0005 

.0001 
.0005 
.0000 
.0007 
.0004 
.0051 
.0007 
.0005 
.0004 
.0003 
.0005 
.0006 
.0015 
.0007 

.0010 
.0009 
.0014 
.0005 
.0013 
.0011 

.0006 
.0003 
.0011 
.0003 
.0009 
.0015 
.0016 

.0007 
.0007 



.0031 

.0011 
.0015 
.0017 
.0021 

.0096 

.0043 
.0019 
.0018 
.0010 
.0044 
.0019 
.0011 
.0013 
.0015 
.0025 
.0242 
.0094 
.0053 
.0021 
.0018 
.0028 
.0019 
.0014 

.0013 
.0043 

.0013 
.0022 
.0004 
.0019 
.0015 
.0035 
.0036 
.0016 
.0017 
.0011 
.0011 
.0015 
.0023 
.0024 

.0073 
.0031 
.0089 
.0017 
.0021 
.0071 

.0012 
.0013 
.0034 
.0016 
.0046 
.0086 
.0071 

.0012 
.0013 



.10 

1.79 
1.01 

.77 
1.05 



.63 

.55 

.28 

.31 

.63 

.91 

.33 

.26 

.18 

2.37 

1.53 

1.54 

.54 

.53 

2.30 

3.06 

.55 

.10 

.40 
.47 

.16 
.14 

1.00 
.45 
.41 
.78 
.56 
.51 
.45 
.57 
.24 
.43 
.36 

1.11 

1.44 
1.16 
.27 
.23 
.25 
.53 



.07 
.07 
.13 
.12 
1.23 

.11 
.32 



- 


- 


0040 


.0000 


0445 


.0000 


2217 


.0000 


4983 


.0000 


0169 


.0000 


0374 


.0000 


0320 


.0000 


0127 


.0000 


0053 


.0000 


0513 


.0001 


0123 


.0001 


0470 


.0000 


0353 


.0000 


0097 


.0000 


0047 


.0000 


0125 


.0000 


0050 


.0000 


0044 


.0000 


0039 


.0000 


1880 


.0000 


3900 


.0000 


0492 


.0000 


0040 


.0000 


.1425 


.0000 


.0490 


.0000 


.0163 


.0000 


.0036 


.0000 


.0040 


.0000 


.0683 


.0000 


.0493 


.0000 


.0154 


.0000 


.0177 


.0000 


.1560 


.0000 


.1340 


.0000 


.0040 


.0000 


.0222 


.0000 


.1167 


.0026 


.0193 


.0000 


.0687 


.0000 


.0540 


.0000 


.1002 


.0000 


.0080 


.0000 


.0040 


.0001 


.0232 


.0000 


.0715 


.0000 


.0050 


.0000 


.0050 


.0000 


.0072 


.0000 


.0157 


.0002 


.0043 


.0000 


.0177 


.0000 



Consumption of Water. 
The quantity of water consumed in the various cities and towns of the State, so 
far as ascertainable during the year 1927, is presented in the following table. In 
this table the estimated population is based on the increase which took place in the 
cities and towns included in the table in the years 1920 to 1925. The apparently 
excessive consumption in many of the cities and towns is due usually either to the 
use of large quantities of water for manufacturing processes or to the fact that the 
town is a summer resort and is occupied by a large temporary population in the 
summer season, as, for example, the towns of Scituate, Nahant, Cohasset, etc. 



P.D. 34. 23 

The remarkably low per capita consumptions shown in the table, as, for example, in 
Acushnet, Agawam, Dartmouth, etc., are due to the fact that only a portion of the 
towns is as yet supplied with water from the public works, while the per capita 
consumption is based on the entire population of the town. 

Average Daily Consumption of Water in Various Cities and Towns in 1927. 



CiTv OR Town . 



Esti- 
mated 
Popu- 
lation. 



Gallons. 



Gallons 
per 

Inhabit- 
ant. 



City or Town. 



Esti- 
mated 
Popu- 
lation. 



Gallons. 



Gallons 
per 

Inhabit- 
ant. 



Metropolitan Water 
District 
Arlington 
Belmont 
Boston . 
Chelsea 
Everett 
Lexington 
Malden 
Medford 
Melrose 
Milton . 
Nahant . 

QUINCY . 

Revere . 

somerville 

Stoneham 

Swampscott 

Watertown 

Winthrop 
Abington and Rock 

land . 
Acton. 
Acushnet . 
Adams 
Agawam . 
Amesbury . 
Amherst . 
Andover . 
Ashburnham 
Ashland 
Athol . 
Attleboro 
Avon . 
Ayer . 
Barnstable 
Bedford . 
Beverly . 
Billerica 
Braintree . 
Bridgewater 
Brockton. 
Brookline . 
Cambridge 
Canton 
Chelmsford 
Chicopee . 
Clinton 
Cohasset . 
Concord . 
Danvers and Middle- 
ton 
Dartmouth 
Dedham . 
Dracut 
Dudley 
Duxbury . 
East Bridgewater 
East Brookfield 
Easthampton . 
East Longmeadow 
Easton 
Edgartown 
Fairhaven . 
Fall River 
Falmouth . 
FrrcHBURG 
Foxborough 
Framingham 
Franklin . 
Gardner . 
Gloucester 
Grafton 
Great Barrington 



1,341,486 
27,455 
17,058 
792,244 
48,87.3 
42,854 

8,359 
52,863 
51,063 
20,949 
14,253 

1,754 
64,927 
35,037 
101,408 

9,568 

9,293 
27,090 
16,440 

14,055 
2,477 
4,5.59 

13,748 
6,797 

11.706 
6,141 

11,100 
2,218 
2,615 
9,602 

20,980 
2,4.34 
3,032 
6,149 
1,575 

22,735 
5,420 

14.238 
9,880 

65,343 

44,654 

123,659 

5,896 

6,929 

44,149 

14,660 
3,023 
7,294 

13,9.30 

10,039 

15,168 

6,848 

4,951 

1,742 

3,559 

948 

11,717 

3,447 

5,450 

1,253 

12.241 

132,.396 

5,172 

44,041 

5,253 

22,696 

7,278 

20.489 

23,546 

7,007 

6,441 



132,489,000 


99 


1,528,000 


56 


938,000 


55 


92,751,000 


117 


3,441,000 


70 


4,909.000 


114 


530.000 


63 


3,419,000 


65 


2,878,000 


56 


1,343,000 


64 


703,000 


49 


171,000 


97 


5,001,000 


77 


2,377,000 


68 


7,946.000 


78 


498,000 


52 


688.000 


74 


2,257,000 


83 


1.111,000 


68 


545,000 


39 


101,000 


41 


76,000 


17 


1,333,000 


97 


107,000 


16 


090,000 


59 


594,000 


97 


824,000 


74 


124,000 


56 


215,000 


82 


687,000 


72 


1,084,000 


52 


110,000 


45 


185,000 


61 


278,000 


45 


71,000 


45 


1,406,000 


62 


300,000 


55 


1,048,000 


74 


315,000 


32 


2,984,000 


46 


4,238,000 


95 


12,045.000 


97 


457,000 


78 


162,000 


23 


2.812,000 


64 


829,000 


57 


276,000 


92 


609,000 


83 


1,264,000 


91 


122,000 


12 


852,000 


56 


127,000 


19 


163,000 


33 


100,000 


92 


171 000 


48 


34,000 


36 


835,000 


71 


55,000 


16 


2.34,000 


43 


110,000 


89 


437,000 


36 


6,768,000 


51 


572,000 


111 


4,011,000 


90 


468,000 


89 


1,400.000 


62 


493,000 


68 


818,000 


42 


1,756,000 


75 


112.000 


16 


564,000 


88 



Pem 



Greenfield . 
Groton 
Groveland . 
Hanson and 

broke . 
Haverhill 
HoUiston . 
Holyoke . 
Hudson 
Ipswich 
Kingston . 
Lancaster . 
Lawrence 
Lincoln 
Littleton . 
Longmeadow 
Lowell 
Ludlow 
Lynn . 
Lynnfield . 
Manchester 
Mansfield . 
Marblehead 
Marion 

Marlborough 
Mattapoisett 
Maynard . 
Medfield . 
Medway . 
Merrimac . 
Methuen . 
Middleborough 
Milford . 
Millbury . 
MiUis . 
Montague . 
Nantucket 
Natick 
Needham . 
New Bedford 
Newbuhyport 
Newton . 
North Adams 
North Andover 
North Attleborough 
Northbridge 
North Brookfield 
Norton 
Norwood 
Oak Bluffs 
Orange 
Peabody 
Pepperell 

PiTTSFIELD 

Plainville 
Plymouth 
Provincetown 
Randolph and 

brook 
Reading 
Rockport 
Rutland 
Salem 
Salisbury 
Saugus 
Scituate 
Sharon 
Shirley 
Shrewsbury 
Southbridge 
Springfield 
Stockbridge 
Stoughton . 
Tadnton . 



Hoi- 



15,246 
2,525 

2,485 

3,797 

49,232 
2,854 

60,388 
8,339 
6,0,55 
2,532 
2.765 

93,. 527 
1,412 
1,465 
3,619 
110,296 
9,335 
104,654 
1,397 
2,512 
6,724 
8,570 
1,271 

16,719 
1,668 
8,165 
3,976 
3,220 
2,419 

22,772 
9,410 

18,626 
6,757 
1,913 
9,442 
3,294 

13,657 

9,763 

119,539 

15,672 

55,783 

22,891 
7,069 

10,010 

10,051 
3,220 
2,927 

14,761 
1,420 
5,141 

19,998 
2,903 

48,923 
1,570 

13,228 
3,787 

9,317 
9,195 
3.977 
2,434 

42,937 
1,868 

13,491 
2,785 
3,379 
2,448 
6,663 

15,987 

147,045 

1,856 

8,253 

40,103 



1,497,000 

221,000 

37,000 

226,000 

4,421,000 
103,000 

7,384,000 
419,000 
262,000 
232,000 
97,000 

5,090,000 
243,000 
54,000 
195,000 

5,671,000 
193,000 

8,207,000 

18,000 

292,000 

486,000 

665,000 

118,000 

659,000 

99,000 

292,000 

71,000 

196,000 

125,000 

1,188,000 
271,000 
834,000 
296,000 
131,000 
817,000 
352,000 
728,000 
620,000 

8,767,000 

1,377,000 

4,416,000 

1,081,000 
475,000 
664,000 
653,000 
300,000 
134,000 

1,173,000 
173,000 
168,000 

3,077,000 
149,000 

6,211,000 
125,000 

1,500,000 
275,000 

517,000 
326,000 
261,000 
260,000 

5,134,000 
198,000 
720,000 
587,000 
236,000 
58,000 
232,000 
752,000 
14,145,000 
212.000 
566,000 

3,230,000 



60 
90 
36 

122 
50 
43 
92 
35 
54 

172 
37 
54 
51 
21 
78 
13 

116 
72 
78 
93 
39 
59 
36 
18 
61 
52 
52 
29 
45 
44 
68 
87 

107 
53 
64 
73 
88 
79 
48 
67 
66 
65 
93 
46 
79 

122 
33 

154 
51 

127 
80 

113 
73 

55 
35 
66 
107 
120 
106 
53 
211 
70 
24 
35 
47 
96 
114 
69 
81 



24 



P.D. 34. 



Average Daily Consumption of Water in Various Cities and Towns in 1927. 

— Concluded. 



Crry oh Town. 



Esti- 




Gallons 


mated 


Gallons. 


per 


Popu- 




Inhabit- 


lation. 




ant. 



City or Town. 



Esti- 
mated 
Popu- 
lation. 



Gallons. 



Gallons 
per 

Inhabit- 
ant. 



Tisbury 

Uxbridge 

Wakefield 

Walpole 

Waltham . 

Ware . 

Wareham 

Warren 

Webster 

Wellesley 

West Bridgewater 



1,493 
6,488 

16,645 
6,932 

36,278 
8,671 
6,066 
4,144 

13,441 

10,179 
3,207 



195,000 


131 


393,000 


61 


742,000 


45 


833,000 


120 


2,180,000 


60 


354,000 


41 


203,000 


33 


58,000 


14 


688,000 


51 


791,000 


78 


132,000 


41 



West Brookfield 

Westfield 

Westford . 

Weston 

West Springfield 

Weymouth 

Whitman . 

Winchester 

WOBURN . 

Worcester 
Wrpntham 



1,328 
19,638 

3,731 

3,156 
16,080 
18,131 

8,141 
11,997 
19,088 
195,159 

3,376 



53,000 

1,863,000 

153,000 

175,000 

2,277,000 

1,121,000 

292,000 

997,000 

1,672,000 

15,254,000 

107,000 



40 
95 
41 
55 
142 
62 
36 
83 
88 
78 
32 



Rainfall. 
The following table shows the normal rainfall in the State, the rainfall as de- 
duced from eight stations with long-term records, the rainfall for the year 1927, 
and the excess or deficiency of precipitation in each month as compared with the 
normal. 





















Normal 


Rainfall 






Normal 


RainfaU 




Month. 


RainfaU 


in 1927 


in 1927 


Month. 


Rainfall 


in 1927 


in 1927 




(Inches). 


(Inches) . 


(Inches) . 




(Inches). 


(Inches). 


(Inches). 


January 


3.78 


2.78 


—1.00 


July 


3.76 


4.19 


+0.43 


February 


3.63 


3.24 


—0.39 


August . 


4.19 


7.82 


-i-3.63 


March . 


3.93 


1.50 


—2.43 


September . 


3.44 


3.37 


—0.07 


April . 


3.65 


1.77 


—1.88 


October 


3.68 


4.65 


-1-0.97 


May . 


3.58 


3.06 


—0.52 


November . 


3.91 


6.57 


-1-2.66 


Jvme 


3.28 


2.64 


—0.64 


December . 


3.71 


5.35 


-1-1.64 



Totals 



-1-2.40 



Flow of Streams. 
Sudbury River. 

The average yield of the Sudbury River in the year 1927 was 1,411,000 gallons 
per day per square mile of drainage area. The normal flow of this river for the 
53 years during which records have been maintained is 977,000 gallons per square 
mile per day. The average daily yield for the six driest months, April to Septem- 
ber, inclusive, was 676,000 gallons per square mile, or 74.2 per cent above the normal. 

The following table shows the relation between the average daily yield of the 
Sudbury River per square mile in each month in the year 1927 and the normal 
yield of the river during the past 53 years. The drainage area of the river at the 
point of measurement is 75.2 square miles. 

Table showing the Average Daily Yield of the Sudbury River for Each Month in the 
Year 1927, in Cubic Feet per Second per Square Mile of Drainage Area, and in 
Million Gallons per Day per Square Mile of Drainage Area; also, Departure 
from the Normal. 















Normal Yield. I 


Actual Yield in 1927 


Excess or 


Deficiency. 




Cubic Feet 


MiUion 


Cubic Feet 


Million 


Cubic Feet 


Million 




per 


Gallons per 


per 


Gallons per 


per 


Gallons per 




Second 


Day ' 


Second 


Day 


Second 


Day 




per Square 


per Square ] 


per Square 


per Square 


per Square 


per Square 




Mile. 


Mile. 1 


Milp. 


Mile. 


Mile. 


Mile. 


January 


1.733 


1.120 


2.006 


1.297 


-1-.273 


+ .177 


February 












2.399 


1.551 1 


2.261 


1.462 


— .138 


— .089 


March. 












4.177 


2.700 i 


3.178 


2.054 


— .999 


—.646 


April . 












3.042 


1.967 


1.071 


.692 


—1.971 


—1.275 


May . 












1.693 


1.094 


1.188 


.768 


—.505 


— .326 


June 












.769 


.497 


.332 


.215 


— .437 


— .282 


July . 












.307 


.198 


.201 


.130 


— .100 


— .068 


August 












.354 


.229 


1.464 


.946 


-1-1.110 


+ .717 


September 












.372 


.241 


2.023 


1.307 


4-1.651 


+1.066 


October 












.602 


.389 


2.006 


1.297 


-1-1.404 


+ .908 


November 












1.208 


.783 


6.229 


4.026 


-(-5.021 


+3.243 


December 












1.542 


.997 


4.277 


2.764 


-h2.735 


+1.767 


Averag 


e for 


whr 


le y« 


ar 




1.512 


.977 


2.183 


1.411 


-1-.671 


+ .434 



P.D. 34. 25 

The rainfall on the Sudbury River watershed and the total yield expressed in 
inches in depth upon the watershed (inches of rainfall collected) for each of the 
past six years, 1922 to 1927, inclusive, together with the average for a period of 
fifty-three years, are given in the following table : 

Rainfall, in Inches, received and collected on the Sudbury River Drainage Area. 









1922. 1 


1923. 


1924. i 


1925. 






llain- 


Per 




Kiiin- 


Per 




Rain- 


Per 




Rain- 


Per 


Month. 


Rain- 


fall 


Cent 


Rain- 


fall 


Cent 


Rain- 


fall 


Cent j 


Rain- 


fall 


Cent 




fall. 


col- 


col- 


fall. 


col- 


col- 


fall. 


col- 


col- 


fall. 


col- 


col- 






lected. 


lected. 




lected. 
2.779 


lected . 




lected. 


lected 




lected. 


lected. 


January 


1.89 


.577 


30.5 


7.64 


36.4 


3.60 


3.205 


89.1 


4.47 


.328 


7.4 


February 






3.25 


1.316 


40.5 


2.31 


1.507 


65.3 


2.56 


1.193 


46.7 


2.20 


2.985 


136.0 


March . 






5.35 


4.587 


85.7 


3.25 


5.659 


173.9 


2.66 


3.462 


130.0 


5.69 


3.895 


68.4 


April 






1.63 


3.371 


207.1 


5.35 


4.197 


78.4 


5.49 


5.268 


96.1 


2.95 


2.570 


87.2 


May 






5.39 


3.126 


58.0 


1.01 


2.099 


207.3 


3.22 


2.495 


77.6 


2.45 


1.036 


42.2 


June 






8.90 


2.695 


30.3 


4.12 


0.668 


16.2 


1.49 


.485 


32.5 


4.75 


.374 


7.9 


July 






3.21 


1.287 


40.1 


2.94 


0.118 


4.0 


3.19 


—0.094 


—2.9 


5.35 


.427 


8.0 


August . 






4.85 


.627 


12.9 


2.17 


—0.130 


-6.0 


4.73 


0.207 


4.4 


1.25 


.102 


8.2 


September 






4.09 


1.135 


27.7 


1.54 


-0.099 


—6.5 


5.67 


0.706 


12.4 


3.19 


.068 


2.1 


October 






2.28 


.486 


21.3 


5.71 


0.707 


12.4 


0.11 


0.011 


10.0 


4.41 


.626 


14.2 


November 






1.34 


.639 


47.8 


5.83 


1.969 


33.8 


2.51 


0.286 


11.4 


3.17 


1.001 


31.6 


December 






3.42 


.730 


21.4 


4.96 


3.921 


79.1 


1.73 


0.489 


28.4 


5.76 


3.330 


57.8 


Totals and 


























averages . 


45.60 


20.576 


45.1 


46.83 


23.395 


50.0 


.36.96 


17.713 


47.9 


45.64 


16.742 


36.7 

















Mean for 








1926. 






1927. 




FlFTY-THBEE YeAHS, 


















1875-1927. 




Month. 




Rain- 


Per 




Rain- 


Per 




Rain 


Per 




Rain- 


faU 


Cent 


Rain- 


fall 


Cent 


Rain- 


fall- 


Cent 




faU. 


col- 


col- 


fall. 


col- 


col- 


faU. 


col- 


col- 






lected. 


lected. 




lected. 


lected. 




lected. 


lected. 


January 


3.00 


1.539 


51.2 


2.91 


2.313 


79.5 


3.98 


1.999 


50.2 


February 










5.92 


1.596 


27.0 


3.71 


2.355 


63.5 


4.06 


2.520 


62.1 


March 










3.23 


4.863 


150.6 


1.43 


3.664 


256.6 


4.22 


4.818 


114.2 


April 










2.21 


3.323 


150.5 


2.24 


1.194 


53.3 


3.58 


3.396 


94.9 


May 










2.29 


1.284 


66.1 


2.97 


1.369 


46.1 


3.26 


1.953 


60.0 


Jime 










1.60 


.179 


11.2 


1.99 


.370 


18.6 


3.24 


.858 


26.5 


July 










3.18 


— .122 


—3.8 


3.82 


.232 


6.1 


3.70 


.354 


9.6 


August . 










5.51 


.415 


7.5 


8.92 


1.688 


18.9 


3.85 


.408 


10.6 


September 










1.40 


— .196 


—14.0 


3.82 


2.260 


59.3 


3.37 


.415 


12.3 


October . 










3.77 


.203 


5.4 


5.10 


2.313 


45.3 


3.61 


.693 


19.2 


November 










5.27 


1.386 


26.3 


8.21 


6.950 


84.6 


3.90 


1.351 


34.7 


December 










4.03 


1.195 


29.7 


5.61 


4.931 


87.8 


3.82 


1.778 


46.6 


Totals an 


d av 


erage 


s 




41.41 


15.665 


37.8 


50.73 


29.639 


58.4 


44.59 


20.543 


46.1 



The following table gives the record of the yield of the Sudbury River watershed 
in gallons per day per square mile for each of the past six years and the mean for 
the past fifty-three years : 



Yield of the Sudbury River Drainag 


e Area in 


Gallons per Day per Square Mile.^ 


Month. 


1922. 


1923. 


1924. 


1925. 


1926. 


1927. 


Mean 
for Fifty- 
three Years, 
1875-1927. 


January .... 


323,000 


1,558,000 


1,796,000 


184,000 


863,000 


1,297,000 


1,120,000 


February 




817,000 


935,000 


715,000 


1,852,000 


991,000 


1,462,000 


1,551,000 


March . 




2,571,000 


3,172,000 


1,941,000 


2,183,000 


2,726,000 


2,054,000 


2,700,000 


April 




1,956,000 


2,435,000 


3,056,000 


1,491,000 


1,927,000 


692,000 


1,967,000 


May 




1,753,000 


1,177,000 


1,399,000 


581,000 


720,000 


768,000 


1,094,000 


June 




1,561,000 


387,000 


281,000 


217,000 


104,000 


215,000 


497,000 


July 




722,000 


67,000 


—52,000 


239,000 


—68,000 


130,000 


198,000 


August . 




351,000 


—73,000 


116,000 


57,000 


233,000 


946,000 


229,000 


September 




657,000 


—57,000 


408,000 


39,000 


—113,000 


1,307,000 


241,000 


October . 




272,000 


397,000 


6,000 


351,000 


114,000 


1,297,000 


389,000 


November 




370,000 


1,140,000 


166,000 


580,000 


803,000 


4,026,000 


783,000 


December 




409,000 


2,198,000 


274,000 


1,867,000 


670,000 


2,764,000 


997,000 


Average for whole year 


980,000 


1,114,000 


841,000 


797,000 


746,000 


1,411,000 


977,000 


Average for driest six 
















months . 


463,000 


307,000 


152,000 


247,000 


167,000 


676,000 


388,000 



1 The drainage area of the Sudbury River used in making up these records included water surfaces amount- 
ing to about 2 per cent of the whole area from 1875 to 1878, inclusive, subsequently increasing by the con- 
struction of storage reservoirs to about 3 per cent in 1879, to 3.5 per cent in 1885, to 4 per cent in 1894, and 
to 6.5 per cent in 1898. The drainage area also contains extensive areas of swampy land, which, though covered 
with water at times, are not included in the above percentages of water surfaces. 



26 



P.D. 34. 



Nashua River. 



The average yield of the South Branch of the Nashua River at the outlet of the 
Wachusett Reservoir in Clinton during the year 1927 was 1,389,000 gallons per 
day per square mile of drainage area, or about 27 per cent in excess of the average 
for the past 31 years. 

The average yield for the six driest months, April to September, inclusive, was 
949,000 gallons per square mile per day, or 70.1 per cent above the normal. 

The following table shows the normal yield of the river by months for the past 
31 years, the actual yield in the year 1927, and the excess or deficiency in each 
month. The drainage area of the Nashua River above the point of measurement 
was 119 square miles from 1897 to 1907 and 118.19 square miles from 1908 to 1913, 
inclusive. Since January 1, 1914, the city of Worcester has been diverting water 
from 9.35 square miles of this drainage area for the supply of that city, leaving the 
net drainage area 108.84 square miles. 



Table showing the Average Daily Yield of the South Branch of the Nashua River for 
Each Month in the Year 1927, in Cubic Feet per Second per Square Mile of 
Drainage Area, and in Million Gallons per Day per Square Mile of Drainage 
Area; also, Departure from the Normal. 















Normal. Yield. 


Actual Yield in 1927. 


Excess or 


Deficiency. 




Cubic Feet 


Million 


Cubic Feet 


Million 


Cubic Feet 


Million 


Month. 


per 


Gallons per 


per 


Gallons per 


per 


Gallons per 




Second 


Day 


Second 


Day 


Second 


Day 




per Square 


per Square 


per Square 


per Square 


per Square 


per Square 




Mile. 


Mile. 


Mile. 


Mile. 


Mile. 


Mile. 


January 


1.798 


1.162 


1.895 


1.224 


+ .097 


+ .062 


February 












1.998 


1.291 


1.714 


1.108 


— .284 


— .183 


March. 












4.043 


2.614 


3.614 


2.336 


— .429 


— .278 


April . 












3.398 


2.196 


1.498 


.968 


—1.900 


—1.22.8 


May . 












1.995 


1.290 


1.408 


.910 


— .587 


— .380 


June . 












1.222 


.790 


.665 


.430 


— .557 


-.360 


July . 












.730 


.472 


.864 


.559 


+ .134 


+ .087 


August 












.661 


.427 


2.494 


1.612 


+1.833 


+1.185 


September 












.582 


.376 


1.867 


1.207 


+1.285 


+ .831 


October 












.725 


.469 


1.710 


1.105 


+ .985 


+ .636 


November 












1.273 


.823 


4.052 


2.619 


+2.779 


+ 1.796 


December 












1.843 


1.191 


3.948 


2.552 


+2.105 


+1.361 


Averag 


e for 


whc 


le ye 


ar 




1.688 


1.091 


2.149 


1.389 


+ .461 


+ .298 



The rainfall on the Nashua River watershed and the total yield expressed in 
inches in depth upon the watershed (inches of rainfall collected) for each of the 
past six years, 1922 to 1927, inclusive, together with the average for the past 31 
years, are given in the following table: 



Rainfall, in Inches, received and collected on the Nashua River Drainage Area. 













1922. 1 


1923. 1 


1924. 






Rain- 


Per 




Rain- 


Per 




Rain- 


Per 


Month. 


Rain- 


fall 


Cent 


Rain- 


fall 


Cent 


Rain- 


faU 


Cent 




faU. 


col- 


col- 


fall. 


col- 


col- 


faU. 


col- 


col- 






lected. 


lected. 




lected. 


lected. 




lected. 


lected. 


January 


2.40 


1.058 


44.0 


7.95 


3.146 


39.6 


4.23 


3.346 


79.2 


February 










3.77 


1.624 


43.0 


2.30 


1.617 


70.5 


3.31 


1.332 


40.3 


March 










6.21 


5.960 


96.0 


3.29 


5.478 


166.3 


2.41 


3.028 


125.6 


April 










2.19 


4.108 


187.6 


5.52 


5.244 


95.0 


6.58 


7.262 


110.4 


May 










4.78 


3.511 


73.5 


1.44 


2.339 


162.1 


3.55 


3.519 


99.0 


June 










9.22 


3.838 


41.6 


3.51 


1.062 


30.3 


1.13 


.775 


68.4 


July. 










4.91 


2.672 


54.5 


3.72 


.529 


14.2 


2.60 


.234 


9.0 


August . 










6.59 


1.419 


25.4 


2.04 


.264 


12.9 


4.§1 


.449 


9.7 


Se ptember 










2.77 


.891 


32.2 


1.04 


.159 


15.3 


4.79 


.552 


11.5 


October . 










2.41 


.774 


32.1 


5.16 


.766 


14.9 


0.09 


.114 


122.5 


N ovember 










1.59 


.912 


57.3 


5.87 


1.682 


28.7 


3.30 


.476 


14.4 


D ecember 










4.02 


.987 


24.5 


5.07 


3.062 


60.4 


2.03 


.702 


34.6 


Totals an 


d av 


eragt 


>s 




49.86 


27.754 


55.7 


46.91 


25.348 


54.0 


38.63 


21.789 


56.4 



P.D. 34. 27 

Rainfall, in Inches, received and collected on the Nashua River Drainage Area. — 

Concluded. 























Mean for 






1925. 






1926. 






1927. 




Thirty-onb Years, 
1897-1927. 


Month. 




Rain- 


Per 




Rain- 


Per 




Rain- 


Per 




Rain- 


Per 




Rain- 


faU 


Cent 


Rain- 


faU 


Cent 


Rain- 


faU 


Cent 


Rain- 


faU 


Cent 




faU. 


col- 


col- 


fall. 


col- 


col- 


fall. 


col- 


col- 


faU. 


col- 


col- 






lected. 


lected. 




lected. 


lected. 




lected. 


lected. 




lected. 


lected. 


January 


3.68 


.563 


15.3 


2.64 


1.695 


64.1 


3.34 


2.184 


65.5 


3.65 


2.074 


56.9 


February 






2.27 


2.524 


111.3 


5.77 


1.340 


23.2 


4.63 


1.784 


38.6 


3.85 


2.096 


54.4 


March . 






5.81 


4.005 


69.0 


2.92 


3.366 


115.1 


1.71 


4.167 


244.4 


3.98 


4.664 


117.1 


April . 






3.06 


2.482 


81.1 


2.46 


4.165 


169.4 


2.10 


1.669 


79.7 


3.83 


3.793 


99.1 


May 






2.14 


1.262 


58.8 


2.00 


1.471 


73.6 


3.04 


1.623 


53.3 


3.30 


2.301 


69.8 


June 






3.97 


.684 


17.2 


2.05 


.699 


34.2 


2.17 


.742 


34.2 


3.76 


1.364 


36.3 


July 






3.95 


.417 


10.6 


2.93 


.461 


15.7 


5.94 


.997 


16.8 


4.15 


.842 


20.3 


August . 






2.04 


.347 


17.0 


2.90 


.449 


15.5 


9.48 


2.875 


30.3 


4.09 


.762 


18.7 


September 






4.26 


.596 


14.0 


1.43 


.347 


24.2 


3.51 


2.086 


59.4 


3.62 


.650 


17.9 


October 






4.37 


.779 


17.8 


4.69 


.691 


14.7 


5.02 


1.972 


39.2 


3.26 


.836 


25.6 


November 






3.43 


1..378 


40.2 


5.32 


1.512 


28.4 


7.50 


4.521 


60.3 


3.80 


1.422 


37.4 


December 






4.39 


2.897 


65.9 


4.20 


1.162 


27.7 


6.23 


4.552 


73.0 


4.07 


2.126 


52.2 


Totals and 


























averages . 


43.37 


17.934 


41.3 


.39.31 


17.358 


44.2 


54.67 


29.172 


53.4 


45.36 


22.930 


50.6 



The following table gives the record of the yield of the Nashua River watershed 
in gallons per day per square mile for each of the past six years and the mean for 
the past 31 years: 



Yield of the Nashua River Drainage Area in Gallons per Day per Square Mile.^ 

















Mean 


Month. 


1922. 


1923. 


1924. 


1925. 


1926. 


1927. 


for Thirty- 
one Years, 
1897-1927. 


January .... 


593,000 


1,764,000 


1,876,000 


316,000 


951,000 


1,224,000 


1,162,000 


February 






1,008,000 


1,004,000 


798,000 


1,566,000 


831,000 


1,108,000 


1,291,000 


March . 






3,341,000 


3,071,000 


1,697,000 


2,245,000 


1,887,000 


2,336,000 


2,614,000 


April 






2,383,000 


3.042,000 


4,213.000 


1,440,000 


2,416,000 


968,000 


2,196,000 


May 






1,968,000 


1,311,000 


1,973,000 


708,000 


825,000 


910,000 


1,290,000 


June 






2,223,000 


615,000 


449,000 


396,000 


405,000 


430,000 


790,000 


July 






1,498.000 


297,000 


131,000 


234,000 


258,000 


559,000 


472,000 


August . 






795,000 


148,000 


2.52,000 


194,000 


252,000 


1,612,000 


427,000 


September 






516,000 


92,000 


320,000 


345,000 


201,000 


1,207,000 


376,000 


October . 






434,000 


430.000 


64.000 


437,000 


387,000 


1,105,000 


469,000 


November 






528,000 


974,000 


276,000 


799,000 


876,000 


2,619,000 


823,000 


December 






5.53,000 


1,717,000 


394,000 


1,624,000 


651,000 


2,552,000 


1,191,000 


Average for whole 
















year . 


1,321,000 


1,207,000 


1,035,000 


854,000 


826,000 


1,389,000 


1,091,000 


Average for driest 
















six months . 


723.000 


424,000 


239.000 


386000 


389.000 


949,000 


558,000 



' The drainage area used in making up these records included water surfaces amounting to 2.2 per cent 
of the whole area from 1897 to 1902, inclusive, to 2.4 per cent in 1903, to 3.6 per cent in 1904, to 4.1 per cent 
in 1905, to 5.1 per cent in 1906, to 6 per cent in 1907, to 7 per cent in 1908, 1909 and 1910, to 6.5 per cent in 1911, 
to 6.8 per cent in 1912, to 7 per cent in 1913, to 7.4 per cent in 1914 and 1915, to 7.6 per cent in 1916, to 7.4 
per cent in 1917 and 1918, to 7.5 per cent in 1919, 1920, 1921 and 1922, to 7.4 per cent in 1923 and 1924, to 6.4 
per cent in 1925, to 5.9 per cent in 1926 and 5.7 per cent in 1927. 



Nashua and Sudbury Rivers. 

The records of the flow of the Sudbury River are available beginning with 1875. 
The measurements of the flow of the South Branch of the Nashua were not begun 
until 1897. The following table shows a comparison of the average flow of these 
rivers during the period since the Nashua River measurements were begun and also 
the comparative flow of each stream in the year 1927. 



28 • P.D. 34. 

Table showing Comparative Flow of the Nashua and Sudbury Rivers in 1927 and the 
Average Flow of those Streams in the 31 Years from 1897 to 1927, inclusive, in 
Gallons per Day per Square Mile. 











SuDBtTBY River. 


Nashua River. 




Normal 


Actual 


Excess 


Normal 


Actual 


Excess 




Flow, 


Flow, 


or 


Flow, 


Flow, 


or 




1897-1927. 


1927. 


Deficiency. 


1897-1927. 


1927. 


Deficiency. 


January 


1,120,000 


1,297,000 


+177,000 


1,162,000 


1,224,000 


+62,000 


February . 








1,551,000 


1,462,000 


—89,000 


1,291,000 


1,108,000 


—183,000 


March 








2,700,000 


2,054,000 


—646,000 


2,614,000 


2,336,000 


—278,000 


April . 








1,967,000 


692,000 


—1,275,000 


2,196,000 


968,000 


—1,228,000 


May . 








1,094,000 


768,000 


—326,000 


1,290,000 


910,000 


—380,000 


June . 








497,000 


215,000 


-282,000 


790,000 


430,000 


—360,000 


July . 








198,000 


130,000 


—68,000 


472,000 


559,000 


+87,000 


August 








229,000 


946,000 


+717,000 


427,000 


1,612,000 


+1,185,000 


September 








241,000 


1,307,000 


+1,066,000 


376,000 


1,207,000 


+831,000 


October 








389,000 


1,297,000 


+908,000 


469,000 


1,105,000 


+636,000 


November 








783,000 


4,026,000 


+3,243,000 


823,000 


2,619,000 


+1,796,000 


December . 








997,000 


2,764,000 


+1,767,000 


1,191,000 


2,552,000 


+1,361,000 


Average for whole year . 


977,000 


1,411,000 


+434,000 


1,091,000 


1,389,000 


+298,000 


Average for driest six 














months .... 


388,000 


676,000 


+288,000 


558,000 


949,000 


+391,000 



Merrimack River. 

The Merrimack River is the second in size of the streams of Massachusetts. The 
river rises in the White Mountains of New Hampshire and flows southerly through 
the central part of that State until it enters Massachusetts, where it turns to the 
east and flows in a general northeasterly direction the remainder of its course to 
the sea. The total length of its watershed from its extreme northerly limits in the 
mountains of northern New Hampshire to its extreme southerly limits in the hills 
of Hopkinton, Massachusetts, is about 137 miles and its extreme width about 66 
miles. Its total drainage area above its mouth at Newburyport is about 5,000 
square miles, of which about one-quarter is within the limits of Massachusetts and 
the remainder within the State of New Hampshire. 

Records of the flow of the Merrimack River have been kept continuously at 
Lawrence since 1880. The drainage area of the river at that point is 4,663 square 
miles, including 118.19 square miles tributary to the South Branch of the Nashua 
River used for the water supply of the Metropolitan District and in part for the 
city of Worcester, 75.2 square miles on the Sudbury River, and 18 square miles 
tributary to Lake Cochituate. The flow as measured at Lawrence includes the 
water wasted from these drainage areas. In the year 1927 practically all of the 
water from the southern Sudbury drainage area and a large part of that from Lake 
Cochituate was wasted into the stream, but no water whatever was wasted from 
Wachusett Reservoir into the Nashua River except such as was discharged from 
the reservoir under the provisions of the Metropolitan water supply act. In pre- 
senting the record of the flow of the river these drainage areas have been deducted, 
leaving the net drainage area above Lawrence 4,567 square miles in 1880, 4,570 
square miles in the years 1891 to 1897, inclusive, and 4,452 square miles since the 
latter year. The quantity of water overflowing from the Cochituate and Sudbury 
watersheds as measured by the Metropohtan District Commission has also been 
deducted from the flow of the river as measured at Lawrence. The average flow 
of the river during the year 1927 amounted to 1.633 cubic feet per second per square 
mile, or 1,056,000 gallons per day per square mile of drainage area, which is about 
11.3 per cent above the normal for the past 48 years. The flow exceeded the 
normal in March and during the months of August to December, inclusive; the 
greatest deficiency occurred in April. 

The following table shows the relation between the normal flow of this stream 
during the past 48 years and the actual flow during each month of the year 
1927. 



P.D. 34. 29 

Table showing the Average Monthly Flow of the Merrimack River at Lawrence for the 
Year 1927, in Cubic Feet per Second per Square Mile of Drainage Area; also, 
Departure from the Normal. 



Month. 


Normal Flow, 


Actual Flow 


Excess or 


1880-1927. 


in 1927. 


Deficiency. 


January 


1.247 


.955 


— .292 


February 


1.336 


1.047 


— .289 


March 


2.753 


3.161 


+ .408 


April 


3.504 


1.828 


—1.678 


May 


2.224 


1.417 


— .807 


June 


1.239 


.785 


— .454 


July 


.756 


.645 


— .111 


August 


.644 


.708 


+ .064 


September 


.640 


.949 


+ .3091 


October 


.796 


1.355 


+ .559 


November 


1.153 


3.733 


+2.580 


December 


1.306 


3.015 


+ 1.709 


Average for whole year . ■ 


1.467 


1.633 


+ .166 



The following table gives the record of the flow of the Merrimack River at 
Lawrence for each of the past six years, together with the average flow for the past 
48 years, this amount being expressed in cubic feet per second per square mile of 
drainage area : 



Flow of the Merrimack River at Lawrence in 


Cubic Feet per 


Second 


per Sqv 


,are Mile. 
















Mean for 


Month. 


1922. 


1923. 


1924. 


1925. 


1926. 


1927. 


Forty-eight 

Years, 
1880-1927. 


January 


.830 


1.074 


1.964 


.357 


1.027 


.955 


1.247 


February 










.887 


.855 


.978 


1.882 


.796 


1.047 


1.336 


March . 










3.900 


1.956 


1.767 


3.413 


1.648 


3.161 


2.753 


April 










4.903 


4.958 


5.050 


3.102 


3.933 


1.828. 


3.604 


May 










2.887 


2.904 


3.115 


1.349 


2.165 


1.417 


2.224 


June 










3.006 


.730 


.920 


.689 


.843 


.785 


1.239 


July. . . 










2.111 


.434 


.464 


.712 


.527 


.645 


.756 


August . 










.773 


.394 


.350 


.518 


.405 


.708 


.644 


September 










.766 


.303 


.753 


.454 


.341 


.949 


.640 


October . 










.660 


.491 


.612 


.735 


.609 


1.355 


.796 


November 










.612 


1.177 


.536 


1.067 


1.395 


3.733 


1.163 


December 










.498 


2.372 


.712 


1.577 


.872 


3.015 


1.306 


Average for whole year 


1.819 


1.471 


1.435 


1.321 


1.205 


1.633 


1.467 


Average for driest six months . 


.903 


.588 


.671 


.696 


.670 


.977 


.871 



Sudbury, Nashua and Merrimack Rivers. 

The following table shows the weekly fluctuations during the year 1927 in the 
yield of the Sudbury River at Framingham, the South Branch of the Nashua River 
at the outlet of the Wachusett Reservoir in Clinton, and the Merrimack River at 
Lawrence. The flow of these streams, particularly that of the Sudbury River and 
the South Branch of the Nashua River, serves to indicate the flow of other streams 
in eastern Massachusetts. The area of the Sudbury River watershed is 75.2 
square miles, of the South Branch of the Nashua River 118.19 square miles, and of 
the Merrimack River at Lawrence 4,452 square miles. 



30 P.D. 34. 

Table showing the Average Weekly Flow of the Sudbury, South Branch of the Nashua 
and the Merrimack Rivers for the Year 1927, in Cubic Feet 'per Second per Square 
Mile of Drainage Area. 



Week ending 
Sunday — 


Yield of 

Sudbury 

River. 


Yield of 
South 
Branch, 
Nashua 
River. 


Flow of 
Merri- 
mack 
River. 


Week ending 
Sunday — 


Yield of 

Sudbury 

River. 


Yield of 
South 
Branch, 
Nashua 
River. 


Flow of 
Merri- 
mack 
River. 


Jan. 2 . . . 


3.379 


1.038 


.846 


July 3 . . . 


.217 


.487 


.564 


9 . . . 


1.944 


1.073 


.856 


10 . . . 


.010 


.571 


.555 


16 . . . 


1.463 


1.158 


.754 


17 . . . 


.482 


1.239 


.724 


23 . . . 


2.942 


2.807 


.961 


24 . . . 


.606 


.664 


.778 


30 . . . 


6.084 


2.460 


1.239 


31 . . . 


.482 


1.142 


.620 


Feb. 6 . . . 


4.571 


2.258 


1.285 


Aug. 7 . . . 


.319 


2.365 


.724 


13 . . . 


1.817 


1.371 


1.004 


14 . . . 


3.074 


2.119 


.603 


20 . . . 


1.959 


1.594 


.896 


21 . . . 


.536 


.894 


.553 


27 . . . 


2.639 


1.964 


1.000 


28 . . . 


1.645 


3.982 


.644 


Mar. 6 . . . 


3.616 


1.375 


1.170 


Sept. 4 . . . 


5.920 


4.969 


1.684 


13 . . . 


4.226 


4.464 


1.749 


11 . . . 


5.273 


1.591 


1.083 


20 . . . 


4.550 


5.811 


5.586 


18 . . . 


1.518 


1.336 


.748 


27 . . . 


3.072 


3.464 


4.308 


25 . . . 


1.484 


1.282 


.685 


Apr. 3 . . . 


1.642 


1.789 


2.251 


Oct. 2 . . . 


1.437 


.677 


.572 


10 . . . 


1.273 


1.520 


1.893 


9 . . . 


.987 


1.449 


.792 


17 . . . 


.723 


1.033 


1.489 


16 . . . 


3.309 


2.817 


1.394 


24 . . . 


1.106 


1.731 


1.929 


23 . . . 


4.416 


2.021 


1.938 










30 . . . 


3.292 


1.009 


1.598 


May 1 . . . 


1.186 


1.625 


1.799 










8 . . . 


.762 


1.191 


1.176 


Nov. 6 . . . 


10.093 


8.144 


4.746 


15 . . . 


.908 


1.353 


1.274 


13 . . . 


11.470 


2.453 


4.478 


22 . . . 


1.794 


1.438 


1.761 


20 . . . 


8.330 


3.099 


2.928 


29 . . . 


1.657 


1.796 


1.540 


27 . . . 


7.795 


2.570 


2.815 


June 5 . . . 


1.201 


.990 


1.098 


Dec. 4 . . . 


6.037 


3.103 


2.989 


12 . . . 


.533 


.674 


.997 


11 . . . 


4.743 


4.652 


3.533 


19 . . . 


.534 


.560 


.714 


18 . . . 


6.272 


6.002 


3.668 


26 . . . 


.590 


.642 


.547 


25 . . . 


5.498 


2.446 


2.617 



Examination of Rivers. 

Owing to the excessive rainfall in the latter half of the year 1927 the examinations 
of the rivers were confined for the most part to the months of July to September or 
October, inclusive. 

Aberjona River. 

Considerable work has been done during the past year in the construction of a 
new sewer in the Aberjona River valley, but at the end of the year this sewer was 
not ready for use. All the wastes from the tanneries in this valley have been dis- 
charged into the river with little or no treatment and the quantity of organic 
matter in the stream above Winchester has been much greater than in any year 
since the records were begun. During the period of excessive rainfall in the latter 
part of the year sewage overflowed from manholes for a time into the river in 
Winchester. 

Assabet River. 

Below Westborough there has been an increase in the amount of organic matter 
in the water of the Assabet River, and the effect was noticeable down to the town 
of Hudson. Below Hudson the analyses indicate an improvement in the character 
of the water as compared with the previous year. There, has been slightly less 
evidence of pollution below Maynard than in recent years, while farther down 
stream the character of the water has been about as usual. The river is still badly 
polluted. 

Blackstone River. 

The analyses of the water of the Blackstone River do not as yet indicate any 
marked improvement in the condition of the river water below the Worcester 
sewage disposal works. Farther down stream there has been a considerable in- 
crease in the quantity of putrescible organic matter in the water, and at the point 
where it leaves the State a larger quantity of organic matter has been present than 
in any year since the examinations were begun in 1887. 

No samples of the water were collected for analysis after the heavy freshet in 
November. 



P.D. 34. 31 

Charles River. 
The Charles River below Milford has shown more evidence of pollution than 
usual since the sewage disposal works were constructed, while below Medway more 
organic matter has been present in the water than in any year since 1918. At the 
Medfield State Hospital the evidences of pollution continue to increase as com- 
pared with earlier years, and the same is true at various points lower down in the 
course of the river, 

Chicopee River and Tributaries. 
The analyses during 1927 have shown no changes of any consequence at any 
point throughout the course of this river and its tributaries. 

Concord and Sudbury Rivers. 
Bannister Brook, a tributary of the Sudbury River which receives the effluent 
from the sewage disposal works at Natick and Framingham, shows more evidence 
of pollution than in previous years. The water of the Sudbury River below Saxon- 
ville has contained more organic matter than in any recent year, while at the con- 
fluence with the Assabet River at Concord there was more evidence of pollution 
than in any year since 1915. The analyses of the water of the Concord River show 
no material change, though there is an indication of a slight improvement in the 
character of the water of this stream at its mouth. 

Connecticut River. 
The analyses of the waters of the Connecticut River show no material change 
from other recent years. 

French River. 
The water of the French River below Webster and Dudley has contained more 
putrescible organic matter as indicated by the albuminoid ammonia than in any 
year since 1918. No further action appears to have been taken relative to the 
construction of the sewage disposal works for Webster and Dudley which were 
approved by this Department in 1925. 

Hoosick River. 
The results of the analyses of samples of the water of the Hoosick River below 
North Adams and at Williamstown show that its condition continues to be objec- 
tionable. Plans were submitted during the year for a change in certain sewer 
outlets at North Adams, but due to the flood in November no important changes 
have as yet been recommended. 

Housatonic River. 
Only a limited number of analyses have been made, of the water of the Housatonic 
River during the year. These examinations show in general a slight increase in 
pollution as compared with recent years. The most marked increase occurred in 
the water of the East Branch of the river below Pittsfield. 

Merrimack River. 
The results of the analyses of samples of the water of the Merrimack River 
during 1927 indicated an increase in the quantity of organic matter as compared 
with previous years. Above Lawrence there was more evidence of pollution than 
usual, and below that city more organic matter was present in the water than any 
year since 1915. The analyses of the water of the Shawsheen River at its mouth 
have shown a gradual improvement due apparently to the removal of the sewage 
of the town of Andover from this river. Above Haverhill the amount of dissolved 
oxygen present in the water has been lower than in any year since 1923, while the 
effect of the sewage discharged into the river has been more noticeable below 
Haverhill than for several years. 

Millers River and Tributaries. 
The Otter River below Gardner, a tributary of the Millers River, has shown a 
marked increase in pollution due chiefly to the discharge of imperfectly treated 
sewage from the Gardner sewage disposal works. Further improvements at the 



32 P.D. 34. 

sewage disposal works of the city of Gardner are necessary if this stream is to be 
kept in a satisfactory condition. A sewerage system and sewage disposal works 
were constructed during the past year by the town of Winchendon. The plant 
was put into operation at the end of the year, but thus far only a few sewer con- 
nections have been made. Below Athol and Orange there has been but little 
change in the condition of the river as compared with earlier years. 

Nashua River. 

The results of the analyses of samples of water from the North Branch of the 
Nashua River show in general a greater degree of pollution than in any year since 
1915. This appears to be due in part to industrial wastes but more particularly 
to the sewage of the city of Leominster which is discharged untreated into the 
stream. Samples of the water of Monoosnock Brook below the main sewer outlet 
of the city of Leominster indicate that on the average the flow in the brook con- 
sisted of about one-third domestic sewage. 

The city of Leominster during the past year constructed a sewerage system in 
the Whalom district of that city which has been connected with the Fitchburg 
sewage disposal works. The condition of the North Branch of this river is very 
objectionable. 

The effect of discharge of untreated sewage from Clinton into the South Branch 
of the Nashua River has also been noticeable, and the water of the main stream 
as it leaves the State has contained more organic matter than in any year so far 
recorded. 

Neponset River. 

The results of the investigation of the condition of the Neponset River have 
shown a very general increase in pollution throughout its course from a point near 
Walpole Center to its mouth. Its two main tributaries, Hawes Brook and the 
Canton River, have also shown more evidence of pollution than in the previous 
year. The quantity of albuminoid ammonia in the river below the entrance of 
Hawes Brook in Norwood was greater than in any year since 1913. 

Complaint was made during the year relative to the condition of the river at 
various points in its course. The Department has recommended the extension of 
the Metropolitan sewer to the towns in the upper portion of this valley as the best 
practicable method of effecting an adequate improvement in the condition of this 
river. 

Taunton River and Tributaries. 
The results of the analyses of the waters of this river and its tributaries, partic- 
ularly the Coweeset, Matfield and Town rivers, have shown a decided increase in 
pollution as compared with previous years. Complaints of organic growths in 
the Town River at Bridgewater were made during the year, and there has been 
litigation relative to the effect of the effluent from the Brockton sewage disposal 
works upon one of the tributaries of this stream. 

Ten Mile River. 
The condition of Ten Mile River has varied considerably from year to year, but 
in 1927 there was a marked increase in the amount of putrescible organic matter 
present in the river water below North Attleborough and at a point below Attle- 
boro but above the Attleboro sewage filters. The sewage of North Attleborough 
is conveyed to disposal works, but there has been a marked deterioration in the 
quaUty of the effluent from these works and considerable quantities of sewage have 
been discharged into the river without treatment. 

Examination of Sewage Disposal Works. 

At Attleboro although a reasonably thorough distribution of sewage over the 
entire disposal area has been continued as last year, the results of operation have 
not been quite as satisfactory as in 1926. 

At Brockton the larger proportion of sewage has been treated by the trickling 
filters and secondary tank, and much of the effluent from the secondary tank has 
been discharged upon the sand filter beds. Owing to the large amount of rain 



P.D. 34. 33 

during certain periods of the year there was an increase in the quantity of sewage 
requiring treatment. This increase has been taken care of by increasing con- 
siderably the quantity of sewage discharged upon the old sand filter beds, but there 
has been a reduction in the quantity passed through the trickling filter plant. 

At Clinton the quantity of sewage has increased materially during the past 
j^ear. The filter beds are not capable of treating satisfactorily all of the sewage, 
and large quantities have overflowed into the South Branch of the Nashua River. 
There has been a decided deterioration in the quality of the effluent discharged 
from the filters, as compared with earlier years. 

At Easthampton all of the sewage has been passed through settling tanks as in 
previous years. Less than half of the sewage is filtered through the sand filter 
beds, while the larger part is discharged into the Manhan River without further 
treatment. 

The new grit chamber at Fitchburg, which was constructed a year ago, has been 
in use throughout most of the year and has proved satisfactory in that it is prac- 
ticable to treat more sewage at times of storm than was formerly the case. 

At Framingham the old sand filters have not been operated as satisfactorily as 
usual and the quality of the effluent has shown deterioration. 

At Franklin there has been a marked increase in the quantity and strength of 
the sewage during the year and in consequence the filters have been overdosed, 
with unsatisfactory results upon the quality of the effluent. A better system of 
distribution of the sewage and a larger area of fflters have become necessary for the 
proper disposal of the sewage of this town. 

The condition of the sewage disposal works at Gardner has remained about the 
same as in recent years. The work of relaying the underdrains in the filter beds 
was continued during the early part of the summer so that the entire underdrainage 
systems at both the Gardner and Templeton areas have been reconstructed. The 
purification of the sewage is not satisfactory, and the discharge of more or less 
improperly purified sewage into the Otter River has continued as in previous years. 

At MiKord various units of the sewage disposal works, including an Imhoff tank 
and a trickling filter, have been operated as usual and a secondary tank and sludge 
pumps were completed and first operated during the year. The Imhoff tank con- 
tinues to give unsatisfactory results due to lack of proper attention. Considerable 
improperly purified sewage overflows from this section of the plant into the Charles 
River, and some untreated sewage is discharged into the river directly from the 
Milford sewerage system. There has been a marked falling off in the character of 
the effluent of the sand fflters during the year. 

At Natick conditions have been sUghtly less satisfactory than during the previous 
years due in part to an increase in the quantity and strength of the sewage. During 
the year 1926 seven of the fflter beds were reconstructed and the work of recon- 
struction was carried on in the early part of 1927 on the remaining seven beds. 
Subsequently the filters were operated more satisfactorily .and the quantity of 
sewage allowed to overflow without treatment has probably been less than in 
previous years. The disposal works are still inadequate for the proper treatment 
of all of the sewage of the town, and an additional area of fflters should be provided. 

At North Attleborough the operation of the fflter beds has been unsatisfactory. 
The area of the filters has become inadequate for the disposal of the quantity of 
sewage now received at this plant, and should be increased without further delay. 
The filters appear to be badly clogged, and it has become necessary to allow large 
quantities of sewage to overflow into the swamp below the sewage disposal area. 

At Northbridge the sewage disposal works were badly overloaded during the 
year 1926 and the effluent of the plant has deteriorated seriously during the past 
year. During 1927, in accordance with the recommendations of the Department, 
the underdrains were taken up and relaid in some eight of the filter beds and sur- 
face material was removed and replaced with a good quahty of sand and gravel. 
The operation of the filters since the latter part of the summer has been more satis- 
factory than formerly. 

At Norwood the filter beds have been used regularly throughout the year, but 
the area of the fflters is not sufficient for the proper treatment of all the sewage of 
the town. 



34 P.D. 34. 

The sewage disposal works at Pittsfield have become inadequate for the effective 
treatment of the quantity of sewage now discharged from the city and much sewage 
is discharged untreated into the Housatonic River. There has been a faUing off 
in the efficiency of the filtration of that portion of the sewage discharged to the 
filter beds. 

At Southbridge the six new filter beds with an aggregate area of four acres which 
were constructed in 1925-1926 have been in use throughout the year, but the plant 
as a whole is inadequate for the proper treatment of all the sewage of the town. 

The area of the filters at Westborough still continues to be inadequate for the 
treatment of all the sewage, and untreated or improperly purified sewage has over- 
flowed at times into the Assabet River. 

At Worcester the new sewage disposal plant has been in constant use throughout 
the year. The quantity of sludge collecting in the Imhoff tanks continues to be 
large, but improvement has been shown in the operation of the tanks, and the 
sludge has been disposed of satisfactorily upon the old sand filter beds. The 
trickling filters have operated more satisfactorily during the year, especially since 
the removal of some of the small stone and dirt which had collected upon the sur- 
face. There has been less pooling of sewage upon the beds particularly since the 
latter part of the summer. The secondary tanks have become more efficient due 
to the installation of satisfactory pumping apparatus for the removal of the sludge 
from these tanks. 

The other larger municipal sewage disposal works have given reasonable satis- 
faction during the year, but extensions should be made at some of the smaller 
works. The average results of the analyses of sewage and effluent, together with 
statistics concerning the more important sewage disposal works, are presented in 
the following tables : 



35 







■8}trj 


8.42 
3.53 
54.99 


6.85 
6.34 
14.68 

14.68 


6.99 
10.40 


8.37 
5.96 


30.07 
4.08 
11.07 
22.03 


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38 



P.D. 34. 



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Trickling filter has 
an area of 2.14 
acres and a depth 
of 10 feet of stone 
from 1 to 3 inches 
in size. 

The average rate of 
operation was 
about 2,037,000 
gallons per day for 
area used (1.86 
acres) . 


Period of sedimenta- 
tion about 6 hours. 

Tanks cleaned 6 
times. 


■B^BJ 


3.05 


iqBpiafH 


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CO 


;2 s 


°8 


•pajaijij 


2.33 

1.01 

57 
.92 


== s 


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3.46 

1.67 

52 
1.62 


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§1 


•Ba;u?iM 


.0142 
.0113 


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1.2425 
1.2575 


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4.31 
4.35 

4.28 


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4.74 


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25.01 


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31.43 

29.83 

5 
29.75 


"• « 








Imhoff tank effluent 
as applied to 
trickling filter. 

Effluent from trick- 
ling filter. 

Per cent removed 

Settled effluent from 

trickling filter as 

discharged to 


Nashua River. 

Per cent removed 
by secondary set- 
tling tanks. 

Per cent removed 
by trickling filter 
and secondary 
tanks. 



40 



P.D. 34. 



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42 P.D. 34. 

Table No. 5. — Average Results of Analyses of Monthly Samples of Eijiuenl from 

Sand Filters. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 







Total 






1 






Free 
Ammonia. 


Albuminoid 
Ammonia. 


Chlorine. 


Nitrogen as — | 


, Iron. 




Nitrates. 


Nitrites. 1 




Attleboro' 


.63 


.0927 


4.18 


.7685 


.0190 


.056 


Brockton' 


1.61 


.1048 


6.10 


2.0058 


.0115 


.448 


Clinton' 


2.27 


.1624 


4.62 


.0974 


.0029 


2.488 


Concord' 


.19 


.0298 


2.82 


1.3142 


.0088 


.024 


Easthamptoni .... 


.80 


.0930 


3.24 


1.4735 


.0191 


.151 


Framingham' (Imhoff) 


2.09 


.1500 


5.76 


.7643 


.0177 


.773 


Framingham (Direct) . 


3.28 


.1584 


5.87 


.1749 


.0131 


1.445 


Franklin 


1.04 


.1018 


3.95 


.3688 


.0060 


.540 


Gardner (Gardner Area)' . 


2.32 


.1535 


6.65 


1.1845 


.0137 


.589 


Gardner (Templeton Area)' 


3.60 


.2125 


5.46 


.4064 


.0120 


1.068 


Hopedale' 


1.13 


.0924 


3.99 


2.6314 


.0016 


.023 


Hudson 


1.22 


.1400 


4.58 


1.2368 


.0118 


.304 


Leicester' 


.37 


.0570 


2.68 


.4733 


.0246 


.117 


Marion' 


1.03 


.0780 


2.85 


.0835 


.0028 


.633 


Marlborough' .... 


1.01 


.0983 


5.50 


1.0709 


.0101 


.294 


Milford 


2.15 


.1489 


5.65 


.1602 


.0023 


1.190 




2.86 


.1288 


6.88 


.0631 


.0003 


.918 


North Attleboroughi . 


.38 


.0573 


2.55 


.2608 


.0050 


.141 


Northbridge' 


1.06 


.1072 


2.21 


.2461 


.0041 


1.153 


Norwood' 


1.21 


.0964 


9.64 


.3139 


.0107 


.383 


Pittsfield' 


1.65 


.2294 


4.45 


.1816 


.0230 


.297 


Southbridge' 


3.31 


.1545 


5.44 


.0466 


.0006 


1.067 


Spencer' 


.45 


.0713 


3.55 


.4710 


.0167 


.247 


Stockbridge' 


.18 


.0614 


1.49 


.6901 


.0145 


.113 


Westborough' .... 


1.37 


.1291 


6.17 


.1068 


.0063 


.887 



' Six samples. 

' Regular samples from two or more underdrains in one average. 

' Four samples. • 



Table No. 6. 



Efficiency of Sand Filters. {Per Cent of Free and Albuminoid 
Ammonia removed.) 

[Parts in 100,000.] 







1 












Free Ammonia. 1 


NOiD Ammonia 


Chlorine 1 


Rate of 




















Opera- 




















tion with 








X 






T3 






Even Dis- 


CiTT OS Town. 


§i 




^^ 


ii 




^i^ 


& 




tribution 




1^ 


g 

3 


fl 


.S ^ 
0, 


EB 




•2^ 

0. 


13 
1 


(Gallons 

per Acre 

per 




< 


H 


(2 


< 


H 


^ 


<: 


W 


Day)." 


ATTLEBORO 


2.53 


.63 


75 


.65 


.0927 


86 


3.78 


4.18 


64.000 


Brockton 


3.18 


1.61 


49 


.55 


.1048 


81 


5.76 


6.10 


56,000 


Clinton 


2.56 


2.27 


11 


.93 


.1624 


83 


4.85 


4.62 


60,000 


Concord 


2.59 


.19 


93 


.72 


.0298 


96 


3.53 


2.82 


94,000 


Easthampton 


2.67 


.80 


70 


.71 


.0930 


87 


4.07 


3.24 


- 


Framingham (Imhoff) .... 


3.67 


2.09 


43 


.75 


.1500 


80 


5.48 


5.76 


1 48,000 


Framingham (Direct) .... 


4.07 


3.28 


19 


1.82 


.1584 


91 


6.14 


5.87 


Franklin 


3.07 


1.04 


66 


.55 


.1018 


81 


6.57 


3.95 


82,000 


Gardner (Gardner Area) . 


6.58 


2.32 


65 


1.13 


.1535 


86 


5.70 


6.65 


} 104,000 


Gardner (Templeton Area) 


3.18 


3.60 


- 


.60 


.2125 


65 


4.39 


5.46 


Hopedale 


4.82 


1.13 


77 


.70 


.0924 


87 


4.20 


3.99 


53,000 


Hudson 


3.92 


1.22 


69 


.70 


.1400 


80 


4.90 


4.58 


71,000 


I^eicester 


1.51 


..37 


75 


.52 


.0570 


89 


2.25 


2.68 


- 


Marion 


2.56 


1.03 


60 


.88 


.0780 


91 


4.80 


2.85 


94,000 


Marlborough 


3.52 


1.01 


71 


.82 


.0983 


88 


7.78 


5.50 


61,000 


Milford 


2.61 


2.15 


18 


.50 


.1489 


70 


5.13 


5.65 


50,000 


Natick 


3.18 


2.86 


10 


.79 


.1288 


84 


7.49 


6.88 


61,000 


North Attleborough . . . . 


1.54 


..38 


75 


.45 


.0573 


87 


3.30 


2.55 


109,000 


Northbridge 


2.15 


1.06 


51 


.46 


.1072 


77 


2.43 


2.21 


56,000 


Norwood .... . . 


2.69 


1.21 


55 


.78 


.0964 


88 


13.69 


9.64 


78,000 


Pittsfield 


2.55 


1.65 


35 


.67 


.2294 


66 


5.35 


4.45 


89,000 


Southbridge 


3.73 


3.31 


11 


.77 


.1545 


80 


5.40 


5.44 


83,000 


Spencer ....... 


2.83 


.45 


84 


2.04 


.0713 


97 


4.10 


3.55 


— 


Stockbridge 


1.71 


.18 


89 


.36 


.0614 


83 


1.70 


1.49 


— 


Westborough 


3.02 


1.37 


55 


1.16 


.1291 


89 


15.03 


6.17 


57,000 



1 See also Table No. 7. 



P.D. 34. 



43 



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P.D. 34. 45 

Examination of Sewer Outlets Discharging into the Sea. 

At the end of the year the new outfall sewer of the city of Lynn designed to 
discharge the sewage of that city into the sea off the mouth of Lynn harbor was 
completed and the pumping station and pumping equipment were nearly ready 
for operation. The new outfall sewers at Marblehead and Gloucester were also 
approaching completion at the end of the year, and much of the work had been 
completed in the construction of the outlet for the sewage of the South Essex 
Sewerage District, which comprises the cities of Salem, Peabody and Beverly and 
the town of Dan vers and certain public institutions in Dan vers and Middleton. 

Water Supply of Municipalities in the County of Essex and in Adjacent 
Portions of the County of Middlesex. 

In accordance with the requirements of Chapter 30 of the Resolves of the year 
1927, the Department completed during the year the investigation of water supply 
needs and resources for the municipalities of the County of Essex and adjacent 
portions of the County of Middlesex. These reports were submitted to the 
Legislature on November 29 and December 13, 1927, and were printed as House 
Documents 301 and 302 of the year 1928, the former relating to municipalities 
in the southern part of Essex County and the latter to municipalities in the Merri- 
mack River valley. The reports reconamended plans for meeting the water 
supply requirements of the municipalities included in the resolve. 

Neponset Valley Sewer, 

Under the provisions of Chapter 43 of the Resolves of 1926, the Department 
presented to the Legislature of 1927 a report recommending the extension of the 
South Metropolitan Sewerage System to serve 7 towns in whole or in part in the 
upper part of the vaUey of the Neponset River. This report was printed as 
House Document 212 of the year 1927 and was referred by the Legislature to the 
session of 1928. 

Water Supply and Sewerage of State Sanatoria. 

Plans were prepared during the year and proposals invited for the construction 
of sewage disposal works for the Lakeville Sanatorium, but it was found that the 
appropriation available was inadequate for the construction of a proper system of 
sewage disposal for that institution and all bids were rejected. 

A contract was let during the year for the reconstruction and improvement of 
part of the sewage disposal works at the North Reading Sanatorium and the work 
was completed before the end of the year. 

Further investigations were made with reference to the disposal of sewage and 
the construction of a swimming pool at the Westfield Sanatorium. 

Use of Water from Charles River Basin for Industrial Purposes. 

An investigation was made during the year in conjunction with the Metropolitan 
District Commission, under the provisions of Chapter 42 of the Resolves of 1927, 
relative to the use of water from the Charles River Basin for industrial purposes. 
A report based upon this investigation was presented to the Legislature of 1928 
and printed as House Document 73 of that year. 

Sewerage for the New[Metropolitan State Hospital in Waltham, Belmont 

AND Lexington. 

An investigation was made by the Division in connection with the Department 
of Mental Diseases and the Metropolitan District Commission relative to the 
disposal of sewage from the proposed Metropolitan Hospital in Waltham, Belmont 
and Lexington, the results of which were presented in a report to the Legislature 
of 1928, printed as House Document 261. 



46 P.D. 34. 

Investigations Relating to Shellfish. 

An investigation was made during the year by the Division, in co-operation with 
the Department of Conservation, with reference to the practicability of trans- 
planting shellfish and of rendering shellfish taken from contaminated areas safe 
for use as food by the use of a disinfectant. The results of this investigation 
were presented to the Legislature of 1928 and printed as House Document 252 
of that year. 

Great Freshet of November 3-4, 1927. 

Following the great freshet of November 3-4, 1927, the Division rendered 
whatever assistance was practicable in determining the condition of water supplies 
in the area affected, advising as to means of preventing danger to the public health 
therefrom. 



P.D. 34. 



47 



REPORT OF THE DIVISION OF WATER AND SEWAGE 
LABORATORIES. 

H. W. Clark, Director. 

This Division, consisting of laboratories in the State House and the Lawrence 
Experiment Station, accomplished more analytical work during 1927 than in any 
previous year. Much necessary research work was also carried on, all of this 
analytical and research work being necessary in connection with the general 
oversight of the Department of the inland waters of the State, such as rivers, 
water supplies, etc., the disposal of sewage and industrial wastes, the condition 
of shellfish areas and many other problems constantly occurring in the sanitary 
work of this Department, and necessary to adequately answer the many requests 
for advice from cities, towns, corporations, etc. Several special investigations 
concerning important water supply and sewerage problems of groups of cities 
and towns ordered by the Legislature also necessitated much analytical and re- 
search work, including field work. Among the special investigations by this 
Division can be mentioned one concerning the purification of clams from polluted 
areas by chlorine treatment, a summary of which is given in this report. 

At the Experiment Station of this Division, where a large amount of research 
work is carried on, various filters, tanks, etc., for the study of methods of sewage 
disposal, water purification, etc., were in operation and as usual a large number 
of engineers, biologists, chemists, health officials, etc., visited the State House 
laboratories and the Experiment Station during the year and classes of students 
from different technical schools were instructed concerning this class of research, 
laboratory and public health work. The results of all the chemical analyses of 
water supplies, rivers, sewage applied to and effluents from municipal sewage 
disposal areas, etc., made by this Division are summarized in the report of the 
Division of Sanitary Engineering. 

The following table summarizes the analytical work of this Division and a 
r^sum6 of some of its research work is given on subsequent pages: 

State House Laboratories. 
Samples from public water supplies: 

Surface waters 2,545 

Ground waters 1,257 

Samples from domestic wells, ice supplies, etc 658 

Samples from rivers 1,405 

Samples in connection with special Metropolitan water supply investigation . 898 
Samples from sewage disposal works : 

Sewages 475 

Effluents 603 

Samples of wastes and effluents from factories 77 

Miscellaneous samples (partial analyses) 97 

Microscopical examinations 3,387 

Special examinations of water (including field work) for manganese, lead, 

copper, alkalinity and acidity, fats, dissolved oxygen and carbonic acid . 2,087 



Lawrence Experiment Station. 

Chemical examinations on account of investigations concerning the disposal 
of domestic sewage and factory wastes, filtration and other treatment of 
water supplies, swimming pools, and the investigation of the Merrimack 
and other rivers 2,359 

Mechanical and chemical examinations of sands 182 

Bacterial examinations of water supplies, rivers, sewage filter effluents, ice, 

swimming pools, wastes, etc 4,593 

Bacterial examinations in connection with methods of purification of sewage 

and water 837 

Bacterial examination of shellfish and sea waters 1,519 



48 P.D. 34. 

Character of the Sewage used for Investigations upon Sewage Purification 
AT THE Lawrence Experiment Station. 
The following tables present the average analyses of sewage used during the 
year. "Regular sewage" is the average of the sewage as pumped to the Station; 
"settled sewage" is the sewage applied to all tanks and filters except Filters Nos. 1, 
4 and 9A, and is regular sewage after passing through Imhoff tanks and receiving 
a slight additional settling in a large tank suppljdng the various filters. 



Average Analyses. 
Regular Sewage. 

[Parts in 100.000.] 



Ammonia. 


KjELDAHL Nitrogen. 


Chlorine. 


Oxygen 
Consumed. 


Bacteria 


Free. 


ALBUMINOID. 


Total. 


In Solution. 


per Cubic 




Total. 1 In Solution. 







4.12 



4.09 



4.28 



1.34 



.83 



Settled Sewage. 

.44 1.20 .74 8.4 4.26 

Sewage applied to Filters Nos. 1, 4 ond 9A. 

.47 1.06 .79 9.4 4.78 



1,064,000 
1,910,000 
2,179,000 



73.6 



56.0 



56.3 



Average Solids. 
Regular Sewage. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



Unfilteked. 


Filtered. 


In Suspension. 


Total. 1 t^^Z. 1 Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 1 T^- „j 
Ignition. 1 Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 1 pj ^ 
Ignition. 1 •^^•'■■="- 



27.9 



34.0 



28.1 



48.9 24.3 24.6 

Settled Sewage. 



19.1 



21.0 



24.7 



15.9 



Sewage applied to Filters Nos. 1, 4 owd 9 A. 

30.6 43.3 20.0 23.3 13.0 



15.3 



5.7 



9.4 



7.1 



7.3 



Sludge Digestion. 
Imhoff and Separate Sludge Digestion Tanks. 

Since the advent of colorimetric pH, or hydrogen ion concentration control, 
there has been much study of its application to sewage sludge digestion in Imhoff 
tanks. Notable work has been done in this respect by Rudolphs at the New 
Jersey Sewage Experiment Station, by Fair and Carlson and also by Baity at 
Harvard, and it appears to be the consensus of opinion of these workers that a 
pH of over 7.0 and up to 7.6 is most favorable for digestion. Some believe that 
the use of finely divided calcium carbonate is the best means of increasing the pH. 
Rudolphs* states that slightly acid or very alkaline conditions are imfavorable to 
sludge digestion. In fact, this is generally agreed upou. Fairt found normal 
digestion to proceed in four stages: (1) Dominant acid fermentation; (2) tempo- 
rary rise in gasification; (3) depressed gasification; (4) active methane fermenta- 
tion; and all of them characterized by changes in reaction. 

It is doubtful whether these stages would be followed by all sewage sludge 
under regular operating conditions and, in fact, nothing of this sort has been noted 
in the operation of Irnhoff tanks at the Station or in laboratory experiments to 
be described later. In other words, we did not find dominant acid fermentation 
or depressed gasification or active methane fermentation at any particular period; 
that is, the volume of total gas formed was more or less constant, as was the forma- 
tion of methane, and what variation there was in this respect was irregular from 



♦Proceedings, 11th Annual Meeting New Jersey Sewage Works Association. 
tJour. Boston Society of Civil Engineers, Feb., 1927. 



P.D. 34. 49 

the beginning of the experiments. Neither has any real acidity, other than that 
due to carbon dioxide, been noted in Lawrence sewage or in digesting sludge. 
The pH of this Lawrence sewage has ranged between 6.0 and 7.0. 

The following observations in regard to pH in sludge digestion can be made : 
Admitting that pH 7.0 represents neutrality and lower numerical values represent 
acidity and higher ones alkalinity, the nature of the substances causing the changes 
from neutrality must be considered. Fair states in work previously noted that 
he has treated hydrogen ion concentration "as an entity in itself and as a factor 
of the biological environment as significant as that of temperature. Considered 
as such, it makes no difference whether its value is determined by the carbon 
dioxide, organic acids, bicarbonates or the net results of all these substances." 
Yet elsewhere he states that "reaction adjustments are not beneficial unless accom- 
plished by the use of suitable chemicals. Soda ash and caustic soda retard the 
progress of digestion." It is reasonable, however, to suppose that a pH of, say, 
6.2, due to an organic acid or a mineral acid, might affect digestion differently 
than would the same pH due to free carbon dioxide alone. 

In January, 1927, a number of laboratory digestion experiments were started 
to study the effect of pH on the beginning of fermentation of sludge and on the 
rapidity, volume and composition of gases produced. Gallon bottles were fitted 
with rubber stoppers through which had been passed three glass tubes. The 
first tube extended to just above the level of the sludge placed in the bottle later 
and was attached to a funnel at the upper end; the second tube reached about 
halfway down the bottle and the portion outside the bottle was so bent as to 
deliver sewage to a beaker placed beside the bottle; the third glass tube was closed 
at the upper end with a rubber tube and pinch cock, and was used to deliver gas 
accumulating in the bottle. A known amount of sludge was placed in each bottle 
and the bottle filled with sewage. As gas was formed its accumulation forced an 
equivalent amount of sewage out of the second tube. Two hundred cubic centi- 
meters of sewage were added daily to each bottle, partly to gradually remove 
the products of digestion and partly to furnish samples for analysis. As sewage 
was poured into the funnel and delivered just above the surface of the sludge, 
an equivalent volume ran out through the second tube from midway in the sludge 
bottle, or if the second tube was closed and the third opened, gas could be forced 
out of the top of the bottle. If the volume of gas produced was large, part of the 
displaced sewage was poured back and used to force out a measured volume of 
gas. Throughout these experiments it has been assumed that the pH of the 
liquid over the sludge was the same as that of the sludge itself. The pH of the 
sludge must be the pH of the 95 to 98 per cent or so of the liquid which is in intimate 
contact with the solid matter of the sludge. Dissolved carbon dioxide was deter- 
mined in the sewage applied to and in the effluents from the bottles, and with 
analysis of the gases evolved, a complete record of the carbon dioxide formed 
from the sludge was obtained. The bottles, with one exception, were kept at 
laboratory temperature which was fairly low during the night, especially in January 
and February; the average temperature in the late afternoon was 70° F., and at 
9.00 o'clock in the morning, 54° F. Hence the temperature conditions were not 
ideal but as all bottles were at the same temperature, the results are comparative. 
As was to be expected, most of the gas was formed at the higher temperatures. 
At the beginning of the experiments a liter of sludge, collected from the Station 
settling tank and probably not over three days old, was placed in each bottle. 
The dry portion of this sludge contained 73.5 per cent volatile matter. Bottle 
No. 1 was run as a control; the pH of No. 2 was adjusted by addition of small 
amounts of precipitated calcium carbonate; smaU amounts of acetic acid were 
added daily to No. 3 to keep the pH around 6.0; the sewage applied to No. 4 was 
kept for twenty-four hours with occasional shaking in a bottle containing pre- 
cipitated calcium carbonate. This was to imitate a sewage from a community 
with a very hard water supply. The sewage applied to No. 5 contained the 
equivalent of 1 per cent strong wool-scourings; and No. 6, 1 per cent of strong 
sulphite paper mill waste. Sodium nitrate, equivalent to 2.5 parts in 100,000 of 
nitrogen, was added to the sewage applied to No. 7. One liter of the effluent of 
a sand filter receiving sewage was applied to bottle No. 8 instead of the 200 cubic 



50 P.D. 34. 

centimeters of sewage the others received. The addition of nitrates and sewage 
filter effluent to bottles Nos. 7 and 8 was made to check up some work done at 
Lawrence during 1916 to 1919, inclusive, and described in the reports of those 
years, in which sludge was digested in tanks with the addition of the well nitrified 
effluent of sewage filters. This filter effluent treatment rendered the sludge in- 
offensive in about four weeks. Bottle No. 9 was a duplicate of No. 1 except that 
it was kept at an average temperature of 50° F. 

Gas analyses were made every two weeks and as it was the practice to allow 
about a liter of gas to accumulate in the bottles before wasting any, the analyses 
represented closely the total gas produced in the two weeks preceding these analyses. 
After each analysis all the gas was forced out of the sludge bottles by the addition 
of sewage. It would require too much space to give all the results of each gas 
analysis, hence only the volume of carbon dioxide and methane produced, expressed 
in liters per kilogram of organic matter, is shown in following tables. The per 
cent of carbon dioxide in the gas from each sludge bottle was fairly constant 
during the four months that most of them were operated. So far as we could 
determine there were no progressive stages of digestion similar to those mentioned 
by Fair. The variations in the per cent of methane formed from week to week 
were irregular and apparently of no significance. Fermentation began immedi- 
ately in all of the bottles and the rate of production of total gas is shown in a 
following table in which the dissolved carbon dioxide is calculated and included. 
Frequently this carbon dioxide in solution was as great as that accumulating in 
the gas above the liquid. 

Summary. 

The uncontroUed sludge bottle, the average pH of which was 6.5, produced more 
gas and at a higher rate from the start than did the bottle the pH of which was 
controlled by calcium carbonate and averaged 7.0. The sludge bottle to which 
acetic acid was added, giving an average pH of 6.0, gave the largest volume of gas 
and the largest volume of methane. The sludge bottle receiving the hard sewage 
practically completed fermentation in fourteen weeks, the shortest time of any 
except the sludge bottles receiving nitrates. When the daily evolution of gas 
dropped to around one-half of one per cent of the total volume evolved during the 
period of experiment, fermentation was considered to be complete. As far as 
these particular experiments go, pH control was of no appreciable value in aiding 
digestion. The acetic acid in bottle No. 3 by which pH was lowered was ben- 
eficial rather than otherwise and it is difficult to see why any organic acids resulting 
from the decomposition of sludge should act differently. 

The sludge bottle receiving hard sewage was more efficient in sludge digestion 
and gas production than the sludge bottle to which calcium carbonate was added. 
The sludge bottles receiving nitrates completed fermentation in the shortest time 
and their gases contained a much larger proportion of nitrogen, presumably from 
the nitrates, than did the gas from other sludge bottles. Carbon dioxide was low 
in the gas from these bottles because the base of the nitrates, after their decom- 
position, is left as sodium oxide which combines with the free carbon dioxide. 
Sludge bottle No. 7, which received sodium nitrate, showed the greatest sludge 
destruction and unexpectedly the uncontrolled sludge bottle No. 9, kept at a low 
temperature, had the second greatest; sludge bottle No. 8, which received the 
nitrified sewage filter effluent, had the third greatest; No. 2 showed an apparent 
slight destruction, this being due to the accumulation of the added lime. Sludge 
destruction figures did not follow the volumes of gas produced, hence too much 
weight should not be given them; and this is also true because of the difficulty of 
accurate sampling. There was no "foaming" in any of the sludge bottles. 

It is not beheved of course, merely because the results of these bottle experi- 
ments are opposed to digestion data obtained elsewhere, that these other data are 
incorrect; but they do emphasize the possibility that sludge at different sewage 
disposal plants may not necessarily follow the same course of fermentation and 
digestion, and this of course has been noted. 

Besides these experiments some others may be mentioned briefly : In a bottle 
containing the same amount of sludge and receiving distilled water the pH of 
which was raised to around 7.2 by shaking with calcium carbonate, no fermenta- 



P.D. 34. 51 

tion took place even after six weeks. When sodium nitrate, equivalent to 2 parts 
nitrogen in 100,000, was added to the distilled water, a slight fermentation -- 20 
to 50 cubic centimeters of gas daily — then began but ceased as soon as the addition 
of nitrate was stopped. In a bottle containing ripened sludge from Imhoff tank 
No. 545 at the Station and receiving distilled water instead of sewage for eight 
days, then followed by regular addition of sewage for a month, no fermentation 
occurred. In both of these instances, it would seem as though something in the 
nature of an enzyme had been removed by the water or else the liquid portiori of 
the sludge rich in dissolved organic matter was necessary for bacterial activity. 
It seems hardly possible that all of the bacteria favorable to fermentation could 
have been washed out by the addition of the distilled water. There was some 
sHght bacterial activity as there was always 2.0 or more parts in 100,000 of dis- 
solved carbon dioxide present. This phase of sludge fermentation might well be 
investigated further. 

There is one point about sludge digestion which is frequently mentioned but so 
far as known no explanation has been pubHshed as yet. This is the fact that as 
sludge ripens and digestion progresses, the pH rises and experiments in this lab- 
oratory show that it is due to calcium carbonate released by the destruction of 
the organic matter of the sludge by gasification in much the same way as if the 
sludge were actually burned. The sludge used in these experiments was found 
on ignition to contain 1.26 per cent calcium carbonate and .56 per cent magnesium 
carbonate. The ash was treated with dilute acetic acid to dissolve the carbonates 
and without attacking the silicates, so these values represent the real ash of the 
organic matter and do not include any street washings. The sewage applied to 
the sludge bottles contained calcium, calculated as carbonate, equivalent to 3.98 
parts in 100,000. The effluent from bottle No. 1 contained 9.09 parts calcium 
carbonate and the effluent of bottle No. 9 contained 11.5 parts calcium carbonate. 
These analyses are of average samples representing daily samples for about six 
weeks. As these bottles were operated, part of the calcium carbonate formed was 
washed out in the effluent. In regular Imhoff tanks, where there is less circulation, 
the tendency would be for the calcium carbonate to accumulate and raise the pH. 

Average Results. 
pH and Free CO2 in the Sewage applied to and Effluents from Sludge Digestion Bottles. 



Bottle Numbeb 




pH. 


Free CO2 (Parts in 100,000). 




Applied Sewage. 


Effluent. 


Applied Sewage. 


Effluent. 


1 
2 
3 
i 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 










6.9 
6.8 
6.8 
7.1 
7.0 
6.7 
6.9 
4.7 
6.9 


6.5 
7.0 
6.0 
6.7 
6.7 
6.3 
7.1 
6.6 
6.5 


3.4 

3.4 

2.2 
1.0 
4.8 
3.0 

3.4 


13.3 
8.6 

11.1 
11.2 
15.5 

2.7 
2.7 
13.0 



Methane Production. — Sludge Digestion Bottles. 



At the 
End of — 



I..ITERS OF Methane at 760 Mm. and 0° C. per Kilogram of Organic Matter. 



Uncon- 
trolled 
(Bottle 
No. 1). 



Uncon- 
trolled* 
(Bottle 
No. 9). 





pH 


pH 


Control 


Control 


by 


by CaCOg 


Acetic 


(Bottle 


Acid 


No. 2). 


(Bottle 




No. 3). 



Hard 

Sewage 
(Bottle 
No. 4). 



with 
Wool- 
Scourings 
added 
(Bottle 
No. 5). 



Sewage 
with 

Paper 
MiU 

Waste 
added 

(Bottle 

No. 6). 



Sewage 

with 
Sodium 
Nitrate 
added 
(Bottle 
No. 7). 



Sewage 
Filter 
Effluent 
(Bottle 
No. 8). 



2 weeks 
4 weeks 
6 weeks 
8 weeks 
10 weeks 
12 weeks 
14 weeks 
16 weeks 
18 weeks 
20 weeks 



15.4 


3.8 


9.6 


7.6 


12.0 


5.6 


3.8 


3.1 


44.8 


9.5 


30.0 


29.5 


37.9 


18.2 


15.7 


4.6 


67.0 


10.8 


35.7 


42.9 


73.5 


38.2 


27.7 


6.8 


77.6 


20.2 


36.7 


51.2 


122.9 


56.2 


44.1 


7.7 


98.0 


34.3 


45.5 


60.5 


139.5 


77.2 


59.9 


10.8 


117.6 


48.2 


51.5 


82.5 


147.5 


87.2 


78.4 


13.5 


138.3 


.59.9 


.54,5 


113.8 


153.3 


95.5 


105.7 


14.1 


153.2 


82.5 


59.1 


148.4 


- 


103.8 


126.7 


— 


160.9 


- 


66.8 


192.6 


— 


114.9 


152.9 


— 


170.1 


- 


79.2 


235.5 


- 


- 


- 


- 



9.2 
14.5 
18.2 
19.6 



■ Kept at 50° F. 



52 



P.D. 34. 







Carbon Dioxide Production. — Sludge Digestion Bottles. 




LiTEKS OF Cabbon Dioxide AT 760 Mm. and 0° C. per Kilogram of 




Organic Matter. 


At the 




End of — 


Uncontrolled 


Hard Sewage 


Sewage with Wool- 
Scourings added 


Sewage with 
Mill Waste added 




(Bottle No. 1). 


(Bottle No. 4). 


(Bpttle No. 5). 


(Bottle No. 6). 


2 weeks . 


4.6 


4.8 


2.9 


2.4 


4 weeks . 






12.4 


13.5 


10.6 


10.6 


6 weeks . 






20.2 


22.5 


18.1 


18.6 


8 weeks . 






26.6 


42.1 


24.4 


25.0 


10 weeks . 






32.9 


47.4 


30.3 


31.2 


12 weeks . 






37.9 


50.7 


35.2 


40.8 


14 weeks . 






43.6 


53.8 


37.2 


48.6 


16 weeks . 






48.7 


— 


42.4 


56.1 


18 weeks . 






53.7 


- 


48.2 


68.4 


20 weeks . 






58.6 


- 


- 


- 



Total Gas Production. — Sludge Digestion Bottles. 







Cubic Centimeters of 


Total Gas at 760 Mm. and 0° 


C. 












pH 




Sewage 


Sewage 


Sewage 










^PH , 


Control 


Hard 


with 


Paper 


with 


Sewage 




trolled 


trolled* 


Control 


.^y. 




Wool- 


MiU 


Sodium 


Filter 




(Bottle 


(Bottle 


by CaCOg 


Acetic 


(Bottle 


Scourings 


Waste 


Nitrate 


Effluent 




No. 1). 


No 9) 


(Bottle 


Acid 


No. 4). 


added 




added 


(Bottle 






No. 2). 


(Bottle 


(Bottle 


(Bottle 
No. 6). 


(Bottle 


No. 8). 










No. 3). 




No. 5). 


No. 7). 




2 weeks 


1,051 


542 


1,095 


1,006 


968 


439 


374 


756 


750 


4 weeks 


2,842 


1,329 


2,746 


2,716 


2,720 


1,524 


1,476 


2,319 


1,926 


6 weeks 


4,568 


1,524 


2,885 


4,148 


5,373 


2,920 


2,750 


3,146 


3,150 


8 weeks 


5,804 


2,157 


3,483 


4,992 


8,745 


4,423 


3,900 


3,886 


4,186 


10 weeks 


7,091 


3,401 


4,705 


5,973 


10,037 


5,810 


5,167 


4,234 


5,672 


12 weeks 


8,302 


4,588 


6,277 


7,376 


10,737 


7,135 


7,435 


4,504 


— 


14 weeks 


9,647 


5,736 


7,573 


9,791 


11,475 


7,751 


9,384 


5,114 


— 


16 weeks 


10,740 


7,451 


9,228 


12,401 


— 


8,393 


10,876 


— 


— 


18 weeks 


11,462 


— 


10,508 


15,670 


— 


9,373 


12,880 


— 


— 


20 weeks 


12,540 


- 


12,184 


18,928 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 



* Kept at 50° F. 

Imhoff Tanks. 
During 1926 six tanks of the Imhoff type were put in operation and the opera- 
tion of these tanks was continued during 1927. Two of these, Nos, 544 and 545, 
are constructed of concrete, 20 feet deep, with setthng compartments 7 feet 4 
inches long and with gas vents one foot square at each end of these compartments. 
These settUng compartments have a 45° slope towards the center. The settling 
compartment of No. 544 has a capacity of 275 gallons and the digestion chamber 
of 955 gallons, while in No. 545 the conditions are reversed, the settUng compart- 
ment holding 715 gallons and the digestion chamber 357 gallons. During 1927 
the volume of sewage passed through each tank averaged 1,175 gallons daily, this 
giving a theoretical retention of 1.5 hours in Tank No. 544 and 3.75 hours in 
Tank No. 545. In each tank settleable solids have been removed from this sewage 
and accumulated in the digestion chamber at the rate of 1,007 pounds per million 
gallons of dry matter in Tank No. 544 and 885 pounds in Tank No. 545. The 
eflBuents from these two tanks are pumped to a storage tank for distribution to 
the various filters and 120 pounds of dry matter per million gallons were deposited 
in this storage tank during the year. Fermentation began in each tank about 
six weeks after they were put in operation in 1926. After three months the sludge 
in both tanks was practically odorless and has practically remained in this condition. 
The dry suspended matter in the digested sludge as drawn from the tanks has 
averaged about 8 per cent. Averages of these sludges and of four analyses of gases 
collected from April to June are shown in the following table : 



Sludge from — 


Nitrogen. 
(Per Cent.) 


Fats. 
(Per Cent.) 


Loss on Ignition. 
(Per Cent.) 


Tank No. 544 . 
Tank No. 545 . 


3.18 
3.22 


11.8 
13.8 


58.1 

57.8 


Gas from — 


Carbon Dioxide. 
(Per Cent.) 


Methane. 
(Per Cent.) 


Nitrogen. 
(Per Cent.) 


Tank No. 544 . 
Tank No. 545 . 


15.3 
10.7 


35.7 
41.0 


49.0 
58.3 



P.D. 34. 53 

Both tanks have been operated without any considerable foaming although 
considerable scum has accumulated in the gas vents and occasionally a small 
amount of floating matter in the settling compartments. The average tempera- 
ture of the appUed sewage has been 59° F., and that accumulated in the bottom 
of the tanks 52° F. Portions of sludge have been drawn weekly and pH, alka- 
linity to methyl orange and free ammonia, determined. These with similar deter- 
minations from other tanks are presented in the following table: 



Sludge from Imhoff Tanks Nos. 544, 51^, 546, 547, 548 and 549. 



Imhoff Tank 

Number. 


Free Ammonia. 


Alkalinity to 
Methyl Orange. 


Carbon 
Dioxide. 


pH. 


[Parts in 100,000.] 




544 ... . 

545 . 

546 . 

547 ... . 

548 ... . 

549 ... . 


15.7 
17.6 
16.3 
44.3 
25.5 
32.5 


82.0 
90.0 
130.0 
325.0 
190.0 
211.0 


15.0 
9.2 
13.5 

16.0 


7.1 
7.1 
7.0 

7.2 
6.6 
6.8 



Four more so-called Imhoff tanks, Nos. 546 to 549, inclusive, have been operated 
since July, 1926. These are of galvanized iron, 14 feet deep and 20 inches in 
diameter. Forty-five degree cones with two 4-inch gas vents divide the tank into 
settling and digestion compartments of equal size. From October, 1926, to June, 
1927, the pH of the sludge of No. 547 was maintained at from 7.0 to 7.3 by the 
addition of fine calcium carbonate, and the pH of No. 548 was kept around 6.0 by 
the addition of sulphuric acid and later of acetic acid. As the pH control was 
apparently of no value in starting fermentation, it was temporarily abandoned. 
Tank No. 546 was heated from December to May, maintaining an average tem- 
perature of 70° F. The average temperature of this tank for the year was 66° F. 
and of the other three, 58° F. One gallon of sludge from the Station sewage 
settling tank was applied daily to the first three tanks and two gallons to No. 549. 
Up to May, 1927, sewage was passed through the settling compartments at a rate 
to give two days' settling. During May and June, the settling was twenty-four 
hours and since then it has been eighteen hours. During the greater part of the 
year, sewage was applied through the gas vents to create a better circulation 
between the two compartments. For several months the sewage applied to No. 
549 was applied through a pipe reaching below the surface of the sludge. On ten 
different occasions, five gallons of sludge were drawn from the bottom of each tank 
and poured into the top of the tank. The purpose of this was to wash out any 
products of bacterial growth which might inhibit fermentation. In March, most 
of the sludge from No. 549 was drawn off and replaced by stable sludge from Imhoff 
Tank No. 545. From May to August, six applications, or a total of 1,450 grams, 
of sodium nitrate were made to each tank. This started a slight fermentation and 
gave improvement in the sludges which, however, was only temporary. 

In spite of all these changes the sludge in these tanks had not ripened and was 
not fermenting at the end of the year. This does not appear to have been due to 
low temperature, as one tank was heated, or to lack of circulation. In fact, there 
is no apparent reason for the poor results, especially in the light of the good results 
given by Tanks Nos. 544 and 545, unless the small size of these tanks tends to 
prevent any movement of the sludge and consequent mixing with the newly added 
sludge. During a period of slight fermentation, the upper sludge appeared to be 
in better condition than that at the bottom. Tank No. 546 received no sludge for 
three months and Tank No. 549 received twice the sludge the others did, so it does 
not seem to be a question of the proportion of sludge added, and the pH apparently 
was not an important factor. 



54 P.D. 34. 

Average Analyses. 

Sewage applied to and Effluents from Imhoff Tanks Nos. 544, 545, 546, 547, 548 

and 549. 
Applied Sewage. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



Ammonia. 


Kjeldahl Nitrogen. 


Chlorine. 


Oxygen 
consumed. 






ALBTTMINOID. 


Bacteria 
per Cubic 


Free. 


Total. 


In Solution. 


Total. 


In Solution. 


Centimeter. 



4.12 
4.20 
4.36 
3.77 
4.41 



4.25 



.45 1.34 .83 9.3 

Effluent from Tank No. 544- 

.49 1.08 .83 8.8 

Effluent from Tank No. 545. 

.44 1.03 .74 9.9 

Applied Seivage. 

.51 1.52 .92 6.4 

Effluent from Tank No. 546. 

.23 0.87 .40 7.3 

Effluent from Tank No. 547. 

.27 0.83 .46 7.2 

Effluent from Tank No. 548. 

.25 1.15 .42 7.2 

Effluent from Tank No. 549. 

.25 0.79 .44 7.1 



6.37 



5.45 



3.56 



1,064,000 

2,193,000 

2,162,000 

1,064,000 

610,000 

784,000 

621,000 

557,000 



Average Solids. 
Sewage applied to and Effluents from Imhoff Tanks Nos. 544, 545, 546, 547, 548 

and 549. 
Applied Sewage. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



Unfiltebed. 


Filtered. 


In Su8pen8ion. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 



73.6 


39.6 


67.6 


26.5 


54.9 


24.9 


63.1 


33.9 


58.5 


26.2 


61.3 


27.0 


69.7 


30.5 


51.5 


22.8 



24.3 



24.6 



30.0 



29.2 



32.3 



34.3 



39.2 



Effluent from Tank No. 544' 

45.7 20.3 25.4 

Effluent from Tank No. 545. 

40.9 19.7 21.2 

Applied Sewage. 

44.2 23.3 20.9 

Effluent from Filter No. 546. 

41.7 16.1 25.6 

Effluent from Filter No. 547. 

43.6 17.7 25.9 

Effluent from Filter No. 548. 

43.5 16.7 26.8 

Effluent from Filter No. 549. 

40.4 16.8 23.6 



11.9 



14.0 



18.9 



16.8 



17.7 



26.2 



15.3 


9.4 


6.2 


5.7 


5.2 


8.8 


10.6 


8.3 


10.1 


6.7 



Operation of Household Septic Tanks. 
Two small septic tanks of the household type have been operated at the Station 
since June, 1920. These tanks are of concrete construction and are designated as 
Nos. 507 and 508. The first tank is 4 feet long, 2 feet wide and 40 inches deep. 



P.D. 34. 55 

with a sloping bottom and a capacity of 185 gallons; the second is constructed as 
the first but consists of two compartments and has a total capacity of 370 gallons. 
Sewage enters each tank through trapped inlets and discharges through a pipe 
reaching fifteen inches below the surface of the sewage in the tank. A baffle is 
placed one-third of the distance from the inlet to the outlet and reaches to within 
eight inches of the bottom of the tank. A trapped outlet is provided for the escape 
of gas, and air is carefully excluded. The first tank receives fresh household 
sewage and the second, Lawrence sewage, — a comparatively stale sewage. Both 
tanks are so operated that theoretically the sewage is held within each for two 
daj's. During almost the entire period of operation the effluents from both tanks 
have been remarkably clear and comparatively odorless, although a slight hydrogen 
sulphide odor has been noted in these effluents occasionally. Both tanks have 
been opened for observation and sludge measurements five times since 1920 and 
results in regard to this have been given in previous reports. When opened in 
August, 1927, it was found that sludge had so accumulated that nearly two-thirds 
of each tank was filled with sludge, which of course lessened materially the period 
of detention of sewage within the tank. The sludge so accumulated resembled 
well digested Imhoff tank sludge and was practically odorless. All of this sludge, 
with the exception of six inches in depth, was removed and the tanks again put in 
operation. It was determined that during the seven years of their operation 59 
per cent of the total sludge, so called, and 73 per cent of the organic matter of this 
sludge entering Tank No. 507 had been destroyed or disappeared. The figures 
for Tank No. 508 were 53 per cent and 77 per cent, respectively. The sludge 
removed from Tank No. 507 in August, 1927, contained 2.09 per cent nitrogen, 
12.2 per cent fats, and its loss on ignition was 40.8 per cent. The sludge from Tank 
No. 508 contained 2.15 per cent nitrogen, 13.0 per cent fats, and its loss on ignition 
was 30.2 per cent. 

Average Analyses. 





Fresh Sewage applied to Closed Septic 

[Parts in 100,000 ] 


Tank No. 


507. 




Ammonia. 


KjELDAHi, Nitrogen. 


Chlorine. 


Oxygen 
Consumed. 






ALBUMINOID. 


Bacteria 
per Cubic 


Free. 


Total. 


In Solution. 


Total. 


In Solution. 


Centimeter. 



4.94 
5.00 
3.83 

3.20 



.50 



.54 1.68 .98 6.9 5.21 

Effluent from Closed Septic Tank No. 507. 

.33 0.94 .58 6.1 3.17 



Regular Sewage applied to Closed Septic Tank No. 508. 

.87 .52 1.50 .97 8.6 6.09 

Effluent from Closed Septic Tank No. 508. 

.33 .21 0.59 .40 6.5 3.22 



2,720.000 
810,000 

2,200,000 
900.000 



72.9 
43.7 
69.1 



Average Solids. 
Fresh Sewage applied to Closed Septic Tank No. 507. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



Unfiltered. 


Filtered. 


In Suspension. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 



22.5 



28.8 



Effluent from Closed Septic Tank No. 507. 

23.5 34.2 13.6 20.6 9.5 



20.2 



6.6 



Regular Sewage applied to Closed Septic Tank No. 508. 

34.3 34.8 46.8 21.1 25.7 22.3 13.2 



Effluent from Closed Septic Tank No. 508. 

24.6 37.5 15.5 22.0 7.5 



4.9 



56 



P.D. 34. 



Purification of Sewage by Aeration. 
Activated Sludge Process. 



Experiments on the aeration of sewage have been carried on at the Experiment 
Station continuously since 1912 and the results have been published in the annual 
reports of the Department. Activated sludge Tank No. 485, started in 1917, is 
stiU in operation. It consists of three compartments 75 inches deep, each holding 
230 gallons. The overflow from the last one passes through two settling tanks of 
600 gallons' and 160 gallons' capacity, allowing about seven hours' sedimentation, 
and the settled sludge is pumped back to the first compartment practically every 
hour. The tank is operated at the rate of 7,500,000 gallons per acre daily and this 
volume could undoubtedly be doubled in a tank of twice the depth of Tank No. 485 
and with as good results and the use of no greater volume of air. As is the usual 
custom, about 20 per cent by volume of sludge is retained in Tank No. 485, the 
surplus being pumped to waste from time to time. During the year this surplus 
was at the rate of 1,000 pounds dry sludge per million gallons of sewage treated. 
The sewage applied to this tank was first passed through Imhoff tanks Nos. 544 
and 545 and the main supply tank of the Station. By this preliminary treatment 
1,127 pounds of dry sludge per miUion gallons were removed, or a total removal 
of sludge by the complete process of 2,127 pounds per million gallons. Filtros 
plates are used as air diffusers. The activated sludge examined during the year 
contained 6.0 per cent of nitrogen and 6.6 per cent of fats. The effluent has been 
clear and stable, and nitrification has been fairly good. 



Average Analyses. 
Sewage applied to Activated Sludge Tank No. 485. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



•M'PEAKANCE. 


Ammonia. 


KjELDAHL 


o 
2 
O 


NiTBOGEN 


1 

o 


.i 




o 
o 
O 


6 


ALBt'MINOID. 


Nitrogen. 


AS 


16 




1 


a 


"3 
o 


m 
a 


1 


-2 


o3 o t.' 

Ill 
ffl 


- 


4.11 


.74 .44 


1.26 .75 8.2 


4.50 


1,910,000 


0.8 .67 


2.22 


Effluent from 

.25 .17 


Activated Sludge Tank No. IfSd. 

0.46 .32 8.4 .40 .0281 


1.44 


360,000 



Average Solids. 
Sewage applied to Activated Sludge Tank No. 485. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



Unfiltered. i 


Filtered. 


In Suspension. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 



57.3 



39.1 



26.5 



41.9 



16.9 



25.0 



15.4 



9.6 



Effluent from Activated Sludge Tank No. 485. 

26.4 35.7 10.3 25.4 3.4 



1.0 



Sand, Tricexing and Contact Filters. 
During the year three sand filters, eight trickling filters and one contact filter 
were in operation. Two of the sand filters have now been receiving sewage for 
forty years and one for thirty-seven years. One trickling filter has been in opera- 
tion twenty-eight years (No. 135) and the remainder for approximately fourteen 
years, and the contact filter for twenty-six years. Statements in regard to the 
operation of these filters have been given in many reports. They are now operated 
to show factors in regard to period of operation with minimum attention, rates of 
operation that can be continued year after year without clogging, comparative 



P.D. 34. 57 

rates of each class, comparative purification and, in the case of the trickling filters, 
results from different depths of filtering material. The average analyses for the 
year follow : 

Average Analyses. 
Effluent from Filter No. 1. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



Temperature 
(Degrees F.). 


Ammonia. 


Chlorine. 


Nitrogen as — 


Oxygen 

con- 
sumed. 


Alka- 
linity. 


Bacteria 


Applied. 


Effluent. 


Free. 


Albumi- 
noid. 


Nitrates. 


Nitrites. 


per Cubic 

Centimeter. 



54 



.5042 
.0182 
.4167 



7.3 



3.17 



.0013 



Effluent from Filter No. U. 

.0184 6.7 2.47 .0004 

Effluent from Filter No. 9 A. 

.0414 6.2 2.73 .0002 



.43 


—3.4 


9,400 


.27 


—1.8 


950 


.44 


—1.8 


10,200 



Average Analyses. 
Effluents from Trickling Filters Nos. 135, 432, 4S3, 4S4, 4S5, 473, 474 and 475. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





Quantity 
Applied. — 


Ammonia. 


^g 

X. M 

A 2 


i 


Nitrogen 


si 




Filter 




.rxT/ATT^ 




Bacteria 


Number. 


Gallons 
per Acre 


Free. 






Sg 


3 






X Q 


per Cubic 








Centimeter. 




Daily. 




Total. 


In Sol. 




O 






oo 




135 


1,410,000 


2.03 


.49 


.27 


0.84 


8.1 


1.70 


.0222 


2.88 


239,000 


452 


749,000 


2.63 


.61 


.31 


1.05 


8.2 


1.36 


.1515 


3.66 


610,000 


453 


468,000 


3.14 


.54 


.33 


0.96 


8.1 


1.19 


.0493 


3.08 


781,000 


454 


1,680,000 


2.71 


.51 


.31 


0.94 


8.2 


1.57 


.1342 


2.99 


1,020,000 


455 


3,600,000 


2.16 


.46 


.25 


0.78 


8.1 


1.60 


.0448 


3.21 


920,000 


473 


467,000 


2.95 


.53 


.30 


0.92 


8.3 


1.21 


.0933 


3.02 


1,030,000 


474 


1,400,000 


3.05 


.54 


.27 


0.97 


8.2 


0.73 


.0910 


2.85 


640,000 


475 


3,280,000 


2.45 


.55 


.27 


0.96 


8.4 


1.57 


.0522 


3.70 


580,000 



Average Solids. 
Effluents from Trickling Filters Nos. 135, 452, 453, 454, 455, 473, 474 and 475. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 





Unfiltered. 


Filtered. 


In Suspension. 


Filter 

Number. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


135 
452 
453 
454 
455 
473 
474 
475 


62.0 
60.2 
.56.2 
59.7 
56.8 
55.3 
53.3 
64.0 


28.9 
26.8 
24.8 
26.2 
27.3 
23.6 
21.7 
30.4 


33.1 
33.4 
31.4 
33.5 
29.5 
31.7 
31.6 
33.6 


50.2 
43.6 
44.0 
48.9 
45.6 
44.0 
38.6 
47.0 


22.9 
18.0 
■19.0 
20.3 
20.1 
18.5 
14.5 
21.1 


27.3 
25.6 
25.0 
26.6 
25.5 
25.5 
24.1 
25.9 


11.8 
16.6 
12.2 
12.8 
11.2 
11.3 
14.7 
17.0 


6.0 
8.8 
5.8 
5.9 
7.2 
5.1 
7.2 
9.3 


5.8 
7.8 
6.4 
6.9 
4.0 
6.2 
7.5 
7.7 



Average Analyses. 
Effluent from Contact Filter No. 175. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



Quantity 


Ammonia. 


Kjeldahl 
Nitrogen. 


Chlorine. 


• Nitrogen 


Oxygen 

Con- 
sumed. 




Applied. — 
Gallons 


Free. 


albuminoid. 


as — 


Bacteria 
per Cubic 


per Acre 
Daily. 


Total. 


In Sol. 


Nitrates. 


Nitrites. 


Centi- 
meter. 


308,000 


1.32 


.35 


.22 


.62 


8.0 


1.27 


.7015 


2.36 


124,000 



58 



P.D. 34. 



Average Solids. 
Effluent from Contact Filter No. 175. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 



Unfilteked. 


Filtered. 1 


In StrsPENsiON. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. 


Loss on 
Ignition. 


Fixed. 


Total. Losson pi^ed. 
Ignition. 


47.9 


19.2 


28.7 


42,0 
42. 


16.5 


25.5 


1 
5.9 2.7 


3.2 



Filtration of Water. 

During the year nine sand filters, loaded or impregnated with ferric or aluminum 
hydroxide, were operated. Filters of this type, originating at the Lawrence Exper- 
iment Station, have been operated continuously since 1917 and have been fully 
described in previous reports. Five of these filters, which have been operated a 
number of years, gave the usual satisfactory results during the year and data in 
regard to them are given in the following tables. 

A filter (No. 560), 3 inches in diameter and containing 3 feet in depth of sand 
of an effective size of 0.25 millimeter and impregnated with 100 tons per acre of 
ferric sulphate as hydroxide, was operated for ten weeks at a rate of 5 milhon 
gallons per acre daily with colored water from deep peat Tank No. 551. The 
average color of the applied water was 0.65 and of the effluent 0.16. 

Three more filters were operated for six months to test the feasibility of con- 
centrating Jihe ferric hydroxide in 2 feet in depth of sand instead of the usual 4 
feet. These filters contained 100, 200 and 300 tons per acre, respectively, of ferric 
sulphate precipitated as hydroxide. The results showed that this concentration 
was not practical as the filters needed to be regenerated Avith sodium hydroxide 
much more frequently than the deeper filters with a smaller amount of ferric hy- 
droxide per foot in depth of filter, and the color removal also was less satisfactory. 

Filters, such as described above, have two great advantages over mechanical 
filters used for color removal from water, — (1) the use of a minimum amount of 
chemical and (2) no attention is required except during the period of regeneration. 



Average Chemical Analyses. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 























Color. 






Nitrogen 

AS 


Oxygen 
Con- 
sumed. 


Iron. 


Alka- 
linity. 




Filter 


Free. 


ALBUMINOID. 


Carbon 


Number. 










Dioxide. 








Total. 


In Sol. 


Nitrates. 


Nitrites. 










River 






















Water 


.51 


.0166 


.0195 


.0133 


.023 


.0009 


.51 


.0718 


0.7 


0.4 


488 


.15 


.0241 


.0110 


_ 


.021 


.0004 


.26 


.0208 


1.3 


0.1 


494 


.17 


.0246 


.0111 


- 


.021 


.0001 


.27 


.0245 


1.3 


0.2 


496 


.12 


.0213 


.0066 


- 


.03^ 


.0002 


.17 


.0260 


1.0 


0.2 


535 


.15 


.0162 


.0076 


- 


.021 


.0003 


.25 


.0263 


1.2 


0.2 


536 


.14 


.0225 


.0095 


~ 


.029 


.0001 


.24 


.0298 


1.2 


0.2 



Constructional Data on Color Removal Filters. 







Ferric 


Ferric Hydroxide 








Date 


or Aluminum 


or Aluminum 


Depth of 


Size 




Started. 


Sulphate 


Hydroxide 


Sand. 


of Sand. 






per Acre. 

(Tons.) 


per Acre. 
(Tons.) 


(Feet.) 


(Millimeter.) 


488 


May 14, 1917 


64.5 


34.5 


4 


.25 


494 


June 7, 1918 


80.5* 


20.2 


4 


.25 


496 


Sept. 19, 1918 


27.0 


14.4 


4 


.25 


635 


Nov. 24, 1923 


80.4 


43.0 


4 


.25 


,536 


,Ian. 25, 1924 


81. 


43.3 


4 


.25 



♦Aluminum Sulphate. 



P.D. 34. 

Data on Operation of Color Removal Filters since Beginning of Operation. 



59 



Filter 


Average Grains per Gallon 
OF Water Filtered. 


Number of 

Times Treated 

with NaOH 


Average 
Number 
of Days 
between 
Treatments. 


Average 


Number. 


Caustic 
Soda. 


Ferric or 
Aluminum 
Sulphati\ 


Color. 


River 
Water 

488 

494 

496 

535 

536 


.41 
.41 
.13 
.43 
.27 


.056 
.079 
.026 
.270 
.190 


57 
54 
14 
13 
13 


54 
53 
201 
64 
91 


.40 
.14 
.16 
.08 
.12 
.13 



Mechanical Filtration of Water. 
During the year Filter No. 520, a complete filter of the mechanical type, was 
operated at the comparatively low rate of 61 million gallons per acre daily. The 
physical characteristics of the effluent were satisfactory but its B. coli content was 
greater than the U. S. Treasury standard of two in one hundred cubic centimeters 
in about 22 per cent of all samples, averaging four for the year. This was, how- 
ever, a reduction of the B. coli content of the river water applied of 99.89 per cent. 
The effluent, moreover, did not satisfy the proposed modification of the U. S. 
Treasury standard, which calls for an average of not more than one B. coli in one 
hundred cubic centimeters but allows 5 per cent of the samples tested to contain 
six B. coli in one hundred cubic centimeters. In every sample tested where the 
present limit of two B. coli in one hundred cubic centimeters was exceeded, more 
than six B. coli in one hundred cubic centimeters were found. These results con- 
firm previous conclusions that the highly polluted Merrimack River water can not 
be satisfactorily purified by mechanical filtration alone. 



Average Bacterial Analyses. 





Bacteria per Cubic Centimeter. 


Per Cent of Bacteria Removed. 




Filter 




24 HRS. — 37° C. 




24 HRS. — 37° C. 


B. Coli 
in 


Number. 


4 Days 






4 Days 






100 cc. 




20° C. 


Total. 


Red. 


20° C. 


Total. 


Red. 




River 
















Water 


3,300 


250 


61 


- 


— 


- 


3,500 


488 


640 


29 


8 


80.6 


88.4 


86.9 


150 


494 


660 


49 


11 


80.0 


80.4 


82.0 


248 


496 


180 


28 


3 


94.5 


88.8 


95.1 


16 


535 


87 


5 


1 


97.4 


98.0 


98.4 


10 


536 


330 


14 


4 


90.0 


94.4 


93.5 


119 



Average Bacterial Analyses. 
Merrimack River Water applied to Mechanical Filter No. 620. 



Bacteria per Cubic Centimeter. 


Per Cent of Bacteria Removed. 






24 HRS. — 37° C. 


4 Days 
20° C. 


24 HRS. — 37° C. 


B. Coli 
in 


4 Days 
20° C. 


Total. 


Red. 


Total. 


Red. 


100 cc. 



3,300 



3,500 



Water after Coagulation and Sedimentation applied to Mechanical Filter No. 520. 

360 21 4 _ _ _ 64 

Effluent from Mechanical Filter No. 520. 

22 1 99.3 99.6 100 4 



60 



P.D. 34. 



Laweence City Filters. 



As usual this report presents data in regard to the operation during the past 
year of the slow sand filters for the purification of the water supply of Lawrence. 
Lawrence has taken its water supply from the Merrimack River since 1875 and 
since 1893 it has been filtered. For the past ten years, moreover, chlorine has 
been added as an additional factor of safety. Three filters are in use. The oldest, 
2.2 acres in area, is divided into three sections, one of which is covered; the second, 
0.75 of an acre in area was built in 1907 and is also covered; the third filter, covered 
also, was completed early in 1926 and is 0.75 of an acre in area. The average 
volume of water filtered daily during 1927 was 5,092,313 gallons and liquid chlorine 
was applied at the pump-well at the average rate of 1.23 parts per million. 

The following tables give bacterial and chemical analyses of the applied water, 
the eflSuents from the different filters and the mixed effluents as pumped to the 
distributing reservoir in the city after chlorine treatment. A study of the bacterial 
results shows that chlorine treatment of the effluents of these filters receiving one 
of the most polluted waters used as a source of water supply in this country, is 
absolutely necessary for the production of a safe supply. 



Average Bacterial Analyses. 
Merrimack River. — Intake of the Lawrence City Filter. 



Bacteria pek Cubic 
Centimeteh. 


Per Cent of Bacteria 
Removed. 


Per Cent of 
B 


Samples Cont.uning 

COLI. 




24 HKS. — 37° C. 


4 Days 
20° C. 


24 HHS. — 37° C. 


.001 
cc. 


.01 
cc. 


0.1 

cc. 


1.0 
cc. 


10 
cc. 


4 Days 
20° C. 


Total. 


Red. 


Total. 


Red. 



B. CoU 

in 

100 cc. 



4,700 



180 



40 



100 



100 



4,500 



239 



Effluent from Lawrence City Filter (Old Filter, East Open Section). 

6 1 95.0 96.7 98.1 - - - 4 32 



207 



Effluent from Lawrence City Filter {Old Filter, East Covered Section). 

5 1 95.6 97.3 98.1 - - 10 64 



283 



Effluent from Lawrence City Filter {Old Filter, West Open Section). 

6 1 94.0 96.7 98.1 - - 11 51 



Effluent from Lawrence City Filter {New Filter). 

2 99.5 98.9 100.0 - - 



415 



Effluent from Lawrence City Filter {North Filter) . 

2 91.0 95.0 96.4 - - 1 11 



53 



24 



Mixed Effluents as pumped to the Distributing Reservoir after Chlorine Treatment. 



100.0 



245 



Water from the Outlet of the Distributing Reservoir. 

94.8 98.7 100.0 --00 



Water from a Tap at Lawrence City Hall. 

98.0 97.8 100.0 - - 

Water from a Tap at the Lawrence Experiment Station. 

98.5 96.1 100.0 - - 



Water from a Tap on the High Service System. 

99.6 98.3 100.0 --00 



P.D. 34. 



61 



Average Chemical Analyses. 
Merrimack River. — Intake of the Lawrence City Filter. 













[Parts in 100,000.] 












^ 


Appearance. 




Ammonia. 




Nitrogen as — 








£fe 


















Ss 








ALBUMINOID. 






a 


2| 

as 


1 




6 




a 


1 


1 


li 


d 
o 


1 


1 


t 
a 


H 


H 


O 


fe 


H 


^ 


z, 


z 


o 


- 


m 



.0172 



.0228 



.0174 



.39 



.019 



.0005 



0.1- 



0.0 



0.0 



0.0 



0.0 



0.0 



Effluent from Lawrence City Filter {Old East Filter). 

.43 .0167 .0099 - .48 .031 .0002 .44 

Effluent from Lawrence City Filter {New West Filter). 

.31 .0067 .0099 - .55 .030 .0002 .43 

Effluent from Lawrence City Filter {New North Filter). 

.35 .0083 .0122 - .45 .026 .0001 .47 

Water from the Outlet of the Distributing Reservoir. 

.40 .0094 .0102 - .57 .028 .0002 .43 



Water from a Tap at Lawrence City Hall. 

.40 .0060 .0102 - .58 .029 .0002 



.40 



Water from a Tap at the Lawrence Experiment Station. 

.39 .0051 .0097 - .58 .028 .0002 .40 



.0600 



.1167 2.2 



.0492 



.0300 



.0772 



.0785 



.0807 



2.1 



2.1 



Color Studies. 

During 1926 a study was begun in regard to the origin and characteristics of 
color in water and color-yielding peat, soils and other materials. This study was 
divided into several lines of research work and its progress during 1926 was briefly 
summarized on pages 44 to 48, inclusive, of the report of the Department for that 
year. As stated in that report, these studies were designed to show (1) the actual 
amount of color yielded by certain soils, peats, etc., under different conditions, 
both aerobic and anaerobic; (2) the relation of this color to the organic matter in 
each material; (3) the rapidity with which each would yield color; (4) the difference 
in rapidity under different conditions, such as passage of water through or simply 
standing in and over these materials; (5) the effect of depth of water over muck, 
peat, etc.; (6) the acidity or alkalinity factor by pH determinations; (7) the action 
of light, etc., and many other questions. 

In the first place, materials from different locations and of the varying and 
characteristic nature of the materials often found at reservoir sites were collected 
for examination and experiment. These materials can be briefly described as 
follows: 

No. 1. 

No. 2. 
matter. 

No. 3. "Old" peat thrown out during the construction of a canal through an 
Essex County swamp. 

No. 4. Peat from the same locaUty but rather "newer" than No. 3. 

No. 5. Peaty material from a salt marsh. 

No. 6. "New" peat from near the surface of a woody swamp containing roots 
and coarse fibrous matter. 

No. 7. Practically the same as No. 3. 

No. 8. Practically the same as No. 4, but both Nos. 7 and 8 from different 
localities. 

The studies with deep tanks described on page 47 of the same report were con- 
tinued with the addition of two other tanks, Nos. 555 and 556, respectively, which 
are less than haK the depth in feet of Nos. 550, 551 and 552 (that is, 8 feet instead 
of 20) but with the same diameter as the other tanks, namely, 20 inches. In the 
bottom of Tank No. 555 was placed one foot in depth of sods and loam from an 



Largely dead grass roots just below the live roots in a meadow. 
Black muck from a similar meadow containing few roots or peaty 



62 P.D. 34. 

uncultivated pasture of thin, gravelly soil, and in Tank No. 556, one foot of ma- 
terial such as leaves, bits of dead wood, pine needles, etc., collected from the upper 
two inches of a wooded area. The loss on ignition of these two materials was 11.6 
per cent and 73.0 per cent, respectively. Hence during 1927 Tank No. 550 con- 
tained in its bottom 23^2 feet in depth of peat No. 6; Tank No. 551, 23^ feet in 
depth of peat No. 3, and Tank No. 552, 2]/2 feet in depth of peat No. 4 over which 
six inches of clean sand had been placed when the tank was first put in operation. 
Tanks Nos. 555 and 556 being as described above. Tanks Nos. 550, 551 and 552 
were placed, as stated in the last report, in a special tank-house open at the top to 
the air and sun during the warm months but covered by an ample skylight during 
the colder weather. The new tanks, Nos. 555 and 556, were placed out of doors 
with about two-thirds of their depth below the surface of the ground. As little 
color was taken from the materials in Tanks Nos. 550, 551 and 552 during 1926, 
an experiment was started with No. 550 by which the temperature of the water 
contained in it was increased to a summer temperature of 73° F. It was apparent, 
as would be expected, that much more color was taken from the water under this 
condition, and it was also apparent that certain of this color extracted from the 
peat was precipitated; in other words, there was a more or less continuous process 
of extraction and precipitation. During this period there was no dissolved oxygen 
in the water of the tank. Very little color was taken from the material in Tank 
No. 551, to which five gallons of Merrimack River water were added daily through 
a pipe reaching nearly to the peat in the bottom of the tank; in fact, during the 
period from July 23 to November 30, 1927, there was a gradual lowering of 
the color of the water in this tank although it was always nearly twice as high as the 
color of the water in Tank No. 552 in which there was a layer of sand above the 
peat. The volume of water added daily was about 1.5 per cent of the capacity of 
the tank, which would mean theoretically over sixty-six days' storage of the water 
over the peat. In Tank No. 552, in which there was a layer of sand above the peat, 
there was little or no increase of color in the water during the year. A following 
table presents the figures in regard to color, dissolved oxygen and temperature of 
the water in these three tanks. 

The most interesting fact in regard to the new shallow tanks, Nos. 555 and 556, 
placed in the ground, is that the color of the water in these two tanks increased 
from 37 in the case of No. 555 to 80, and in No. 556 to 52. The average results of 
color, pH, dissolved oxygen, etc., of the water in these two tanks is given in a 
following table. Perhaps the most interesting fact in regard to the operation of 
all of them is that the water in the shallow tanks became much more highly colored 
in six or seven months than did the water in two years in the tanks two and one- 
half times as deep containing material exceedingly rich in organic matter. The 
maximum temperature in both the deep and shallow tanks was 91° F. during the 
summer months. This maximum temperature was maintained for only a short 
time. 

Experiments with Percolators containing Peat and Other Materials. 

In the last report on pages 45 and 46 a discussion is given in regard to the ex- 
traction of coloring matter from peat, etc., placed in percolators. To the experi- 
ments described in that report two more percolators containing the materials used 
in Tanks Nos. 555 and 556 have been placed in operation. These experiments in 
percolators were begun partly with the idea of obtaining a measure of the amount 
of color that would be extracted under natural conditions from peat areas flooded 
for storage reservoirs and partly for other laboratory purposes. 

Briefly, the method of operation consisted of placing known amounts of the 
various materials in the bottom of percolators having a capacity of two quarts, 
with mineral wool and sand as underdrains below each material and through them 
100 cubic centimeters of distilled water was passed daily. In certain percolators, 
Nos. 1, 2, 3, etc., the water was allowed to pass through as rapidly as possible and 
the materials drained. In percolators IF, 2F, 3F, etc., the materials were kept 
covered with water continuously. In the first percolators aerobic conditions pre- 
vailed, while in the second set, anaerobic; that is, no oxygen was present. It 
became evident that while this method allowed a very good estimation of the 



P.D. 34. 63 

amount of color that could be extracted from these materials under study, yet it 
was perhaps too slow for practical purposes, hence extraction with dilute sodium 
hydroxide was tried out. At first five-gram portions of the dry peats and other 
materials were extracted with successive portions of hot 0.5 per cent sodium hy- 
droxide solution and made up to one gallon. This was a quick process, the chief 
time element being that taken in filtration, but it was feared that the treatment 
was too severe to give results at all comparable to those which would be obtained 
under natural conditions of extraction. 

Following this method one was tried in which 15-gram portions of the dry ma- 
terials were mixed with clean sand and 0.1 per cent of sodium hydroxide solution 
passed through at the rate of about a liter a day and by carrying this method on 
until the color extracted in a certain unit volume drops to 10 per cent of the color 
of the first unit volume. The time of this method can be estimated at about ten 
days. Results of the color extracted by the natural percolator methods and by 
the two sodium hydroxide methods are shown in a following table, and it is apparent 
that the extraction with 0.5 per cent hot sodium hydroxide solution gave results 
that are comparable with the slower cold 0.1 per cent sodium hydroxide solution 
and both are sufficiently accurate to distinguish to some extent between different 
types of peat and other materials so far as their color-yielding properties are con- 
cerned. These results are shown in a following table: 





Total Color extracted from Peat 


, Soil, etc., by various Methods. 










Color Extracted 


Color Extracted 


Color Extracted 






Color Extbacted 


BY Percolating 


BY Percolating 


IN Percolator 




oi 


BY .5 Per Cent 


at 70° F. WITH . 1 


AT 70° F. WITH . 1 


Experiments with 






Hot NaOH. 


Per Cent NaOH. 


Per Cent NaOH.* 


Distilled WATER.t 


u 


CALCULATED ON BASIS 


CALCULATED ON BASIS 


CALCULATED ON BASIS 


calculated on basis 


*E 3 


OF 5 GRAMS OF 


OF 5 GRAMS OF 


OF 5 GRAMS OF 


OF 5 GRAMS of 


5jZ 




Organic 




Organic 


Material. 


Organic 


Material. 


Organic 


O 




Matter. 




Matter. 




Matter. 




Matter. 


1 


65.6 


21.0 


32.0 


28.1 


42.8 


25.0 


38.1 


1.03 


1.57 


2 


35.7 


22.0 


61.6 


27.4 


76.8 


25.0 


70.0 


0.44 


1.23 


3 


89.4 


60.0 


67.1 


95.3 


106.6 


77.1 


86.3 


1.22 


1.37 


4 


91.6 


74.0 


80.8 


98.8 


107.8 


91.2 


99.6 


2.24 


2.44 


5 


26.4 


15.0 


56.8 


19.4 


73.5 


19.2 


72.7 


0.50 


1.89 


6 


82.6 


43.0 


52.1 


50.3 


60.9 


42.6 


51.6 


0.62 


0.75 


7 


90.2 


100.0 


110.9 


- 


- 


- 


- 


0.92 


1.02 


8 


83.3 


50.0 


60.0 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1.54 


1.85 


10 


69.3 


_ 


— 


11.7 


16.9 


10.6 


15.3 


- 


- 


11 


11.6 


- 


— 


6.8 


58.6 


6.3 


54.3 


- 


- 


12 


73.0 


- 


- 


35.2 


48.2 


27.1 


37.1 


- 


- 



* Percolating stopped when color falls to 10 per cent of first gallon of extract. 
t Full percolators, 17 months. 



Average Results. 
Color Tank No. 650. 



Color. 


pH. 


Dissolved 

Oxygen. 

(Parts in 100,000.) 


Temperature. 


distance FROM BOTTOM OF TANK. 


(Degrees F.) 


2 ft. 


2.5 ft. 


4 ft. 


6 ft. 


9.5 ft. 


13 ft. 


16.5 ft. 


Top. 


Bottom. 


Top. 


Bottom. 


- 


1.04 


1.16 


1.19 1.19 1.20 6.9 


.00 .00 


70 68 


_ 


0.77 


0.76 


Color Tank No. 551. 

0.74 0.74 0.77 7.0 


.17 .09 


62 59 


_ 


0.44 


0.43 


Color Tank No. 552. 

0.44 0.44 0.44 7.1 


.68 .62 


62 59 


.48 


.48 


0.52 


Color Tank No. 555. 

- - - 7.0 


.53 .37 


62 57 


.37 


.38 


0.41 


Color Tank No. 556. 

- - - 7.1 


.52 .35 


62 57 



64 P.D. 34. 

Substances other than Color extracted from Peat, etc. 

While a study of color was the principal purpose of operating the percolators 
previously described, unexpected features of their operation were the amounts of 
mineral matter extracted from the materials treated and the nitrification occurring 
in the percolators operated intermittently, that is, drained daily. Nitrates as 
high as 0.84 part nitrogen in 100,000 were found in some average samples, and as 
a whole nitrification was as active after seventeen months as it was after the first 
few months. In all of the investigations regarding the value of peat as fertilizer, 
it has been found that the availability of the nitrogen is very low, hence the amount 
of nitrification in these percolators is rather surprising. 

The effluents of the percolators resembled in every way natural, highly colored 
surface waters and the fact that distilled water extracted from the peats, etc., such 
considerable amounts of alkali and mineral matter causing hardness (probably 
mostly calcium and magnesium salts) shows that decaying vegetation may be the 
source of at least part of the mineral matter in surface waters. The material in 
percolator No. 12, which consisted of the smiace layer of leaves, etc., from a wooded 
area, when flooded at the rate of about .6 of an inch in depth with distilled water 
daily, gave for the first six months of operation an average alkalinity to methyl 
orange of 8.8 parts in 100,000 and a hardness of 7.7 parts. The average alkahnity 
of the effluents of all these percolators when the last analyses were made after 
seventeen months' operation was 2.0 parts in 100,000 and the hardness was 3.8 
parts. The significance of the chlorides extracted is not clear. The ash of all 
vegetation contains some chlorides but whether the growing organisms took the 
chlorine from the mineral matter of the earth or from the chlorine in rain water is 
not certain. 

Average Analyses* 
Effluent from Percolators containing Peat, etc. 

[Parts in 100,000.] 







Residue on 
Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


i 
1 

o 


Nitrogen 

AS 


a 

a 

1 

O 


i 


'S 

1 

< 






1 


albuminoid. 






1 


a 
o 

1-4 




m 
a 


1 
g 


i2 


i 

a 
1 


1 


0.50 


11.42 


5.38 


.0177 


.0180 


.0158 


0.14 


.469 


.0017 


0.72 


0.04 


0.5 


4.0 


IF 


3.45 


14.32 


8.44 


.4858 


.0863 


.0668 


0.15 


.038 


.0002 


2.68 


1.22 


4.4 


4.1 


2 


0.12 


5.34 


1.61 


.0128 


.0103 


.0077 


0.11 


.033 


.0022 


0.23 


0.06 


1.2 


2.0 


2F 


3.65 


14.47 


5.35 


.2449 


.0484 


.0373 


0.48 


.019 


.0012 


1.25 


1.42 


4.5 


3.6 


3 


2.09 


10.07 


5.56 


.0194 


.0351 


.0295 


0.10 


.183 


.0027 


1.59 


0.06 


f.4 


3.3 


3F 


3.26 


10.24 


5.02 


.1032 


.0616 


.0498 


0.14 


.018 


.0002 


2.25 


0.49 


2.7 


3.6 


4 


3.00 


13.31 


7.60 


.0288 


.0599 


.0511 


0.17 


.282 


.0010 


2.35 


0.09 


0.9 


4.6 


4F 


6.60 


13.58 


8.10 


.1153 


.0863 


.0757 


0.12 


.016 


.0000 


3.63 


0.41 


2.2 


4.0 


5 


0.20 


69.12 


8.51 


.0173 


.0211 


.0153 


27.90 


.081 


.0019 


0.26 


0.04 


1.0 


6.1 


5F 


4.29 


83.52 


15.29 


.1269 


.1088 


.0790 


34.12 


.011 


.0001 


2.47 


1.29 


6.8 


7.4 


6 


0.46 


13.73 


7.45 


.0058 


.0238 


.0192 


0.18 


.548 


.0027 


0.58 


0.05 


1.5 


5.5 


6F 


1.91 


10.18 


4.87 


.0863 


.0374 


.0321 


0.62 


.018 


.0003 


1.15 


0.29 


3.1 


4.3 


7F 


2.33 


8.99 


4.83 


.0243 


.0356 


.0303 


0.15 


.021 


.0005 


1.87 


0.15 


2.0 


3.7 


8F 


3.52 


10.09 


5.53 


.0572 


.0577 


.0455 


0.10 


.009 


.0000 


1.98 


0.32 


2.2 


3.9 


llFt 


4.85 


34.68 


19.85 


.7440 


.2600 


.1570 


0.28 


.016 


.0000 


3.21 


5.40 


6.4 


6.1 


12Ft 


5.10 


29.83 


17.05 


.2964 


.2500 


.1120 


0.20 


.014 


.0000 


6.21 


1.08 


8.8 


7.7 



* Average for 17 months. 
t Average for 6 months. 

Relation between the Extractable Color and the Proportion of Organic Matter in Peat. 
In a previous table are shown the amounts of color extracted from the different 
peats, etc., by different methods, expressed on the basis of a given weight of peat 
and also on the basis of the same weight of organic matter only. An examination 
of this table shows no relation whatever between the per cent of organic matter 
and the amount of color extractable with sodium hydroxide. For example, sample 
No. 11, with 11.6 per cent by weight of organic matter, yielded approximately the 
same amount of color as sample No. 12, with 73 per cent organic matter, when 
the colors are calculated on the basis of a given weight of organic matter. On the 
same basis, sample No. 1, with 65.6 per cent organic matter, yielded only about 



P.D. 34. 65 

half the color that sample No. 2 did with only 35.7 per cent organic matter. Evi- 
dently the amount of color that can be extracted from any peat or soil depends on 
the chemical composition of the substances making up this peat or soil, and this 
can not be determined by any elementary analysis such as has been tried. 

Peat No. 1, which gave a low color extraction with sodium hydroxide, gave a 
comparatively high color in the percolator experiments. This is probably partly 
due to the gradual decaying, during seventeen months, of the grass roots that 
largely composed the sample. Peat No. 6 gave a low color by both methods. 
This material, while new for a peat, was apparently much more stable than No. 1 
and did not decay diuring percolation. Analyses of the extracts from the various 
percolator experiments showed no relation between the color and the albuminoid 
ammonia, oxygen consumed and iron of these materials. No such relation would 
be expected when it is considered that other organic matter besides color is ex- 
tracted and that the nature of this organic matter will vary with every peat. 

Experiments on the Treatment and Purification of Clams by the Use of 

Chlorine. 

Experiments on the purification of clams from Joppa Flats (Newburyport) by 
chlorination were carried on under the Plum Island bridge, so called, from June 27 
to August 17, inclusive, and from November 3 to November 17, inclusive. The 
equipment used consisted of two galvanized iron tanks, 4 feet long, 2 feet wide and 
3 feet deep, and an electrically driven centrifugal pump to supply water from Plum 
Island River. 

The method of operation was as follows : Water from the river was pumped 
to upper Tank No. 1 and sufficient calcium hypochlorite solution added to leave a 
residue in the water of about .5 part free chlorine per million after fifteen minutes. 
In order to accomplish this, generally from 4 to 5 parts free chlorine per million 
were necessary as considerable chlorine was of course consumed by the small 
amount of organic matter in the raw water, especially by the organic naatter in 
suspension in this water. The clams to be treated were placed on a wire rack 
placed eighteen inches from the bottom of Tank No. 2. Usually one bushel of 
clams was treated in each experiment but one experiment was run with two bushels 
and two with one-half "bushel each. After placing the clams on the rack the 
chlorinated water from Tank No. 1 was run into Tank No. 2. If necessary, more 
chlorine was then added to Tank No. 2 in order that there might always_ be a 
residue of .5 part free chlorine per million in the water of this tank fifteen minutes 
after filling. On one or two occasions, determinations of free chlorine in the water 
of this tank were made every half hour for eight hours after filling, and these deter- 
minations showed it was probable that some free chlorine was always present in 
the water of the tank for from four to six hours. 

In the first two runs, or experiments, the water was allowed to stand in Tank 
No. 2 for twenty-four hours before being withdrawn. It was then discovered that 
during the warm months the dissolved oxygen was practically exhausted at the 
end of twenty-four hours and as this dissolved oxygen is necessary for the life of 
the clams, in all subsequent runs the tank was emptied and refilled with chlorinated 
water every twelve hours. It is, of course, impossible to state how much of the 
dissolved oxygen was used by the clams in breathing and how much was used by 
the organic matter expelled from them or how much was expelled from the water 
as its temperature increased while being held in the tank. It was noticeable, how- 
ever, that the water in the tank lost much less oxygen during the colder weather 
of November than during the warmer weather of July and August. That the 
clams expelled considerable organic and mineral matter while under treatment of 
the tank was noted and there was also considerable organic matter in the water 
expelled by them when uncovered, that is, after water was withdrawn from the 
tank. Samples of this expelled water were analyzed chemically and bacterially 
and its organic contents and bacteria were found to be high. In all, eleven experi- 
ments were made during the period from June 27 to August 17, inclusive, and three 
during the period from November 3 to November 17, inclusive. Data in regard 
to these experiments are given in following tables. 



66 P.D. 34. 

In none of this work did we find clams with scores as high as have often been 
dug by us in this area during other years. The B. coU score of the clams dug for 
these experiments and collected from that portion of the flats in which they grow 
abundantly and from which they could probably be taken for purification, varied 
from 37 to 320 as shown by a following table. For one run, however, (No. 9) 
clams were dug only a short distance from the Newburyport sewer outlet and 
these had a score of 950. These latter clams were exceedingly filthy while those 
used in the other runs looked and smelled clean. 

As a following table shows, in all the experiments with the comparatively clean 
clams, the score was reduced to what is considered a satisfactory point in two days' 
treatment and generally in one day or twenty-four hours' treatment. The badly 
polluted clams from near the sewer outlet, however, did not have a satisfactorily 
low score even after three days' treatment and it is probable that all clams in the 
Joppa Flats within approximately one mile of the sewer outlet are too badly pol- 
luted to be bacterially purified by this process unless much more chlorine is used 
than in the experiments so far carried on. Neither is it probable they are fit for 
consumption even if so purified. The physical condition of all the clams treated 
was good after one or two days' treatment and generally after three days' treat- 
ment in the tanks, and free from any odor of chlorine. In warm weather there 
was a gradual deterioration after three days' treatment. The lower the tem- 
perature of the water during the process of chlorination the better the condition 
of the clams and in a large plant the water would undoubtedly remain at a lower 
temperature in summer than in the small experimental tanks used in this work. 



Conclusions. 

The following conclusions can be drawn from this work: (1) The operation of 
this comparatively small apparatus has shown that clams can be satisfactorily 
purified by chlorine treatment for two days, or forty-eight hours, and generally in 
twenty-four hours, and it seems reasonable to believe that similar satisfactory 
results could be obtained in the operation of a large plant. (2) Bacterial reduction 
was as pronounced in the colder weather of November, with temperatures of the 
water averaging 49° F. and falling as low as 33° F., as in the warmer weather of 
July and August with temperatures of the water averaging 70° F. (3) The volume 
of water necessary per bushel of clams treated could not be absolutely determined 
by this experimental work. It was quite large, however, — approximately 300 
gallons per bushel of clams treated. This would mean for the purification of 100 
bushels daily, — approximately 30,000 gallons. The cost of pumping this volume 
of water in work of this sort would be negligible, however. (4) It was found, as 
would be expected, that the dissolved oxygen was the governing factor in the 
volume of water used, and in the experiments carried on water had to be changed 
frequently — at least once in twelve hours — in order that oxygen might always 
be present. On a large scale, aeration of the water in the treatment tank might 
be less expensive than frequent emptying and refilling this tank. This, however, 
is problematical. (5) The cost of chlorine would be exceedingly small — judging 
from the work carried on, only a small fraction of a cent per bushel of clams treated. 
The main cost of operating such a chlorine treatment plant would be in handling 
the clams and for the adequate salary of a chemist or bacteriologist whom it would 
be necessary to have as superintendent of the plant in order that the work might 
be satisfactorily carried on and continual determinations made of the efficiency of 
the treatment. 

At various locations in other States attempts have been made to purify oysters 
by chlorine treatment but with only partial success. This has undoubtedly been 
partly due to the difference in shell characteristics of these two classes of shellfish. 
Oysters in most instances have a large, uneven shell to which much organic matter, 
marine growths, etc., are often firmlj^ attached, hence they can not be well cleaned 
by washing before treatment and much chlorine is consumed by this dirt and 
these growths. Clams, on the other hand, are smooth shelled and easily washed 
clean, making the chlorine more available for bacterial reduction. 



P.D. 34. 

Shellfish Score of Soft-Shell Clams before and after Chlorine Treatment.* 
/line 37 to August 17, Inclusive. 



67 



Run 

NtTMBER. 



Start. 



After 12 
Hour.-^. 



1 
Day. 



3 
Davs. 



4 
Days 



5 
Days. 



6 
Day? 



1 


275 


- 


1«5 


2:i 


46 


- 


2 


185 


- 


- 


23 


- 


23 


3 


50 


— 


— 


- 


37 


3V 


4 


320 


— 


23 


28 


- 


- 


5 


37 


— 


41 


18 


- 


- 


6 


275 


— 


46 


37 


— 


- 


7 


185 


140 


- 


46 


- 


- 


8 


185 


28 


- 


50 


- 


- 


9- 


950 


410 


320 


230 


140 


- 


10: 


50 


- 


- 


50 


- 


- 


11 


185 


- 


28 


14 


- 


- 








November 3 to 17, 


Inclusive. 




12 


275 


_ 


95 


19 


- 


- 


13 


275 


- 


95 


46 


3 


- 


14 


230 


- 


32 


32 


- 


- 



■ All scores are averages of two or more determinations. 

I No chlorine used. 



t Clams from near the sewer outlet. 



Data in Regard to Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen, Chlorine Used, etc. 



Ru*r 


Start. 


Clams 

Used. 

(Bushel.) 


Average 
Temperature 

of Water. 
(Degrees F.) 


Average Dissolved 

Oxygen in Tank No. 2. 

(Parts in 100,000.) 


Average 
Chlorine 
Used per 


Number. 


Tank as 
Filled. 


Tank as 
Emptied. 


(Parts per 
1,000,000.1 


1 

2 

3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 


June 27 
July 3 
July 8 
July 12 
July 18 
July 20 
July 25 
July 27 
Aug. 1 
Aug. 4 
Aug. 15 
Nov. 3 
Nov. 8 
Nov. 17 


1 
1 
2 
1 

Vi 

V2 

1 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 
1 

1 


73 
74 
75 
72 
69 
67 
70 
68 
62 
66 
70 
57 
41 
50 


.50 
.31 
.46 
.52 
.40 
.55 
.68 
.42 

.67 
.91 

.84 


.05 
.05 
.05 
.18 
.30 
.16 
.18 
.50 
.20 

.49 

.88 
.79 


4.0 
4.8 
5.1 
4.3 
5.0 
5.0 
5.0 
4.5 
5.0 
0.0 
4.5 
4.3 
4.5 
4.0 



Bacteria and Chlorine as Sodium Chloride in Water from Plum Island River used in 
Purification Experiments before Chlorination. 







Bacteria 


PER Cubic Centimeter. 




Chlorine. 
(Parts in 
100,000.) 


Run 


1927. 


4 Days 


24 HOURS — 37° C. 


"Shellfish 
Score."* 


Number. 










20° C. 


Total. 


Red. 






1 


June 27 
June 28 
June 29 
Juno 30 


280 

25 

300 

850 


4 

5 

20 

450 


1 

1 

8 

160 


14 
5 
50 
50 


- 


2 


July 3 
July 5 
July 7 


420 
400 
250 


100 

28 
20 


4 
8 
4 


5 
5 
23 


1,180 

960 

1,340 


3 


July 8 
July 11 


3.50 
650 


45 
42 


3 
15 


2 
23 


1,520 
1,040 


4 


July 12 


30 


5 


2 


1 


1,440 


5 


July 18 
July 19 


480 
1,400 


130 
200 


5 
45 


4 

50 


1,010 
430 


6 


July 20 
July 21 


1,300 
750 


120 
50 


20 
15 


5 
23 


870 
1,045 


7 


July 25 


750 


24 


3 


14 


1,260 


8 


July 27 
July 27 


350 
620 


15 

8 


2 
3 


4 
23 


1,070 
630 


9 


Aug. 1 


1,000 


12 


3 


23 


890 


10 


Aug. 4 
Aug. 5 
Aug. 6 


710 
3,600 
5,000 


100 
240 
450 


5 

50 
120 


5 
32 
50 


1,160 


11 


Aug. 15 


1,000 


60 


10 


1 


1,500 



*B. coli expressed on same basis as shellfish. 



68 . P.D. 34. 

Average Number of Bacteria in Wafer of Tank No. 1 after Chlorine Treatment as 
applied to Clams in Tank No. 2. 

June 21 to August 17, Inclusive. 



Bacteria per Cubic Centimeter. 






24 HOURS — 37° C. 


"SheUfish Score."* 


4 Days 

20° C. 


Total. 


Red. 





Average Number of Bacteria in Water of Tank No. 2 Fifteen Minutes after Filling. 

313 12 0.6 0.5 

Average Number of Bacteria in Water of Tank No. 2 when run from Tank. 

6^691 805 148.0 18^0 

*B. coli expressed on same basis as shellfish. 

Corrosion Studies. 

During the past thirty years this Division has made many long-continued in- 
vestigations in regard to the important subject of the corrosion of pipes by different 
water supplies. These investigations have included studies of iron, galvanized 
iron, lead, copper, brass, tin, tin-hned lead, etc. During 1926 and 1927 further 
studies along this line were made and these studies were summarized in a paper 
entitled "The Effect of Pipes of Different Metals upon the Quahty of Water Sup- 
phes," read before the New England Water Works Association. The detailed 
work would occupy too much space to be given in this report but the following 
paragraphs summarize a portion of it. 

Summarizing the results of these investigations it is evident that whatever pipe 
is used a certain amount of metal will be taken into solution by the water and this 
amount varies under different conditions and with different waters; that if the 
pipe is iron a greater amount is taken than from a pipe of any other metal. Gal- 
vanizing an iron pipe prevents to a large extent and for a considerable period the 
absorption of iron but much zinc is continually taken into solution as long as the 
galvanizing lasts. Tin-lined pipes are awkward to handle from a plumbing point 
of view but little tin is taken from them by any water. Brass pipes yield much 
zinc but generally only minute amounts of copper. Copper pipes yield about the 
sarne amount of copper as the brass pipes but zinc is not involved in -the corrosion 
of these pipes except occasionally, certain copper pipes seeming to contain a small 
amount of zinc. We know from experience in this State that lead in average 
amounts of .04 of a part in 100,000 in drinking water will cause lead poisoning of 
certain individuals if habitually used. Occasionally statements have been made 
by certain investigators in regard to the harmfulness of zinc when present habitually 
in amounts greater than 2 or 3 parts in 100,000. We have no recorded instances 
of intestinal or other troubles from zinc in water although this zinc is present in 
large amounts in practically all waters passing through galvanized iron pipes. It 
seems hardly possible that the small amount of copper taken generally from brass 
or copper pipes can cause illness but probably every house piping sj^stem should 
be well flushed out each morning in order that the water which has stood in the 
pipes overnight may be removed. 

In some of this work minute amounts of copper were found in ground and sur- 
face waters which had not passed through copper pipes. This is not a cause for 
surprise as the human system always contains copper taken in with food and of 
course it is being constantly removed from the system. Shellfish, especially 
oysters, contain considerable copper, and such grains as wheat, barley, etc., also 
contain copper which must come from the ground. Brass strainers on driven- well 
systems also yield copper and zinc. 



P.D. 34. 69 

REPORT OF THE DIVISION OF FOOD AND DRUGS. 

Hermann C. Lythgoe, Director. 

The Food and Drug Division of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health 
has during 1927 been engaged in the usual routine work of the enforcement of the 
milk, food and drug laws, the cold storage law, the slaughtering laws, the bakery 
law, the soft drink bottling law, and certain other laws required to be enforced by 
the Department. The Division has also examined samples of liquor, drugs, chem- 
icals and poisons for PoUce Departments, and has examined samples of coal for the 
Division of Standards, for the Commission on the Necessaries of Life, and for cer- 
tain Sealers of Weights and Measures of "cities and towns. 

There was an additional inspector appointed to assist in carrying out the pro- 
visions of the law relative to the pasteurization of milk. 

The inspectors collected and the chemists examined 7,548 samples of milk, of 
which 158 contained added water and from 180 of which a portion of the milk had 
been removed. The usual milk statistics will be found in Tables 2 and 3. There 
were collected and examined 1,845 samples of food, the statistics of which will be 
fovmd in Table 4. In addition, there were collected a number of samples of shell- 
fish for bacteriological examination by the Division of Water and Sewage Lab- 
oratories, which are not included in the samples reported in Table 4. There were 
collected and examined 169 samples of drugs, the statistics of which are reported 
in Table 5. 

There were 360 prosecutions for violations of the law, the results of which will be 
found in Table 1. There were 63 prosecutions for the sale of low standard milk, of 
which 3 were filed without finding, and the balance resulted in conviction. Most 
of these cases were brought against restaurants which were serving skimmed milk 
to their patrons instead of whole milk. The complaints, however, were brought 
under the low standard law, which would give the judge an opportunity of imposing 
a lower penalty than in the case of the adulterated milk law. 

There were 1 1 prosecutions for the sale of milk from which a portion of the cream 
was removed, all of which resulted in conviction. These cases were brought mostly 
against milk dealers and milk producers. 

There were 25 prosecutions for the sale of milk containing added water, of which 
1 case resulted in a finding of not guilty and 2 were filed without finding. These 
cases were mostly against milk producers, with a few against milk dealers. There 
was 1 case for the sale as pasteurized milk of milk not pasteurized as described by 
the statutes. There was another case for falsely advertising unpasteurized milk as 
"pasteurized milk." The defendant in each case was found guilty and the case 
was filed. 

There were 4 complaints involved in connection with these 2 cases, — 2 com- 
plaints for the sale of milk containing added water and 1 complaint for selling as 
pasteurized milk, milk which was not pasteurized. These complaints were brought 
against the corporation. There was another case brought against the principal 
owner of the corporation for false advertising in connection with the advertising of 
pasteurized milk. One case for the sale of milk containing added water resulted in 
a finding of not guilty. The other case resulted in a finding of guilty but the cases 
were all placed on file. Subsequently, additional samples were obtained from the 
company, which samples were found to be watered. Another complaint was 
entered, resulting in a conviction, the removal of one of the prior cases from the 
file, and the imposition of a fine of $150.00, which fine was paid. 

There were 12 cases for the sale of low standard cream, most of which were 
obtained in restaurants. All of these cases were convicted. There was one case 
for the sale of low standard butter, resulting in conviction. 

The total cases under the law relating to the sale of milk and milk products were 
114, of which 108 resulted in conviction. There were 12 cases relating to the sale 
of shellfish; 1 case for the sale of watered scallops resulted in conviction; 1 case for 
the sale of decomposed clams resulted in conviction. Three cases for the false 
advertising of Ipswich clams and the sale of clams other than Ipswich clams re- 
sulted in conviction. There were 7 cases for the sale of clams containing a filthy 
animal or vegetable substance, specifically, sewage. These clams were clams in 



70 P.D. 34. 

the shell, and the bacteriological examination showed unmistakably that the clams 
actually contained sewage. One case was discharged because of failure on the 
part of the court officer to summon the necessary witnesses. The case had pre- 
viously been continued for the same reason. The other six defendants were found 
guilty and fined twenty-five dollars upon each count. Appeals were taken in aU 
cases and the appealed cases were disposed of in most instances by pleas of nolo 
contendere and fines were imposed in some instances as expenses. None of the 
cases came to trial before a jury. This is the first instance in this state of cases of 
this type being brought to the attention of the courts, and the results of the cases 
were on the whole satisfactory. 

There were 110 cases pertaining to eggs, all resulting in conviction. Of these 89 
were for the sale of cold storage eggs without causing the container to be labeled as 
required by statute. In most of these instances the eggs were actually sold as 
fresh eggs, but as soon as the sale was made and the identity of the inspection was 
made known, the storekeeper informed the inspector that the eggs were not fresh 
eggs but were cold storage eggs. There were 11 cases for falsely advertising eggs 
which were not fresh as fresh eggs. There were 7 cases for misbranding of eggs, 
mostly for labeling old eggs as "fresh eggs." Two cases for representing cold 
storage food as fresh food related to eggs, and there was 1 case for the sale of de- 
composed eggs. 

There were a number of cases for violation of the regulations relative to the 
labeling of articles of food containing preservatives, 20 of which related to Ham- 
burg steak containing sodium sulphite, of which 19 resulted in conviction. Nine 
of these cases related to sausages, all of which were convicted. In addition, there 
were 3 cases for the sale of decomposed Hamburg steak, 2 of which resulted in 
conviction. There were 2 cases for the sale of sausage containing coloring matter, 
and 9 cases for the sale of sausages containing cereal in excess of 2%, all of which 
were convicted. There were 7 convictions for the sale of adulterated maple sugar, 
and there were 46 cases for the false advertising of maple syrup, mostly in res- 
taurants. One case was found not guilty and 1 defendant defaulted. 

The false advertising of maple syrup in restaurants appears to have become 
epidemic during 1927. Several times prior to 1927 investigations were made as 
to the advertising of syrups in restaurants, and it was found that generally griddle 
cakes were advertised as "Griddle Cakes with Syrup." One restaurant keeper at 
a hearing stated that when he purchased the restaurant the sign on the wall read 
"Griddle Cakes and Syrup." He had this sign changed to read, "Griddle Cakes 
and Maple Syrup" because it sounded better. 

The proprietor of a high priced establishment who was serving waffles and maple 
syrup far above the price charged by restaurants elsewhere in the state stated that 
he adulterated his own maple syrup and that he couldn't afford to furnish pure 
maple syrup at the price he was charging for his waffles. The saving on the adul- 
teration amounted to about two cents on each order. The gentleman exhibited 
considerable show of temper at the hearing after he ascertained that he was to be 
prosecuted, and denied that he had made certain statements which he had pre- 
viously made during the hearing. It was expected that there would be an inter- 
esting session at the trial of the case, but the trial resulted in a plea of guilty and 
the imposition of a fine. 

There was 1 case for the false advertising of frozen custard, resulting in a plea 
of nolo contendere and the imposition of a fine. There was 1 case for violation 
of the sanitary food law and another case against the same organization for viola- 
tion of the soft drink law. These cases resulted in conviction and appeal. The 
corporation went out of existence before the appeal could be heard. The place 
was closed down and the corporation defaulted in the Superior Court and dis- 
position was made upon the default. 

There was 1 case for obstruction of an inspector, resulting in a finding of not 
guilty. The inspector had neven been in the town before and the judge quite 
properly held that there was a possibility that the inspector was unknown to the 
man who ran away from him. 

There were 5 cases for the sale of adulterated drugs, all resulting in conviction. 
There was 1 case for violation of the mattress law, resulting in conviction. There 



P.D. 34. 71 

were 11 cases for violation of the slaughtering laws, of which 10 were convicted, 
and there were 3 other cases relating to the slaughtering laws, 1 for the sale of 
decomposed meat, and the others relating to the sale of diseased meat. Of these 
cases relating to diseased meat, 1 man was found not guilty and the other man was 
convicted. Both cases referred to the same carcass, and in connection with this 
case the proprietor of the slaughterhouse where the animal was killed was con- 
victed of slaughtering in the absence of the inspector and his license automatically 
became revoked. Three of the slaughtering cases were against slaughtering in- 
spectors who violated the regulations of the Department. 

The only prosecutions for violation of the storage laws were in relation to cold 
storage eggs. 

The inspectors during the year made confiscations as follows : 

In stores there were 8 seizures of poultry, amounting to 542 pounds and con- 
sisting of 2873/^ pounds of chicken, 46 pounds of fowl, 145 pounds of geese, and 
63 H pounds of turkeys; 7 seizures of meat, amounting to 378 pounds and con- 
sisting of 325 pounds of beef, 6 pounds of lamb, 27 pounds of pork, 10 pounds of 
veal, and 10 pounds of frankforts; and 3 seizures of fish, amounting to 224 pounds 
of scallops, 35 gallons of clams, and 40 gallons of oysters. 

In slaughterhouses there were 5 seizures of meat, amounting to 2,505 pounds, 
and consisting of 2,325 pounds of beef and 180 pounds of veal. 

In cold storage warehouses there was 1 seizure of poultry, weighing 10 pounds; 
3 seizures of meat, weighing 400 pounds and consisting of 110 pounds of chitter- 
lings, 125 pounds of hog kidneys, and 165 pounds of ox tails; 2 seizures of game, 
weighing 39 pounds and consisting of 15 pounds of wild goose, and 24 pounds of 
venison; 1 seizure of fish, weighing 1,350 pounds; and 1 seizure of chicken fat, 
weighing 147 pounds. 

The law relative to the licensing of pasteurizing plants went into effect on July 
15, 1927. The law provides for licensing of pasteurizing plants by the town with 
the right of revoking the licenses either by the State Health Department or the 
Town Health Department if the establishment is not operated in accordance with 
the regulations promulgated by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health. 
At the time that this was passed it was estimated that there were about 500 pas- 
teurizing plants in the state. This estimate is probably somewhat high, there 
being probably not much more than 300 plants at present. A preliminary set of 
regulations was drafted and local boards of health were invited to a meeting to 
discuss these proposed regulations. At the close of the meeting a committee was 
selected to work with the Department upon the preliminary draft. A second 
draft was then prepared and a meeting was held to which the milk dealers were 
invited. The revised proposed regulations were discussed and a committee was 
appointed from the dealers present. The regulations were then revised in con- 
sultation with the committee from the dealers and a joint meeting of boards of 
health and milk dealers was held, at which meetings copies of the proposed regula- 
tions were distributed for discussion. A subsequent meeting was held at which 
both the boards of health and the dealers committee met with the Department 
and the final draft was submitted to the council for adoption. This was adopted 
within two days of the taking effect of the act and copies were sent to all boards 
of health in the state. In connection with the preparation of these regulations 
we experienced more objections from the boards of health than from the milk 
dealers, notwithstanding the fact that the milk dealers realized that the passage of 
these regulations meant the expenditure of thousands of dollars on the part of the 
milk dealers of this state for the installation of new equipment. 

A new inspector was appointed to take care of this work. During the fiscal 
year Dr. Stirrett inspected 189 pasteurizing plants, practically none of which were 
strictly in accordance with the regulations of the Department. Twenty-three of 
these plants contained the obsolete Parke Holder and the proprietors of these 
plants found themselves in a position where it was necessary for them to purchase 
entire new equipment for carrying on the business of pasteurization. Practically 
all the plants had defective valves. Many of them did not have the necessary 
recording thermometer. Many others were inadequately equipped with mercury 
in glass indicating thermometers. 



72 P.D. 34. 

The policy of the Department in connection with this work has been to inspect 
the pasteurizing plant in company with the inspector of milk of the town or with 
some person delegated by the local board of health. In only a few instances were 
these inspections made in the absence of a representative of the board of health of 
the town where the plant was located. In some instances the inspector went with 
a city inspector to all the plants located in and outside of the city where pas- 
teurized milk was prepared for sale in the city. In such instances the inspector 
of the town was not always present at the inspection. The dealer was given a 
copy of the regulations and was informed of the corrections to be made. Sub- 
sequently letters were sent to the boards of health that had issued no licenses. 
These letters in most instances resulted in the issuing of the license required by 
law. At the close of the year, however, there were still a number of boards of 
health that had declined to issue the licenses required by statute, although the 
operator of the pasteurizing plant had made application for such license and had 
submitted the necessary ten dollar ($10.00) fee therefor. In a few instances the 
board of health has declined to issue a license when the plant was in strict con- 
formance with the regulations. This failure is being taken up by correspondence 
with the boards of health. It has been found that with but few exceptions the 
operators accept the recommendations of the inspectors without question. 

It is proposed, as soon as the preliminary inspections have been made, to go 
through the plants again, and if the plants are not in conformance with the regula- 
tions, to request the proprietor of the plant to call at the office of the Department 
to explain his failure to comply with the law and regulations. The board of health 
will be given an opportunity to be present at these hearings. If the plant is not 
then put in shape there will probably be a prosecution upon the third inspection. 
The preliminary inspections regarding sanitation resulted in a report that 49 of 
the plants were clean, 88 were dirty, and 42 were very dirty. 

One of the chemists employed in the arsphenamine factory has been transferred 
to food and drug work and will carry on bacteriological work at the Lawrence 
Experiment Station until such time as he is thoroughly qualified to make bacte- 
riological examinations of the milk. It is proposed to make such examination in 
connection with the inspections of these pasteurization plants, the examination to 
consist of bacteriological examination of the apparatus used in pasteurization; of 
the containers used for holding the finished product ; and of the milk both before 
and after pasteurization and at the time of delivery from the plant. 

Liquor Samples. 

The Police Departments of 144 cities and towns, the Department of Public 
Safety and the Metropolitan District Commission submitted to the Department 
for analysis, 8,815 samples of liquor. These samples were classified as follows: 

Nineteen hundred and twenty-nine samples of beer, 84 samples of cider, 909 
samples of wine, 4,529 samples of distilled spirits, 8 samples of flavoring extracts, 
935 samples of alcohol and 421 miscellaneous samples not otherwise classified. 
Included in this miscellaneous list were mash, stiU residues, mixtures of intoxicating 
Uquor with other substances, sink drainings, denatured alcohol and certain com- 
mercial preparations containing alcohol. 

The samples submitted this year are slightly in excess of those submitted during 
the year 1926, the total for that year being 8,667. The highest number of samples 
submitted was for the year 1925, when 9,454 samples were submitted. The largest 
number submitted in any one month during the past year was during March, when 
937 samples were submitted. The lowest number submitted was during February, 
when 627 samples were submitted. 

Exclusive of samples of- denatured alcohol, the nature of which was apparent to 
the sense of smell, there were submitted only 8 samples containing methyl alcohol. 
These samples were as follows : 

One sample from Salisbury submitted in July contained 33.9% alcohol, and 
1.32% methyl alcohol; 2 samples submitted from Springfield during July con- 
tained 24.7% alcohol, 1.15% methyl alcohol and 26.46% alcohol, 1.24% methyl 
alcohol, respectively; 1 sample submitted from Northampton in April contained 
30.3% alcohol and 2.2% methyl alcohol; 1 sample submitted from Fitchburg in 



P.D. 34. 73 

December, 1926, contained 30.9% alcohol and 1.4% methyl alcohol. In April 
there was a sample of alcohol submitted from Springfield containing 83.86% 
alcohol and 2.8% methyl alcohol. Dm"ing July, 2 samples were submitted from 
Boston containing 85% alcohol and 6% methyl alcohol. 

A number of samples of denatured alcohol containing pyridine were submitted 
as well as samples of medicated alcohol containing zinc sulphocarbolate, formal- 
dehyde and diethylphthalate. Two samples of canned heat were submitted. 
This material contained approximately 80% alcohol and 2% methyl alcohol. 
Apart from the possible danger due to the presence of these denaturants, the dis- 
tilled spirits and the alcohol submitted contained nothing more injurious than 
alcohol which is a well recognized toxic substance capable of causing death when 
used in too high a concentration in too short a space of time. 

Excluding those samples containing methyl alcohol which apparently were of 
a known beverage character by the sense of smell, only 0.13% of the distilled 
spirits and alcohol contained any methyl alcohol, and in all these instances the 
concentration of methyl alcohol was very low. 

Table 6 gives a list of cities submitting liquor samples and towns which sub- 
mitted more than 20 samples during 1927. 

A few special investigations were made during the course of the year. 

At the request of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, an investigation was 
made as to citrous fruit shipped to Western Massachusetts from Florida. The 
Department of Agriculture had made a number of seizures throughout the country 
of shipments of frozen oranges. This investigation was made in Springfield and 
Holj^oke. In all, inspections were made of 943 crates or cartons. Only a very 
slight amount of this fruit was found to be damaged by frost. The containers 
were sampled in accordance with the methods of the Department of Agriculture. 
For example, in the case of a shipment of 250 crates, 10 crates were taken at random 
and were opened and 2 oranges were taken from each crate. These 20 oranges 
were then opened and 3 were found to be touched with frost. In another ship- 
ment of 250 crates, 2 oranges were found to be frost bitten. In another shipment 
involving 340 crates, samples being taken from 12 crates, 2 oranges were found to 
be decomposed and 2 were frost bitten. 

In the early part of the year there was an unusual shortage of butter, resulting 
in a rapid withdrawal of butter from storage. An investigation was therefore 
made of the condition of the butter on the market as received from without the 
state. In only a very few instances was this butter found to be deficient in fat, 
and as soon as the dealers became aware of activities of the Department the ship- 
ments of this type of butter ceased. 

Cold Storage. 

There were 65 licensed cold storage warehouses operating in Massachusetts 
during the year. A sanitary inspection of the premises of these warehouses dis- 
closed nothing requiring any radical action. Except for the sale of cold storage 
eggs, the few minor violations which occurred were taken care of other than by 
prosecution. 

Tables 7 and 8, 9, and 10 give the amount of articles placed in storage during 
each calendar month and the amount of articles on hand in storage on the first 
day of each calendar month. 

Compared with former years, the holdings of beef, pork, and eggs have shown 
a drop. The holdings of poultry and butter are more nearly uniform. There was 
a sUght surplus of storage of chickens, halibut, and mackerel during 1926, which 
necessitated the granting of extensions of time in storage in some instances. 

A summary of the action on requests for extension of time and articles which 
have been in cold storage for twelve months without receipt of requests for exten- 
sion of time will be found in tables 11, 12, and 13. 

Slaughtering Inspection. 
The law requires cities and towns to annually in March nominate one or more 
inspectors of slaughtering, which inspectors may be appointed by the board of 
health after the nominations have been approved by the Department. There 



74 P.D. 34. 

were 475 names submitted, of which 26 were disapproved as being not properly 
quahfied to carry out the work. Of the persons approved 433 were renominees, 
who had been carrying out the work in a satisfactory manner as per the records of 
the Department. Twenty-five names submitted and approved were of persons 
who had not previously held the position. 

One town sent in the name of an absolutely incompetent man, which the De- 
partment disapproved. The day the disapproval letter went into the mail a tel- 
ephone call was received from the chairman of the board of health of the town 
making the nomination asking what was to be done. He was informed that the 
nominee would be disapproved, whereupon he remarked that he expected he 
would be because he did not know anything about the business. The chairman 
of the board was asked why he sent in the name of an incompetent man and put 
the commonwealth to the expense of sending our inspector upon a long railway 
journey to ascertain that the nominee was incompetent when the board knew it 
at the time the name was sent in. The answer indicated that it was political 
expediency to nominate this man. 

Some of the disapproved nominees informed the inspector of this Department 
that they did not care for the position after they had been instructed in the duties 
which must be performed and told of the penalties for failure to perform such 
duties. In many of these instances the nominee had informed the board of health 
that he would do the work for considerably less money than the incumbent was 
being paid. Occasionally a board of health declines to send in the name of the 
incumbent because of his efficiency in confiscating carcasses. When this occurs, 
the board usually has considerable difficulty in finding a properly qualified man to 
carry on the work. 

Each inspector of slaughtering is required to send a monthly report to the De- 
partment stating the number of animals passed for food purposes; the number of 
animals condemned; and the reasons for confiscation. These reports are looked 
over each month by one of the veterinary inspectors. If the local inspector appears 
to be passing more carcasses than the law of average indicates should be passed he 
is visited by an inspector of this Department to ascertain the reason for the char- 
acter of report submitted. 

There are of course occasional instances where the inspector of slaughtering does 
not intend to do the work as the statute requires. Fortunately, however, these 
instances are few. There are other instances where an inspector is doubtful as 
to what his action should be. Frequently these inspectors call upon the Depart- 
ment for advice and whenever possible an inspector is sent from the Department 
to look over the carcasses in question and advise the slaughtering inspector what 
action he should take. 

Bakeries. 

Bakeries were inspected in most of the cities and some towns during the year. 
The bakeries were found to be in much better condition than they were when the 
law went into effect. The usual procedure of making the inspections in company 
with the agent of the local board was followed. The board of health was given a 
letter stating the defects found, with a request that the defects be remedied. Gen- 
erally the local board of health saw to it that the bakeries were cleaned up. Occa- 
sionally the local board was found to be lax and the proprietor of the bakery was 
called to the State House for a hearing and was told to put the bakery in satis- 
factory shape. 

In one instance the board of health requested help on the bakeries. An in- 
spector was sent to look them over. The board was informed of the defects found 
and two weeks afterwards the same inspector went to the town and looked over 
the bakeries. He reported that all the causes for criticism had been removed and 
the local authorities had done a very good job in the clean-up work. 

Mattresses. 
A few complaints were received relative to alleged law violations in mattress 
factories. These complaints were investigated and in only one instance was sufficient 



P.D. 34. 75 

evidence gathered to warrant prosecution. Without doubt, considerable second-hand 
material is used in the making of mattresses and the mattresses are sold with a 
tag to the effect that the material is all new. It is impossible to tell by an exam- 
ination of the contents of a mattress whether or not the material has been used 
before and is therefore second-hand within the meaning of the law. In many 
instances where the material was apparently second-hand, the mattress manu- 
facturer brought affidavits from the person who furnished the material stating 
that the material was all new. The mattresses are labeled correctly in all but few 
instances with the names of the ingredients used in their manufacture. The 
existing conditions relative to the use of second-hand material in mattresses ap- 
parently cannot be remedied by legislation. We have been informed that retail 
dealers go to mattress manufacturers and demand a mattress labeled in accordance 
with the Massachusetts law as containing all new material, which can be sold at 
a remarkably low price. As long as the mattress trade desires to do business in 
this way, mattress manufacturers will furnish cheap mattresses made of second- 
hand material. Incidentally, the use of second-hand material in making mat- 
tresses is for practical purposes no health menace. 

Arsphenamine. 

Because of a reduction in the price of commercial arsphenamine, it was decided 
to cease the manufacture of arsphenamine, and consequentlj^ the laboratory was 
shut down on the seventh day of August. The arsphenamine laboratory was 
operated with as smaU a force as possible to make the material demanded of the 
Department. It would have been possible with the same force and equipment to 
produce considerably more arsphenamine and sulpharsphenamine than was actually 
distributed, but it was not possible to reduce the number of employees and do the 
work. When it was deemed advisable to discontinue the manufacture of arsphen- 
amine, the output of the laboratory was increased. One of the technical men 
obtained a good position and left the Department. Under the circumstances he 
was not replaced. This made the supervising of the work much more difficult for 
Mr. Nurenberg, who was in charge of the laboratory. After the last batch had 
been made the entire available force was put on the work of ampouling and boxing 
the material. It was estimated at that time that the amount of arsphenamine 
prepared during the first nine months of the year would be sufficient to last until 
the first day of March, and the amount of material on hand on the first day of 
December indicates that this estimate was substantially correct. 

The statistics of the distribution of arsphenamine indicated a drop in the con- 
sumption of arsphenamine and an increase in the consumption of sulpharsphen- 
amine. The distribution of the combined arsenicals was approximately 47,000 
doses per annum. The distribution in 1923, before the manufacture of sulphars- 
phenamine was begun, was about 49,000 doses per annum. The distribution of 
arsphenamine in 1927 was approximately 23,000 doses per annum. The dis- 
tribution of arsenicals showed a seasonal variation. The low point occurred in 
February; the high point in March. There was a gradual reduction to another 
low point in July and a high point again in August. 

This ends a very interesting piece of work in connection with the manufacture 
and distribution of an article of this character. 

The prehminary research work was completed in the latter part of 1916. At 
the end of 1917 the Department was in the position of being able to begin com- 
mercial distribution of the drug. Commercial distribution was begun in 1918 and 
by the close of 1919 we were distributing about 18,000 doses per annum. At the 
close of 1920 this had increased to about 25,000 doses per annum. At the close of 
1921 it had increased to 38,000 doses per annum. At the close of 1922 it had 
reached 40,000 doses per annum, and at the end of 1923 it had reached the maxi- 
mum of nearly 50,000 doses per annum. From 1923 to date the distribution of 
arsenicals has varied between 42,000 and 50,000 doses per annum. 

At the time the laboratory shut down. Dr. Hunt reported that the sulphars- 
phenamine prepared by the Department was without doubt the finest on the Amer-- 
ican market. This same remark was made by the agent of one of the companies 
that was bidding for the business of the Department. 



76 



P.D. 34. 



Table 1. - 


- For Sale of Milk not of Good Standard Quality. 




Name. 


Address. 


Court. 


Date. 


Result. 


Alexander, John 


. Worcester 


. Worcester 


. Apr. 12, 1927 


Conviction. 


Anagnos, Michael . 


Nantucket 


Nantucket 


. Aug. 23, 1927 


Conviction. 


Anthier, Camila 


. Holyoke . 


Holyoke . 


. Nov. 29, 1927 


Conviction. 


Atnefs, Louis 


Nantasket 


Hingham. 


. July 22, 1927 


Conviction. 


Bamvakas, Angelo . 


Newton . 


Newton . 


. July 6, 1927 


Conviction. 


Bauer, Fred 


. Buckland 


. Greenfield 


. Dec. 14, 1926 


Conviction. 


Bean, Fred 0. . 


. Springfield 


. Springfield 


. Mar. 30, 1927 


Conviction. 


Bonazoli, Albert 


Newton Centr 


e . Newton . 


. Sept. 7, 1927 


Conviction. 


Casey, John 


. Great Barring 


ton . Great Barring 


ton . June 3, 1927 


Conviction. 


Chong, Harry S. 


Springfield 


Springfield 


. Jan. 18, 1927 


Conviction. 


Chouchos, George . 


Cambridge 


Cambridge 


. Jan. 18, 1927 


Conviction. 


Christian, Henry 


Holyoke . 


Holyoke . 


. Nov. 9, 1927 


Conviction. 


Christopulas, Chris. 


Buzzards Bay 


Barnstable 


. Sept. 15, 1927 


Conviction. 


Conaires, Charles . 


Milford . 


Milford . 


. Sept. 8, 1927 


_i 


Crest, Benny . 


Westboro 


. Westboro 


. Apr. 8, 1927 


_2 


Cutulis, James A. . 


Newton . 


Newton . 


. Sept. 7, 1927 


Conviction. 


Dascale, Nicholas . 


Newburyport 


Newburyport 


. Jan. 21, 1927 


Conviction. 


Demos, Charles 


Pittsfield . 


. Pittsfield . 


. Dec. 10, 1926 


Conviction. 


Demos, Charles 


Pittsfield . 


. Pittsfield. 


. Dec. 10, 1926 


Conviction. 


Denaro, Joseph 


Concord . 


Concord . 


. Apr. 14, 1927 


Conviction. 


Economy, George . 


Rockland 


Abington. 


. May 17, 1927 


Conviction. 


Fisher, Harold . 


Springfield 


. Springfield 


. Jan. 11, 1927 


Conviction. 


Caisson, Louis Z. . 


New Bedford 


New Bedford 


. Aug. 19, 1927 


Conviction. 


Gandini, Eugene 


Springfield 


. Springfield 


. Oct. 27, 1927 


Conviction. 


Halpern, Samuel 


Westboro 


. Westboro 


. Apr. 8, 1927 


-2 


Jackson Confectionery Com 










pany, Inc. 


Springfield 


Springfield 


. Oct. 27, 1927 


Conviction. 


Johnson, Chrisloplias 


New Bedford 


. New Bedford 


. Aug. 15, 1927 


Conviction. 


Kairis, Joseph . 


Worcester 


Worcester 


. Dec. 2, 1926 


Conviction. 


King, Charlie . 


Plymouth 


Plymouth 


. Aug. 19, 1927 


Conviction.3 


Liggetts Drug Company 


Holyoke . 


Holyoke . 


. Nov. 29, 1927 


Conviction. 


Manolidas, John 


Whitman 


Abington. 


. May 17, 1927 


Conviction. 


Mazzolini, Augustas 


Holyoke . 


. Holyoke . 


. Nov. 29, 1927 


Conviction. 


McKenna, Harold . 


Cambridge 


Cambridge 


. Jan. 18, 1927 


Conviction. 


Moceup, Allan C. . 


FaU River 


. Fall River 


. July 15, 1927 


Conviction. 


Nardine, Joseph 


Cambridge 


Cambridge 


. Jan. 18, 1927 


Conviction. 


Nogneira, Joseph . 


Plymouth 


. Plymouth 


. June 28, 1927 


Conviction. 


Oestrides, Nick 


Onset 


Wareham 


. Sept. 23, 1927 


Conviction. 


Orsini, Andrew 


Holyoke . 


Holyoke . 


. Nov. 29, 1927 


Conviction. 


Papadoycanis, Ernest C. 


Attleboro 


.■Vttleboro 


. July 27, 1927 


Conviction. 


Papanicou, John 


Boston . 


Boston . 


. June 16, 1927 


Conviction. 


Pappas, George 


Nantasket 


Hingham. 


. July 22, 1927 


Conviction. 


Pappas, Jordan 


New Bedford 


New Bedford 


. Aug. 15, 1927 


Conviction. 


Pappas, Nicholas 


Bridgewater 


Brockton. 


. Aug. 25, 1927 


Conviction. 


Quality Cafeteria, Inc. . 


Somerville 


Somerville 


. June 23, 1927 


Conviction. 


Quong, Chin . 


Greenfield 


. Greenfield 


. Dec. 14, 1926 


Conviction. 


Rego, Frank 


Fall River 


. Fall River 


. Sept. 27, 1927 


Conviction. 


Kigali, Fred . 


Holyoke . 


Holyoke . 


. Nov. 29, 1927 


Conviction. 


Roumacker, Michael 


Turners Falls 


Greenfield 


. July 29, 1927 


Conviction.' 


Scomvas, Nicholas . 


Marlboro 


Marlboro 


. Jan. 27, 1927 


Conviction. 


Shee, John Log 


Worcester 


Worcester 


. Dec. 2, 1926 


Conviction. 


Shee, John Log 


Worcester 


Worcester 


. Apr. 25, 1927 


Conviction. 


Stathis, Anthony . 


Somerville 


Somerville 


. June 23, 1927 


Conviction. 


Steve, Alex 


Holyoke . 


. Holyoke 


, Jan. 7, 1927 


Conviction. 


Theodore, Peter 


Chicopee . 


. Chicopee 


. June 24, 1927 


Conviction. 


Thompson, Frederick E. 


Westboro 


. Westboro 


. Apr. 8, 1927 


_2 


Toohey, John . 


Marlboro 


Marlboro 


. Jan. 27, 1927 


Conviction. 


Van Dyk Company, James 


Springfield 


Springfield 


. Dec. 23, 1926 


Conviction' 


Vincent, James 


Waltham. 


. Waltham. 


. Aug. 17, 1927 


Conviction. 


Waldorf System, Inc. 


Worcester 


. Worcester 


. Apr. 12, 1927 


Conviction. 


Waldorf System, Inc. 


Pittsfield . 


. Pittsfield . 


. Apr. 13, 1927 


Conviction. 


Whelton, Charles P. 


Greenfield 


Greenfield 


. Dec. 14, 1926 


Conviction. 


Wolski, Mary H. . 


Cambridge 


Cambridge 


. Sept. 2, 1927 


Conviction. 


Zahos, John 


Salisbury Beat 


h . Amesbury 


. Sept. 14, 1927 


Conviction.' 


For Sale of Mill 


c from which c 


I Portion of the C 


ream had been removed. 


Barrier, Marshall . 


Franklin . 


. Franklin . 


. Apr. 23, 1927 


Conviction. 


Busby, Roy W. 


Great Barring 


ton . Great Barring 


ton . June 15, 1927 


Conviction. 


Busby, Roy W. 


Great Barring 


on . Great Barring 


ton . June 15, 1927 


Conviction. 


Busby, Roy W. 


Great Barring 


ton . Great Barring 


ton . June 15, 1927 


Conviction. 


Gilhooly, Michael . 


Gardner . 


Gardner . 


. Feb. 11, 1927 


Conviction. 


Hood & Sons, Inc., H. P. 


Sudbury . 


Framingham 


. May 16, 1927 


Conviction. 


Kirchner, Joseph W. 


Pittsfield . 


. Pittsfield . 


. Apr. 13, 1927 


Conviction.3 


Leonard, Edward D. 


Athol 


. Athol 


. May 16, 1927 


Conviction. 


Soares, Manuel S. . 


New Bedford 


New Bedford 


. July 5, 1927 


Conviction.' 


Tallent, Robert 


Millis 


. Walpole . 


. July 10, 1927 


Conviction. 


Woolworth Company, F. W. 

Fc 


Fall River 

r Sale of Mil 


. Fall River 

k containing Add 


. Dec. 14, 1926 

?d Water. 


Conviction. 


Alexsander, Paul 


South SudbuTj 


r . Waltham. 


. June 20, 1927 


Conviction. 


Bega, Peter 


Milford . 


. Milford . 


. Oct. 31, 1927 


Conviction. 


Benz, Charles F. 


East New Len 


ox . Pittsfield . 


. Apr. 13, 1927 


Conviction. 


Brown, Albert M. . 


Harvard . 


Clinton . 


. Apr. 15, 1927 


Conviction. 



1 Filed without finding. 

2 Placed on file before adjudication. 
' Appealed. 



P.D. 34. 



77 



For Sale 


of Milk containing Added Water- 


-Concluded. 




Buderick, John W. . 


Waltham. 


Waltham. 


June 


20, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Costa, Jesse 


Tiverton, R. I. 


Fall River 


July 


25, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Cox, George W. 


West Bridgewater 


Brockton. 


Nov. 


21, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Fachini, Anthony . 


North Adams , 


North Adams. 


May 


17, 


1927 


Conviction.' 


Floyd Milk Company 


Winthrop 


East Boston . 


June 


30, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Floyd ^Iilk Company 


Winthrop 


East Boston . 


June 


30, 


1927 


Discharged. 


Harrison, Benjamin M. . 


Acton 


Concord . 


Oct. 


7, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Janakonis, Mary 


Bridgewater . 


Brockton 




Nov. 


14, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Kahayian, Garabed 


Stow 


Hudson 




Apr. 


20, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Kielbasa, John. 


Westfield. 


Westfield 




Jan. 


8, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Kohlrausch, George E. . 


Westf ord , 


Ayer 




Apr. 


28, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Maffei, Giacomo 


Chnton . 


Clinton 




Apr. 


29, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Merden, John . 


Milford . 


Milford 




Sept. 


8, 


1927 


-2 


Mortensen, Erner H. 


HoUiston . 


Franklin 




Apr. 


23, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Proulx, Ovide . 


Southbridge 


Southbridge . 


Jan. 


7, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Rummo, Frank 


Milford . 


Milford . 


Sept. 


8, 


1927 


_2 


Saukalow-itz, Stanley 


Millville . 


Blackstone 


Dec. 


10, 


1926 


Conviction. 


Smith, John 


Newburyport . 


Newburyport . 


Oct. 


20, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Staniunas, Anthony 


Bolton 


Clinton . 


Apr. 


29, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Steele, Seraphin G. . 


Provincetown . 


Provincetown . 


Oct. 


27, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Talent, Robert. 


Millis 


Franklin 




Apr. 


23, 


1927 


Conviction. 



Selling as Pasteurized Milk, Milk which was not Pasteurized. 

Floyd Milk Company . . Winthrop . . East Boston . . June 30, 1927 Conviction. 



For Sale of Cream not of Good Standard Quality. 



Name. Address. 

Boulevard Restaurant & 

Coffee Pot, Inc. . . . Pittsfield . 
Brockelman Brothers Com- 
pany, Inc Lowell 

Dakis, WiUiam A. . . Holyoke . 

Dascale, Nicholas . . Newburyport 

Fun, Joe Holyoke . 

Jim, Charlie .... Lynn 

Kokaras, James . . . Amesbury 

Lampropoulous, Peter . . Lowell 

Lang, Ung .... Springfield 

Wong, Kam A. ... Lawrence 

Wong, Kam A. . . . Lawrence 

Wong, P. Howe . . . Northampton 



Court. 
Pittsfield . 

Lowell 

Holyoke . 

Newburyport 

Holyoke . 

Lynn 

Amesbury 

Lowell 

Springfield 

Lawrence 

Lawrence 

Northampton 



Date. 



Result. 



Jan. 25, 1927 Conviction. 



Jan. 
Feb. 
Jan. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Jan. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Jan. 



3, 1927 
16, 1927 
21, 1927 
16, 1927 

24, 1927 

25, 1927 
21, 1927 
11, 1927 
23, 1926 
23, 1926 
20, 1927 



Conviction. 

Conviction. 

Conviction. 

Conviction. 

Conviction. 

Conviction. 

Conviction. 

Conviction. 

Conviction.' 

Conviction. 3 

Conviction. 



For Sale of Adulterated or Misbranded Foods Other than Milk and Milk Products. 

Butter. 
[Low Standard.] 
Franklin Creameries, Incor- 
porated Springfield . . Springfield . . Dec. 23, 1926 Conviction. 



Collins, Bernard 
Duffy, Joseph . 
Duffy, William F. . 
Freeman, Damon W. 
Miller, Lawrence C. 
Smart, Albert A. 
Wells, Victor R. 



Dold Packing Company, 

Jacob 
Gold, David . 
Gold, David 
Kaizer, Bernard 
Libby, John H. 
Thayer, William J 
Whitfield, William W 

Hambtjeg Steak. 
[Selling, or Offering for^Sale, Meat Containing Sodium Sulphite in Violation of the Regulations of the 

Department of Public Health.] 
Barron, Benjamin L. 
Dobosz, John . 
Fitts Brothers, Incorporated. 
Goodstine, Abraham 
Jacobson, Louis 
Kilduff, Thomas M. 







Clams. 
















[Sewage Polluted.] 








Boston . 




. Boston . . Aug. 


29, 


1927 


Conviction.3 


Revere 






Boston 






Nov. 


4, 


1927 


Conviction.' 


Revere 






Boston 






Nov. 


4, 


1927 


Conviction.' 


Winthrop 






Boston 






Nov. 


4, 


1927 


Conviction.' 


Ipswich . 






Boston 






Nov. 


4, 


1927 


Discharged. 


Lynn 






Boston 






Nov. 


4, 


1927 


Conviction.' 


Winthrop 






Boston 






Nov. 


4, 


1927 


Conviction.' 






Eggs. 












Misbranded.] 








BufTalo, N. 


Y. 


Northampton. . Mar. 


10, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Springfield 






Springfield 




Mar. 


30, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Springfield 






Springfield 




Mar. 


30, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Worcester 






W orcester 




Dec. 


2, 


1926 


Conviction.' 


Providence 


R 


I. 


Fall River 




Dec. 


14, 


1926 


Conviction. 


Worcester 






Worcester 




Dec. 


2, 


1926 


Conviction.' 


Providence 


R 


I. 


Fall Rive 


r 




Dec. 


14. 


1926 


Conviction. 



Somerville 


Somerville 


. Feb. 


8 


1927 


Conviction. 


Holyoke . 


Holyoke . 


. May 


25 


1927 


Conviction. 


Framingham . 


Framingham . 


Apr. 


11 


1927 


Conviction. 


. Roxbury . 


Roxbury . 


Mar. 


11 


1927 


Conviction. 


. Fitchburg 


Fitchburg 


Mar. 


8 


1927 


Conviction. 


. Roxbury . 


Roxbury . 


Mar. 


11 


1927 


Conviction. 



1 Sentence suspended. 

2 Filed without finding. 
' Appealed. 



78 
















P.D. 34. 


For Sale of Adulterated or Misbranded Foods Other than Milk and Milk Products — 


Concluded. 










Hamburg Steak — Concluded. 










Kline, William .... Lynn 


Lynn 


Feb. 


24, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Lebow, "William 






Cambridge 


Cambridge 


Jan. 


18, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Matusek, Frank 






Holyoke . 


Holyoke . 


Feb. 


2, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Miller, Phillip . 






Somerville 


Somerville 


Feb. 


23, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Munafo, Guy . 






Boston . 


Boston 


Apr. 


5, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Naznayko, Michael 






Northampton . 


Northampton . 


Mar. 


30, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Parent, John . 






Haverhill 


Haverhill 


Dec. 


28, 


1926 


Discharged. 


Porter, John . 






Brookline 


Brookline 


Jan. 


13, 


1927 


Dismissed. 


Porter, Ruben . 






Brookline 


Brookline 


Jan. 


13, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Sawyer, Morris 






Taunton . 


Taunton . 


Jan. 


28, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Sava, Samuel . 






Brookline 


Brookline 


Jan. 


27, 


1927 


Dismissed. 


Waks, David . 






Boston 


Dorchester 


Jan. 


12, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Ward, Jacob 






Broolvline 


Brookline 


Jan. 


21, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Woburn Provision Company, 












Inc Woburn . 


Woburn . 


Mar. 


1, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Maple Sugar. 










[Contained cane sugar other than maple 


.] 








Albiani Lunch Company Boston . 


Boston . 


June 


18, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Alpha Lunch Company . 


Worcester 


W orcester 


Mar. 


22, 


1927 


Conviction.i 


Maliotis, Charles 




Boston . 


Boston . 


June 


16, 


1927 


Conviction. 1 


Papanicou, John 






Boston . 


Boston . 


June 


16, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Parker, Charles W. 






Worcester 


W orcester 


Apr. 


12, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Stathis, Anthony 






Somerville 


Somerville 


June 


23, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Vincensini, Phillip 






Boston . 


Boston 


June 


18, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Sausage. 










[Contained starch 


n excess of 2 per cent 


•] 








Bartz, Frank .... Boston 


Boston . 


Feb. 


15, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Beargeon, Edgar 




Springfield 


Springfield 


Mar. 


30, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Feilteau, Hubert J. . 




Lynn 


Lynn 


Mar. 


7, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Hunt Company, A. C. 




Springfield 


West field. 


Feb. 


10, 


1927 


Conviction. 


La Liberte, Antoine 




Lowell 


Lowell 


Feb. 


3, 


1927 


Conviction. 


La Liberte, Honore . 




Holyoke . 


Holyoke . 


Feb. 


2, 


1927 


Conviction. 


La Liberte, Honore . 




Holyoke . 


Holyoke . 


Apr. 


8, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Manley, Arthur 




Methuen . 


■ Lawrence 


Dec. 


17, 


1926 


Conviction. 


Sitarz, Stanislaw 




Chicopee . 


Springfield 


May 


19, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Sa 


USAGE. 










[Contained 


coloring matter.] 










Bartz, Frank .... Boston . 


Boston 


Nov. 


23, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Cesati, Edmund . . . Haverhill 

Sa 


Haverhill 

USAGE. 


Dec. 


28, 


1926 


Conviction. 


[Contained a compound of sul 


phur dioxide not properly labeled.] 




Name. Address. 


Court. 


Date 




Result. 


Arntz, Bernard J. . Jamaica Plain 


West Roxbury 


Feb. 


28, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Bartz, Frank . 






Boston . 


Boston 


Nov. 


23, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Beauchamp, Ovila 






Holyoke . . , 


Northampton. 


Jan. 


20, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Kocot, Boleslaw 






Northampton . 


Northampton . 


Jan. 


20, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Kusnierz, Peter 






Holyoke . 


Holyoke . 


Feb. 


2, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Lenarcen, Michael 






Holyoke . 


Holyoke . 


Jan. 


6, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Meyer, William B. 






Somerville 


Maiden . 


Feb. 


17, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Popielarczyk, Stanley 




Northampton . 


Northampton . 


Jan. 


20, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Solomon, Samuel 




Springfield 


Springfield 


Mar. 


30, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Sc 


ALLOPS. 










[Containec 


. added water.] 










First National Stores, Incor- 












porated Brookline 

Soft 
[Containec 


Brookline 

Drinks. 

[ benzoic acid.] 


July 


19, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Ducharme, Ephrine . Chicopee . 


Springfield 


Apr. 


5, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Kuczarski, Frank A. . Springfield 


Springfield 


Apr. 


20, 


1927 


Conviction. 


Lipovsk, Max . 






Springfield 


Springfield 


. Mar 


30, 


1927 


Conviction. 



Dunphy, William . 

Fitts Brothers, Inc.. 
Silva, Manuel . 



Soft Drink. 

[Misbranded.] 

Salem . . . Salem 



Nov. 15, 1926 Conviction. 



For Sale of Decomposed Food. 

Clams. 
Framinghaml . . Framingham . . Nov. 22, 1927 Conviction. 



Lowell 



Eggs. 
Lowell 

'Appealed. 



Dec. 20, 1926 Conviction. 



P.D. 34. 



For Sale of Decomposed Food — Concluded. 



HAMBtiBG Steak. 
Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea 

Company .... Framingham . Framingham . . Feb. 7, 1927 

Zass, Herman .... Fall River . Fall River . Jan. 7. 1927 

Zass, Louis .... Fall River . . Fall River . . Jan. 7, 1927 



79 



Conviction. 
Discharged. 
Conviction.^ 



Biggins, Thomas J. . 
Doonan, Owen W. . 
Watson, Edward E. 



False and Misleading Advertising. 

Clams. 
[Falsely Advertising as Ipswich Clams.] 



Peabody . 
North Saugus. 
Lynnfield 



Peabody 

Lynn 

Peabody 



Aug. 16, 1927 
Aug. 26, 1927 
Aug. 16, 1927 



Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 



McEwen, Thomas R. 



Frozen Custard. 
Springfield . . Springfield 



Oct. 27, 1927 Conviction. 



Eggs. 
[Sale of Eggs which were not Fresh as Fresh Eggs.] 



Incor- 
Incor- 



Alpert, Samuel. 
Bogdornoff, Max 
Dakin Company 

porated, H. L. 
Dakin Company 

porated, H. L. 
Hannaford, Louise 
Kaizer, Bernard 
Ladabouche, Robert 
Quimby, Albert P. 
Strecker, Ernest 
Sullivan, Patrick A 
Varros, Peter . 



Astoria Cafeteria 

Boulevard Restaurant & 
Coffee Pot, Inc. . 

Boylston Cafeteria, Incor- 
porated .... 

Brockelman Brothers Com- 
pany, Inc. 

Burns, Harry . 

Buyukles, Theodore 

Chimes Spa, Inc. 

Chouchos, George . 

Conaris, Charles 

Demeo, Louis . 

Demetros, John 

Dip, Lee .... 

Dondi, Edward 

Durakis, Anthony E. 

Fisher, Lewis G. 

Georgens, James 

Georgian, John E. . 

Healey, Thomas J. . 

Ing, Wong ... 

Jackson's Confectionery Com- 
pany .... 

Johnson, Chrisloplias 

Kalenus, Harry 

King, Charlie . 

Loukas, Theodore H. 

Mataliotis, George . 

Morgan, Harry V. . 

Nangin, Yee 

Newberry Company, J. J. 

Papouleas, Alexander 

Papp, John J. . 

Pappas, Nicholas 

Peterson, Douglas . 

Princess Cafeteria, Incor- 
porated .... 

Puritan Lunch, Inc. 

Puritan Lunch, Inc. 

Rudman, Abraham A. . 

Shea, Alfred J. . 

Sterling Cafeteria, Incor- 
porated .... 

Sterling Cafeteria, Incor- 
porated .... 



Attleboro 
Lowell 

Worcester 

Worcester 

Lexington 

Worcester 

Fitchburg 

Essex 

Lawrence 

Chelsea . 

Brockton. 



Boston . 

Pittsfield . 

Boston . 

Lowell 

Fall River 

Northampton 

Boston 

Cambridge 

Milford . 

Waltham. 

Springfield 

Lawrence 

Pittsfield . 

Cambridge 

Lowell 

Roxbury . 

Cambridge 

Lowell 

Lawrence 

Holyoke . 

New Bedford 

Lawrence 

Plymouth 

Cambridge 

Boston . 

Lawrence 

Brighton . 

Worcester 

Salem 

Boston 

Lowell 

Holyoke . 

Medford . 
Roxbury . 
Roxbury . 
Cambridge 
Boston 

Roxbury . 

Roxbury . 



Attleboro 
. Lowell 

. Worcester 

Worcester 
Concord . 
Worcester 
Fitchburg 
Gloucester 
Lawrence 
Chelsea . 
. Brockton. 

Maple Syrup. 
Boston 



Pittsfield . 

Boston . 

Lowell 

Fall River 

Northampton 

Boston . 

Cambridge 

Milford . 

Waltham 

Springfield 

Lawrence 

Pittsfield . 

Cambridge 

Lowell 

Roxbury . 

Cambridge 

Lowell 

Lawrence 

Holyoke . 

New Bedford 

Lawrence 

Plymouth 

Cambridge 

Boston 

Lawrence 

Brighton . 

Worcester 

Salem 

Boston . 

Lowell 

Holyoke . 

Maiden . 
Roxbury . 
Roxbury . 
Cambridge 
Boston . 

Roxbury . 

Roxbury . 



Dec. 


21 


1926 


Conviction. 


Feb. 


4 


1927 


Conviction. 


Dec. 


2 


1926 


Conviction. 2 


Dec. 


2 


1926 


Conviction. 3 


Sept. 


14 


1927 


Conviction. 


Dec. 


2 


1926 


Conviction. 3 


Jan. 


7 


1927 


Conviction. 


Sept. 


1 


1927 


Conviction. 


Nov. 


IS 


1927 


Conviction.3 


Jan. 


21 


1927 


Conviction. 


Jan. 


10 


1927 


Conviction. 


June 


17 


1927 


Conviction. 


Jan. 


25 


1927 


Conviction. 


June 


17 


1927 


Conviction. 


Jan. 


3 


1927 


Conviction. 


Nov. 


11 


1927 


Conviction. 


Mar. 


30 


1927 


Conviction. 


June 


16 


1927 


Conviction. 


June 


29 


1927 


Conviction. 


Sept. 


8 


1927 


Conviction. 


Aug. 


17 


1927 


Conviction. 


May 


24 


1927 


Conviction. 


Dec. 


23 


1926 


Conviction.' 


Jan. 


25 


1927 


Conviction. 


June 


29 


1927 


Conviction. 


Jan. 


17 


1927 


Conviction. 


June 


29 


1927 


Conviction. 


Dec. 


13 


1926 


Conviction. 


Feb. 


4 


1927 


Conviction. 


Dec. 


17 


1926 


Conviction. 


Mar. 


18 


1927 


Conviction. 


Aug. 


15 


1927 


Conviction. 


Mar. 


7 


1927 


Conviction.2 


Aug. 


19 


1927 


Conviction.3 


Sept. 


2 


1927 


Conviction. 


June 


16 


1927 


Conviction. 


Mar. 


14 


1927 


Conviction.2 


Nov. 


6 


1927 


Discharged. 


Mar. 


17 


1927 


Conviction.3 


Jan. 


14 


1927 


Conviction. 


July 


13 


1927 


Conviction. 


Dec. 


20 


1926 


Conviction. 


Mar. 


25 


1927 


Conviction. 


Feb. 


25 


1927 


Conviction. 


June 


29 


1927 


Conviction. 3 


July 


1 


1927 


Conviction.3 


Dec. 


13 


1926 


Conviction. 


June 


16 


1927 


Conviction. 


June 


29 


1927 


Conviction. 


July 


1 


1927 


Conviction. 



' Continued indefinitely for sentence. 

2 Fined $10.00; sentence suspended. 

3 Appealed. 



80 



P.D. 34. 



False and Misleading Advertising — Concluded. 



Maple Strup — Concluded. 

Stritas, John .... Cambridge . . Cambridge 

Trites, John .... Middleboro Middleboro 

University Cafeteria, Incor- 
porated Cambridge Cambridge 

Wellworth Service Stores, 

Inc. Framingham . . Framingham 

Whiting Cafeteria, Incor- 
porated Boston . Boston 

"Wong, Frank .... Gloucester Gloucester 

"Worthy Lunch Company, 

Incorporated . Boston . . . Boston 



Conviction. 
Conviction. 



Dec. 13, 1926 

May 24, 1927 

Dec. 31, 1926 

July 7, 1927 

June 16, 1927 

Sept. 9, 1927 

July 13, 1927 Defaulted. 



Conviction. 
Conviction. 



Conviction. 
Conviction. 



Johnson, "William L. 



Pasteurized Milk. 
Winthrop . . East Boston 



June 30, 1927 Conviction. 



Finn, Manuel . 
"Walsh, John B. 



For Sale of Drugs Deficient in Strength. 



Maiden . 
Brookline 



Lime "Water. 

. Maiden . 
Brookline 



Earls, Edward O. . 

Finn, Manuel .... Maiden . 

Murphy Company, Inc., 

Eugene J Fitchburg 



Sweet Spirit of Nitre, 
Fitchburg Fitchburg 



Maiden 
Fitchburg 



Mar. 15, 1927 
Jan. 21, 1927 



Apr. 8, 1927 
Mar. 15, 1927 



Conviction. 
Conviction. 



Conviction. 
Conviction. 



Apr. 8, 1927 Conviction. 



For Violation of the Laws relative to Cold Storage. 



Selling 
Abraham, Henry 
Aleknas, Joseph M. 
Ancelmo, Antonio 
Angelakis, Louis 
Ash, Louis 
Baranow, Pawal 
Berthiame, Armond 
Bisson, Romeo. 
Bistowski, Frank 
Blaszezak, Michael 
Boyajian, Sarkis 
Brox, Nicholas. 
Bulavko, Nicholas 
Chausse, Aldige 
Chipouras, Peter 
Christopher, George 
Cincotta, Felix. 
Cohen, Morris . 
Coulomb, Oscar 
Corey, "William 
Daignault, Arthur 
Duggan, "William 
Ferraris, Hannibal 
Fitzgerald, Andrew 
Gilbroord, Israel 
Golaszewski, Julian 
Gold, David . 
Gold, David . 
Gouveia, Robert 
Hiller, Leo 
HoUis, Frank S. 
Hume, James . 
Jacobson, Max. 
Karp, Hyman . 
Kilduff, Thomas M 
Koch, Gottlieb. 
Koulouris, John 
Larievere, Ernest L 
Lenarcen, Michael 
Levesque, Arthur J. 
Lombara, Albert 
Malinski, Stanley 
Mathieu, George L. 
Morse, Abe 
Moses, Hormespas 
Moura, John 
Palmer, Samuel 
Pandiscio, Rocco 
Panitch, Abraham J 
Pasciak, Jacob . 
Patrick, Samuel 
Peach, Robert . 
Peribolas, Elias 



Cold Storage Eggs 
South Boston 
Milford . 
New Bedford 
Lynn 
Fall River 
Lowell 

Turners Falls 
FaU River 
Lowell 

New Bedford 
Lowell 
Lawrence 
Chelsea . 
New Bedford 
Lynn 

Cambridge 
Marlboro 
Chelsea . 
Fall River 
Lawrence 
Turners Falls 
Taunton . 
Everett . 
Marlboro 
Lawrence 
Millers Falls 
Springfield 
Springfield 
New Bedford 
Cambridge 
Chelsea . 
Arlington 
Holyoke . 
"Worcester 
Roxbury . 
Turners Falls 
Springfield 
New Bedford 
Holyoke . 
Fall River 
Lynn 
Fall River 
Turners Falls 
Roxbury . 
Chelsea . 
New Bedford 
Haverhill 
Fitchburg 
Chelsea . 
Lowell 
Lawrence 
Chelsea . 
Springfield 



without Marking 
South Boston 
Milford . 
New Bedford 
Lynn 
Fall River 
Lowell 
Greenfield 
Fall River 
Lowell 

New Bedford 
Lowell 
Lawrence 
Chelsea . 
New Bedford 
Lynn 

Cambridge 
Marlboro 
Chelsea . 
Fall River 
Lawrence 
Greenfield 
Taunton . 
Maiden . 
Marlboro 
Lawrence 
Greenfield 
Springfield 
Springfield 
New Bedford 
Cambridge 
Chelsea . 
Cambridge 
Holyoke . 
"Worcester 
Roxbury . 
Greenfield 
Springfield 
New Bedford 
Holyoke . 
Fall River 
Lynn 
Fall River 
Greenfield 
Roxbury . 
Chelsea . 
New Bedford 
Haverhill 
Fitchburg 
Chelsea . 
Lowell 
Lawrence 
Chelsea . 
Springfield 



THE Container 

Feb. 14, 1927 
Jan. 24 
Feb. 4 
Feb. 24 
Dec. 14 
Jan. 17 
Dec. 14 
Dec. 14 
Dec. 27 
Jan. 20 
Dec. 20 
Dec. 17 
Jan. 21 
Feb. 18 
Feb. 24 
Jan. 18 
Jan. 27 
Feb. 8 
Dec. 14 
Feb. 18 
Dec. 14 
Dec. 22 
Feb. 11 
Jan. 27 
Nov. 11 
Dec. 14 
Mar. 30 
Mar. 30 
Feb. 4 
Jan. 18 
Jan. 21 
Jan. 18 
Jan. 7 
Dec. 2 
Mar. 11 
Dec. 14 
Dec. 23 
Jan. 20, 
Jan. 6 
Dec. 14 
Feb. 24 
Dec. 14 
Dec. 14 
Jan. 19 
Jan. 21 
Feb. 4 
Dec. 28 
Jan. 7 
Jan. 21 
Deo. 20 
Dec. 17 
Jan. 21 
Dec. 23 



1927 
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1927 
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1927 
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1927 
1927 
1927 
1926 
1927 
1927 
1926 
1926 
1927 
1926 



Convicti 
Convict: 
Convict: 
Convict: 
Convict: 
Convict: 
Convict: 
Convict: 
Convict: 
Convicti 
Convicti 
Convicti 
Convicti 
Convict: 
Convicti 
Convicti 
Convict: 
Convict! 
Convicti 
Convict: 
Convict: 
Convict: 
Convict: 
Convicti 
Convict: 
Convicti 
Convicti 
Convicti 
Convict: 
Convict: 
Convict: 
Convicti 
Convict 
Convict 
Convicti 
Convict: 
Convicti 
Convict 
Convict 
Convict 
Convicti 
Convicti 
Convict: 
Convict 
Convict: 
Convicti 
Convict 
Convict: 
Convict: 
Convict 
Convict: 
Convicti 
Convicti 



on. 
on. 



on. 
on. 
on. 
on. 
on. 



on. 
on. 
on. 
on. 
on. 



on. 
on. 
on.i 



1 Appealed. 



P.D. 34. 



81 



For Violation of the Laws relative to Cold Storage — Concluded. 

Selling Cold Storage Eggs without Marking the Container — Concluded. 



Persky, Hyman 


Holyoke . 


Holyoke . 


Nov 


9 


1927 


Conviction. 


Persky, Robert 


Holyoke . 


Holyoke . 


Jan. 


6 


1927 


Conviction. 


Pollen, Jacob . 


Chelsea . 


Chelsea . 


Jan. 


21 


1927 


Conviction. 


Popko, Andrei . 


. Millers Falls 


Greenfield 


Dec. 


14 


1926 


Conviction. 


Pothier, Wilfred 


Northampton 


Northampton. 


Jan. 


20 


1927 


Conviction. 


Poulos, Vans-ilis 


Brockton. 


Brockton. 


Jan. 


15 


1927 


Conviction. 


Precuch, Albert 


. Turners Falls 


Greenfield 


Deo. 


14 


1926 


Conviction. 


Price, Abel S. . 


South Boston 


South Boston . 


Feb. 


14 


1927 


Conviction. 


Promisell, Louis 


. Chelsea . 


Chelsea . 


Jan. 


31 


1927 


Conviction. 


Puritan Grocery Stores, 


Inc. . New Bedford 


New Bedford . 


Jan. 


26 


1927 


Conviction. 


Rapnsode, Manuel F. 


Fall River 


. Fall River 


Dec. 


14 


1926 


Conviction. 


Rind, Leo . 


South Boston 


South Boston . 


Feb. 


14 


1927 


Conviction. 


Risner, Morris . 


Boston 


Roxbury . 


Jan. 


7 


1927 


Conviction. 


Russell, Morris 


Boston . 


Roxbury . 


Jan. 


11 


1927 


Conviction. 


Saniia, Albert . 


Lawrence 


Lawrence 


Dec. 


17 


1926 


Conviction. 


Scepasisky, Harry . 


Roxbury . 


Roxbury . 


Feb. 


14 


1927 


Conviction. 


Schein, Joseph . 


Taunton . 


Taunton . 


Dec. 


22 


1926 


Conviction. 


Schuhle, Martin 


Turners Falls 


Greenfield 


Dec. 


14 


1926 


Conviction. 


Simpson, Frank 


Methuen . 


Lawrence 


Dec. 


17 


1926 


Conviction. 


Singer, Mallie . 


. Boston 


Roxbury . 


Jan. 


11 


1927 


Conviction. 


Smith, George . 


Marlboro 


Marlboro 


Jan. 


27 


1927 


Conviction. 


Solomon, David 


Turners Falls 


Greenfield 


Dec. 


14 


1926 


Conviction. 


Sushel, Bernard 


Salem 


Salem 


Jan. 


14 


1927 


Conviction. 


Talbot, Victorian 


Fall River 


. Fall River 


Dec. 


14 


1926 


Conviction. 


Tobin, Harry . 


Roxbury . 


Roxbury . 


Feb. 


14 


1927 


Conviction. 


Uksanish, John 


Worcester 


Worcester 


Dec. 


2 


1926 


Conviction. 


Varros, Peter . 


Brockton. 


Brockton . 


Jan. 


10 


1927 


Conviction. 


Venetias, George 


New Bedford 


New Bedford . 


Feb. 


25 


1927 


Conviction. 


Whitman, Moses 


. Worcester 


Worcester 


Dec. 


2 


1926 


Conviction. 


Winer Company, H. 


Roxbury . 


Roxbury . 


Jan. 


11 


1927 


Conviction. 


Winer Company, H. 


Chelsea . 


Chelsea . 


Jan. 


21 


1927 


Conviction. 


Winer & Company, H. 


Roxbury . 


Roxbury . 


Mar. 


11 


1927 


Conviction. 


Winer Company, M. 


Cambridge 


Cambridge 


Jan. 


18 


1927 


Conviction. 


Wysocki, Charles . 


Northampton 


Northampton . 


Jan. 


20 


1927 


Conviction. 


Yazbeck, George 


Lawrence 


Lawrence 


Nov. 


18 


1927 


Conviction. 


Zaia, Gastino . 


. Everett . 
Representing Col 


Maiden . 
Storage Food as Frese 


Feb. 
[ Food. 


11 


1927 


Conviction. 


Gold, David . 


Springfield 


Springfield 


Mar. 


30 


1927 


Conviction. 


Gold, Da\'id 


Springfield 


Springfield 


Mar. 


30 


1927 


Conviction. 



Ullrich, Reinhold 



For Violation of the Laws relative to Slaughtering. 

Slaughtering without License. 
. Pittsfield. . . Pittsfield. . . Sept. 2, 1927 



Barnoff, Benjamin 
Katz, Joseph . 
ICing, Arthur . 
King, Arthur . 
Konkol, Karl . 
Walker, William 



Slaughtering or Authorizing Slaughtering in the Absence of Inspector. 



Sandisfield 
North Adams 
Sutton 
Sutton 
Aubxirn . 
Harwich . 



Great Barrington 
North Adams , 
W orcester 
Worcester 
Worcester 
Harwich . 



June 15, 1927 
June 2, 1927 
Jan. 26, 1927 
Jan. 26, 1927 
Aug. 19, 1927 
Feb. 18, 1927 



Conviction. 



Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 
Conviction. 



Selling, Offering for Sale, or Having in Possession with Intent to Sell, Unstamped Meat. 
Ptak, W Housatonic . . Great Barrington . Feb. 25, 1927 Conviction. 

Selling, Offering for Sale, or Having in Possession with Intent to Sell, Decomposed Meat. 
Garbatsky, Abraham . New Bedford . . New Bedford . . Nov. 29, 1927 Conviction.' 



King, Arthur 



Cohen, David 



Authorizing Sale of Diseased Meat. 
Sutton . . . Worcester 



For Sale of Diseased Meat. 
Worcester . W orcester 



Jan. 26, 1927 Conviction. 



Jan. 26, 1927 Discharged, 



As Inspector of Slaughtering Violated the Regulations of the Department. 

Hough, Charles A. . . Sutton Worcester . . Jan. 26, 1927 Discharged. 

Spring, Howard Sandisfield . Great Barrington . June 3, 1927 Conviction. 

Taylor, Charles H. . . . Harwich . Harwich . . . Feb. 18, 1927 Conviction. 

For Violation of the Sanitary Food Law. 

Atlantic Bottling Company . Hull. . . . Kingham. . . Dec. 7,1926 Conviction.i 

For Violation of the Soft Drink Law. 

Atlantic Bottling Company . Hull. . . . Hingham. . . Dec. 7,1926 Conviction.* 



For Violation of the Mattress Laws. 

Eastern Mattress & Bed 

Spring Company . . Lowell 



Busby, Roy W . 



Lowell 



Mar. 15, 1927 Conviction.' 



Obstruction of an Inspector. 

Great Barrington . Great Barrington . June 15, 1927 Discharged. 
' Appealed. 



82 



P.D. 34. 











Table 2 


. — Summary of Milk Statistics 










Total Samples 1 


S.VMPLES 


rouND NOT Adulterated. 




Niimber 
of 


AVERAGE. 


Number 
of 


AVERAGE. 




% 




% SoUdi 


% 




% SoUds 




Samples. 


Total 

Solids. 


% Fat. 


not 
Fat. 


Samples. 


Total 
Solid.s. 


% Fat. 


not 
Fat. 


December .... 


295 


12.52 


3.74 


8.78 


2s7 


12.56 


3.78 


8.78 


January 








291 


12.52 


3.74 


8.78 


288 


12.53 


3.75 


8.78 


February . 








364 


12.42 


3.72 


8.70 


354 


12.45 


3.75 


8.70 


March 








1,066 


12.42 


3.79 


8.63 


1,000 


12.50 


3.84 


8.66 


April . 








789 


12.28 


3.80 


8.48 


759 


12.33 


3.83 


8.50 


May . 








815 


12.48 


3.69 


8.79 


796 


12.52 


3.72 


8.80 


June . 








777 


12.42 


3.65 


8.77 


756 


12.45 


3.68 


8.77 


July . 








748 


12.35 


3.69 


8.66 


706 


12.41 


3.73 


8.68 


August 








592 


12.26 


3.71 


8.55 


553 


12.43 


3.79 


8.64 


September 








677 


12.22 


3.67 


8.54 


650 


12.27 


3.71 


8.56 


October 








591 


12.37 


3.70 


8.67 


561 


12.42 


3.72 


8.70 


November. 








543 


12.41 


3.68 


8.73 


500 


12.53 


3.74 


8.79 


Total Averages 


7,548 


12.38 


3.72 


8.66 


7,210 


12.45 


3.76 


8.68 









Table 3. - 


- Summary of Milk Samples Examined. 






Number of Samples. 1 


Per Cent Total Solids. 






a 




-6 


■d 
























ll 


"a 
p 




1 
i 


15 


14 


13 


12 


11 


10 


9 


8 


Below 

8 




< 


m 


E- 


o 




















December 


262 


33 


295 


7 


1 


1 


3 


39 


219 


29 


4 


- 


- 


- 


January 


257 


34 


291 


3 


_ 


1 


3 


33 


220 


31 


3 


— 


- 


- 


February 


301 


63 


364 


10 


- 


1 


3 


45 


252 


60 


3 


- 


- 


- 


March 


831 


235 


1,066 


33 


33 


6 


28 


167 


630 


211 


23 


1 


- 


- 


April 


622 


167 


789 


12 


18 


5 


16 


87 


514 


148 


15 


2 


- 


2 


May. 


697 


118 


815 


14 





2 


7 


128 


560 


108 


8 


1 


— 


1 


June. 


642 


135 


777 


18 


3 


— 


11 


95 


536 


123 


11 


1 


- 


- 


July. 


540 


208 


748 


27 


15 


12 


23 


80 


425 


182 


22 


4 


- 


— 


August 


402 


190 


592 


18 


21 


4 


12 


76 


310 


156 


29 


5 


- 


- 


Septembe 


r 497 


180 


677 


12 


15 


8 


8 


54 


427 


165 


14 


- 


1 


- 


October 


450 


141 


591 


6 


24 


2 


6 


74 


368 


131 


10 


- 


- 


- 


Novembe 


r 460 


83 


543 


20 


23 


3 


9 


55 


393 


68 


14 


1 


- 


- 


Totals 


5,961 


1,587 


7,548 


180 


158 


45 


129 


933 


4,854 


1,412 


156 


15 


1 


3 



Table 4. — Food Samples collected during 1927. 

Character of Sample. Genuine. Adulterated. Total. 

Butter 79 22 101 

Canned Goods 2 — 2 

Cereal 1 - 1 

Cider 6 1 7 

Clams 3 6 9 

Cocoanut Oil 1 - 1 

Confectionery 6 - 6 

Cream 80 15 95 

Dried Fruits 4 6 10 

Eggs 129 187 316 

Evaporated Milk 10 - 10 

Flavoring Extracts 1 - 1 

Honey 1 - 1 

Ice Cream 42 5 47 

Lard 1 - 1 

Maple Sugar 19 4 23 

Maple Syrup 46 87 133 

Meat Products: 

Bologna 1' — 1 

Frankforts 3 - 3 

Hamburg 89 29 118 

Kiszki - 2 2 

Mince Meat 2 1 3 

Sausage 664 67 731 

Nuts 33 11 44 

Olive Oil 7 1 8 

Oranges 69 2 71 

Orange Juice 1 - 1 

Oysters - 2 2 

Proprietary Foods 1 - 1 

Scallops 10 2 12 

Seasonings 1 - 1 

Smoked Fish 3 - 3 

Smoked Salmon 2 5 7 

Soft Drinks 58 4 62 

Vinegar 10 1 11 

Totals 1.385 460 1,845 



P.D. 34. 

Table 5. — Drug Samples collected during 1927. 

Character of Sample. Genuine. Adulterated. 

Camphorated Oil 1 ~ 

Citrate of Magnesia 1 ~ 

Diluted Acetic Acid 10 5 

Hamamelis Water 1 — 

Hydrogen Dioxide 2 — 

Lime Water 27 6 

Prescription ........... 1 ~ 

Proprietary Drug 1 ~ 

Spirit of Camphor 5 - 

Spirit of Nitrous Ether 45 28 

Syrup of Squill 33 3 

Tincture of Iodine 1 - 

Totals 128 41 



83 



Total. 
1 
1 

15 
1 
2 

32 
1 
1 
5 

73 

36 
1 





Table e 


. 


— Summary of Liquor Samples examined during 1927. 




CrriES AND Towns. 


Beer. 


Cider. 


Wine. 


Dia- 
tiUed 
Spirits. 


Ex- 
tracts. 


Alco- 
hol. 


Miscel- 
laneous. 


Total 
1927. 


Total 
1926. 


Arlington 


6 


- 


1 


17 


- 


7 


- 


31 


37 


Beverly . 






7 


- 


9 


5 


- 


5 


— 


26 


42 


Boston 






252 


- 


197 


1,527 


3 


376 


143 


2,498 


2,424 


Cambridge 






65 


1 


50 


261 


- 


34 


20 


431 


570 


Chelsea . 






34 


— 


6 


122 


- 


5 


11 


178 


29 


Chicopee . 






11 


- 


- 


4 


- 


- 


1 


16 


21 


Clinton 






6 


- 


5 


17 


1 


4 


— 


33 


15 


Dedham . 






2 


2 


7 


13 


- 


1 


1 


26 


12 


East Longmeadow 






3 


- 


20 


3 


- 


- 


- 


26 


— 


Everett . 






6 


- 


15 


60 


— 


8 


- 


89 


72 


Fall River 






25 


2 


9 


73 


— 


1 


3 


113 


166 


Fitchburg 






66 


2 


26 


25 


1 


17 


2 


139 


110 


Framingham . 






8 


- 


12 


8 


- 


1 


- 


29 


21 


Gardner . 






4 


— 


- 


7 


- 


1 


1 


13 


22 


Gloucester 






10 


- 


16 


30 


- 


21 


5 


82 


101 


Haverhill. 






35 


3 


18 


4 


- 


5 


2 


67 


90 


Holyoke . 






3 


- 


- 


- 


— 


— 


" 


3 


23 


Lawrence 






65 


- 


12 


89 


— 


27 


6 


199 


241 


Leominster 






21 


2 


15 


15 


1 


7 


- 


61 


68 


Lowell 






486 


4 


26 


273 


- 


39 


74 


902 


696 


Lynn 








23 


2 


32 


164 


— 


56 


22 


299 


355 


Maiden 








74 


- 


31 


327 


- 


32 


11 


475 


272 


Marlboro 








22 


— 


12 


44 


- 


7 


24 


109 


154 


Medford 








10 


— 


- 


71 


— 


6 


2 


89 


52 


Melrose 








1 


— 


1 


17 


— 


- 


1 


20 


5 


Milford 








24 


- 


27 


28 


— 


2 


4 


85 


40 


Newburyport . 






4 


- 


2 


6 


- 


- 


1 


13 


35 


Newton . 






3 


- 


7 


13 


- 


2 


2 


27 


21 


North Adams . 






1 


— 


- 


4 


— 


1 


— 


6 


4 


Northampton . 






1 


- 


- 


14 


— 


2 


1 


18 


— 


Norwood . 






5 


2 


1 


13 


— 


- 


- 


21 


23 


Peabody . 






2 


- 


- 


47 


2 


2 


— 


53 


65 


Pittsfield . 






15 


2 


1 


10 


- 


2 


1 


31 


36 


Quincy 






6 


— 


25 


89 


— 


47 


7 


174 


66 


Revere 






29 


— 


24 


26 


— 


7 


- 


86 


68 


Rockland 






7 


- 


6 


10 


— 


3 


4 


30 


20 


Salem 






33 


— 


27 


36 


— 


39 


2 


137 


111 


Salisbury . 






6 


- 


2 


7 


- 


4 


1 


20 


30 


Somerville 






13 


— 


4 


81 


- 


6 


— 


104 


64 


Southbridge 






14 


- 


- 


U 


— 


3 


— 


28 


11 


Springfield 






96 


3 


63 


222 


— 


11 


11 


406 


352 


Stoughton 






2 


- 


— 


18 


— 


4 


- 


24 


30 


Taunton . 






25 


- 


4 


21 


— 


1 


2 


53 


69 


Wakefield 






6 


— 


11 


25 


- 


6 


4 


52 


83 


Walpole . 






4 


— 


23 


17 


— 


10 


7 


61 


77 


Waltham . 






7 


— 


7 


28 


— 


8 


8 


58 


63 


Watertown 






6 


— 


12 


19 


— 


- 


- 


37 


39 


Webster . 






10 


- 


3 


16 


— 


- 


1 


30 


20 


Weymouth 






23 


1 


2 


25 


- 


6 


- 


57 


14 


What«ly . 






9 


2 


2 


7 


— 


1 


— 


21 


6 


Wobum . 






2 


- 


4 


24 


- 


5 


- 


35 


40 


Department of Public 




















Safety .... 


165 


35 


67 


252 


— 


36 


25 


580 


919 


Met. Diat. Comm.. 


7 


- 


6 


9 


- 


1 


1 


24 


— 


Miscellaneous^ 


159 


21 


59 


275 


- 


66 


10 


590 


- 


Totals 


1,929 


84 


909 


4,529 


8 


935 


421 


8,815 


7,904 



I Ninety-four towns submitted less than 20 samples and the Board of Registration in Pharmacy submitted 
590 samples. 



84 



P.D. 34. 









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Miscel- 
laneous 
Frozen 

Fish 
(Pounds). 


431,722 
136,946 
58,805 
37,379 
115,915 
263,468 
211,517 
532,118 
621,849 
171,003 
254,671 
224,075 




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(Pounds) . 


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Fall and 

Silver 

Salmon 

(Pounds). 


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UOCOO(MCO ION — 1000 


Cod, 
Hake, 
Pollock 

and 
Haddock 
(Pounds). 


OiC<lCOCO00O2COC^C^COcOCO 
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Miscel- 
laneous 
Frozen 

Fish 
(Pounds). 


879,126 

735,353 

502,035 

326,685 

332.333 

559.271 

696,377 

1,195,651 

1,684,618 

1,629,443 

1,332,618 

1.235,077 


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Smelts, 

Eula- 

chon, etc. 

(Pounds) . 


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Silver 

Salmon 

(Pounds) . 


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Hake, 
Pollock 

and 
Haddock 
(Pound.s) . 


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86 

Summary. 
Requests for extension of time granted . 

Eggs . 

Poultry 

Game . 

Meat . 

Fish . 

Requests for extension of time not granted 

Poultry 

Meat 

Fish 

Articles ordered removed from storage (no requests made) 
Eggs . 
Poultry 
Game . 
Meat . 
Fish . 



P.D 


34. 




206 


5 




40 




1 




30 




130 






16 


6 




2 




8 






63 


1 




24 




2 





28 



Table 11. — Requests for Extension of Time granted on Goods in Cold Storage from 
December 1, 1926, to December 1, 1927. 

[Reason for such extension being that goods were in proper condition for further storage.] 
Weight Placed in Extension 



Abticle 










(Pounds) 


Storage. 


Granted to — 


Name. 


Egg whites 


. 2,772 


June 


19261 


June 


30, 1927 


Handy, H. L., Co. 


Egg whites 










. 2,160 


May 


31, 1926 


July 


8, 1927 


Lewis, Mears Co. 


Egg whites 










. 6,790 


June 


14, 1926 


Sept 


14, 1927 


Lewis, Mears Co. 


Egg whites 










. 3,000 


June 


23, 1926 


Sept 


23, 1927 


Lewis, Mears Co. 


Egg whites 










. 1,980 


July 


3, 1926 


Oct. 


3, 1927 


Lewis, Mears Co. 


Capons . 










. 2,464 


Feb. 


3, 1926 


Apr. 


2, 1927 


Radio Brothers. 


Chickens 










349 


Dec. 


29, 1925 


Feb. 


28, 1927 


Alley, Greene & Pipe Co. 


Chickens 










658 


Dec. 


29, 1925 


Feb. 


28, 1927 


AUey, Greene & Pipe Co. 


Chickens 










883 


Dec. 


29, 1925 


Feb. 


28, 1927 


Alley, Greene & Pipe Co. 


Chickens 










. 3,336 


Dec. 


29, 1925 


Feb. 


28, 1927 


Alley, Greene & Pipe Co. 


Chickens 










. 4,252 


Dec. 


29, 1925 


Feb. 


28, 1927 


Alley, Greene & Pipe Co. 


Chickens 










. 3,153 


Dec. 


30, 1925 


Feb. 


28, 1927 


Alley, Greene & Pipe Co. 


Chickens 










. 1,091 


Aug. 


16, 1926 


Jan. 


16, 1928 


Berman & Co., Inc. 


Chickens 










. 1,538 


Nov. 


30, 1926 


Dec. 


30, 1927 


Berman & Co., Inc. 


Chickens 










5,262 


Dec. 


2, 1926 


Jan. 


1, 1928 


Berman & Co., Inc. 


Chickens • 










1,851 


Dec. 


7, 1926 


Jan. 


1, 1928 


Berman & Co., Inc. 


Chickens 










1,558 


Oct. 


23, 1925 


Jan. 


1, 1927 


First National Stores, Inc. 


Chickens 










2,503 


Nov. 


16, 1925 


Jan. 


16, 1927 


First National Stores, Inc. 


Chickens 










835 


Jan. 


8, 1926 


Feb. 


8, 1927 


First National Stores, Inc. 


Chickens 










21,719 


Dec. 


7, 1925 


Feb. 


7, 1927 


Hosmer, F. H., & Co. 


Chickens 










1,380 


Dec. 


11, 1925 


Feb. 


11, 1927 


Hosmer, F. H., & Co. 


Chickens 










5,996 


Dec. 


11, 1925 


Feb. 


11, 1927 


Hosmer, F. H., & Co. 


Chickens 










1,968 


Dec. 


29, 1925 


Feb. 


28, 1927 


Hosmer, F. H., & Co. 


Chickens 










1,728 


Dec. 


30, 1925 


Feb. 


28, 1927 


Hosmer, F. H., & Co. 


Chickens 










1,741 


Dec. 


30, 1925 


Feb. 


28, 1927 


Hosmer, F. H., & Co. 


Chickens 










2,256 


Dec. 


30, 1925 


Feb. 


28, 1927 


Hosmer, F. H., & Co. 


Chickens 










2,640 


Dec. 


30, 1925 


Feb. 


28, 1927 


Hosmer, F. H., & Co. 


Chickens 










247 


Dec. 


7, 1925 


Feb. 


15, 1927 


Lamson & Co. 


Chickens 










1,332 


Dec. 


7, 1925 


Feb. 


15, 1927 


Lamson & Co. 


Chickens 










2,651 


Dec. 


7, 1925 


Feb. 


15, 1927 


Lamson & Co. 


Chickens 










2,775 


Dec. 


7, 1925 


Feb. 


15, 1927 


Lamson & Co. 


Chickens 










782 


Dec. 


11, 1925 


Feb. 


15, 1927 


Lamson & Co. 


Chickens 










1,857 


Dec. 


11, 1925 


Feb. 


15, 1927 


Lamson & Co. 


Chickens 










2,975 


Dec. 


11, 1925 


Feb. 


15, 1927 


Lamson & Co. 


Chickens 










7,586 


Dec. 


11, 1925 


Feb. 


15, 1927 


Lamson & Co. 


Chickens 










692 


Dec. 


14, 1925 


Feb. 


15, 1927 


Lamson & Co. 


Chickens 










827 


Dec. 


14, 1925 


Feb. 


15, 1927 


L3,mson & Co. 


Chickens 










882 


Dec. 


14, 1925 


Feb. 


15, 1927 


Lamson & Co. 


Chickens 










1,160 


Dec. 


14, 1925 


Feb. 


15, 1927 


Lamson & Co. 


Chickens 










1,158 


Aug. 


24, 1926 


Nov. 


23, 1927 


Meataer, A. F., & Co. 


Chickens 










281 


Sept. 


18, 1926 


Nov. 


17, 1927 


Mentzer, A. F., & Co. 


Chickens 










1,398 


Dec. 


28, 1925 


Feb. 


28, 1927 


Pratt, F. B., Co. 


Chickens 










203 


Nov. 


10, 1926 


Jan. 


26, 1928 


Weston-Thurston Co. 


Chickens 










122 


Nov. 


20, 1926 


Jan. 


26, 1928 


Weston-Thurston Co. 


Fowl 










6,975 


Mar. 


10, 1926 


May 


10, 1927 


Hosmer, F. H., & Co. 


Venison . 










96 


Nov. 


27, 1926 


Feb. 


1, 1928 


Davis, Fred E. 


Beef 










4,733 


Jan. 


19, 1926 


Feb. 


19, 1927 


Berger & TackefE. 


Beef 










1,261 


Dec. 


21, 1925 


Jan. 


21, 1927 


First National Stores, Inc. 


Beef 










2,695 


June 


5, 1926 


Sept. 


16, 1927 


MacLoud, George H. 


Beef 










27,493 


Nov. 


15, 1926 


Jan. 


1, 1928 


New England Dressed Meat 
and Wool Co. 


Beef 










3,562 


Nov. 


19, 1926 


Jan. 


1, 1928 


New England Dressed Meat 
and Wool Co. 


Beef 










10,252 


Nov. 


26, 1926 


Jan. 


1, 1928 


New England Dressed Meat 












and Wool Co. 



' Imported, original date of storage unknown. 



P.D. 34. 
Table 11.— 



Article. 
Beef loins 
Beef loins 
Beef loins 
Beef loins 
Beef loins 
Beef loins 
Beef loins 
Beef loins 
Beef loins 
Beef loins 
Beef loins 
Beef loins 
Beef loins 
Beef loins 
Beef loins 
Beef loins 
Beef ribs 
Beef ribs 
Beef ribs 
Beef ribs 
Beef ribs 
Beef ribs 
Beef tenderloins 

Beef tenderloins 



Butterfish 

Cod 

Flounders 

Flounders 

Halibut . 

Halibut . 

Halibut . 

Halibut . 

Halibut . 

Halibut . 

Halibut . 

Halibut . 

Halibut . 

Halibut . 

Halibut . 

Halibut . 

Halibut . 

Halibut . 

Halibut . 

Halibut . 

Halibut . 

Halibut . 

Halibut . 

Halibut . 
Halibut . 
Halibut . 
Halibut . 
Halibut . 
Halibut . 
Halibut . 
Halibut . 
Halibut . 
Halibut . 
Halibut . 
Halibut . 
Halibut . 
Halibut . 
Halibut . 
Halibut . 
Halibut . 
Halibut . 
Halibut . 
Herring . 
Mackerel 
Mackerel 
Mackerel 
Mackerel 
Mackerel 
Mackerel 
Mackerel 
Mackerel 
Mackerel 
Mackerel^ 
Mackerel^ 
Mackerel 
Mackerel 
Mackerel 
Mackerel^ 



87 
Requests for Extension of Time granted on Goods in Cold Storage from 
December 1, 1926, to December 1, 1927. — Continued. 

Weight Placed in Extension 

(Pounds). Storage. Granted to — Name. 



853 May 14, 1926 Aug. 

631 May 15, 1926 Aug. 

348 May 19, 1926 Aug. 

548 May 21, 1926 Aug. 

852 May 25, 1926 Aug. 

221 May 26, 1926 Aug. 

486 June 4, 1926 Aug. 

1,494 June 11, 1926 Aug. 



1, 1927 Andrews & Pierce, Inc. 

1, 1927 Andrews & Pierce, Inc. 

1, 1927 Andrews & Pierce, Inc. 

1, 1927 Andrews & Pierce, Inc. 

1, 1927 Andrews & Pierce, Inc. 

1, 1927 Andrews & Pierce, Inc. 

1, 1927 Andrews & Pierce, Inc. 

1, 1927 Andrews & Pierce, Inc. 



870 Mar. 27, 1926 May 27, 1927 Armour & Co. 

983 Apr. 10, 1926 June 10, 1927 Armour & Co. 

482 May 11, 1926 July 30, '1927 Fletcher, J. V., Co. 

1,292 May 11, 1926 July 30, 1927 Fletcher, J. V., Co. 

1,358 May 12, 1926 July 30, 1927 Fletcher, J. V., Co. 

754 May 19, 1926 July 30, 1927 Fletcher, J. V., Co. 

828 May 19, 1926 July 30, 1927 Fletcher, J. V., Co. 

6,468 May 17, 1926 July 16, 1927 Pineo Brothers, Inc. 

181 May 19, 192S Aug. 1, 1927 Andrews & Pierce, Inc. 

193 May 26, 1926 Aug. 1, 1927 Andrews & Pierce, Inc. 

173 May 27, 1926 Aug. 1, 1927 Andrews & Pierce, Inc. 

461 Mar. 27, 1926 May 27, 1927 Armour & Co. 

302 Apr. 10, 1926 June 10, 1927 Armour & Co. 

689 June 11, 1926 July 30, 1927 Fletcher, J. V., Co. 

2,023 Apr. 26, 1926' June 30, 1927 New England Dressed Meat 

and Wool Co. 

3,659 May 22, 19261 Ju^e 30, 1927 New England Dressed Meat 

and Wool Co. 

600 Sept. 11, 1926 Dec. 11, 1927 Russo & Sons. 

4,436 Oct. 5, 1926 Jan. 5, 1928 Whitman, Ward & Lee Co. 

52,991 May 12, 1926 Dec. 30, 1927 ProvincetownColdStorageCo. 

2,000 Sept. 10, 1926 Nov. 10, 1927 Spivak, Barney. 

816 June 30, 1926 Dec. 30, 1927 Arnold & Winsor Co. 

14,700 Oct. 11, 1926 Apr. 11, 1928 Atlantic Halibut Co. 

12,852 Nov. 6, 1926 Mar. 6, 1928 Atlantic Halibut Co. 

14,291 Nov. 6, 1926 Mar. 6, 1928 Atlantic Halibut Co. 

6,000 Nov. 12, 1926 Mar. 12, 1928 Atlantic Halibut Co. 

9,074 Nov. 18, 1926 Mar. 18, 1928 Atlantic Halibut Co. 

14,900 Nov. 18, 1926 Mar. 18, 1928 Atlantic Halibut Co. 

1,840 July 1, 1926 Dec. 1, 1927 Best Fish Co., The. 

2,518 June 10, 1926 Dec. 10, 1927 Burns-McKeon Co. 

380 Aug. 18, 1926 Dec. 18, 1927 Burns-McKeon Co. 

1,984 Oct. 15, 1926 Jan. 1, 1928 Burns-McKeon Co. 

1,400 Nov. 5, 1926 Mar. 6, 1928 Burns-McKeon Co. 

200 Sept. 17, 1926 Dec. 17, 1927 Fulham & Herbert. 

270 Oct. 1, 1926 Dec. 31, 1927 Harding, F. E., & Co. 

140 Oct. 9, 1926 Dec. 31, 1927 Harding, F. E., & Co. 

255 Oct. 9, 1926 Dec. 31, 1927 Harding, F. E., & Co. 

700 May 8, 1926 Dec. 1, 1927 Hunt, Cassius, & Co. 

5,200 May 11, 1926 Dec. 1, 1927 Hunt, Cassius, & Co. 

800 June 11, 1926 Dec. 11, 1927 Neal, John R., Co. 

409 July 16, 1926 Jan. 15, 1928 Neal, John K., Co. 

1,580 May 5, 1926 Dec. 1, 1927 New England Fish Co. 

2,550 May 12, 1926 Dec. 1, 1927 New England Fish Co. 

1,500 May 18, 1926 Dec. 1, 1927 New England Fish Co. 

6,970 June 16, 1926 Dec. 16, 1927 New England Fish Co. 

24,700 Aug. 12, 1926 Dec. 12, 1927 New England Fish Co. 

10,400 Aug. 13, 1926 Dec. 13, 1927 New England Fish Co. 

2,200 Aug. 17, 1926 Dec. 17, 1927 New England Fish Co. 

2,275 Aug. 17, 1926 Dec. 17, 1927 New England Fish Co. 

6, 1926 Mar. 6, 1928 New England Fish Co. 

6, 1926 Mar. 6, 1928 New Enghmd Fish Co. 

6, 1926 Mar. 6, 1928 New England Fish Co. 

25,927 Nov. 8, 1926 Mar. 8, 1928 New England Fish Co. 

708 July 29, 1926 Nov. 29, 1927 Pier Fish Co. 

1,171 Oct. 15, 1926 Feb. 15, 1928 Prior & Townsend, Inc. 

957 Oct. 15, 1926 Jan. 1, 1928 Rich, Joseph A., Co. 

400 Oct. 15, 1926 Jan. 1, 1928 Standard Fish Co. 

12,747 Aug. 15, 1926 Dec. 15, 1927 Whitman, Ward & Lee Co. 

3,900 Sept. 13, 1926 Dec. 13, 1927 Whitman, Ward & Lee Co. 

1,400 June 20, 1926 Dec. 1, 1927 Fitch, Warren, Co. 

5,770 Aug. 20, 1926 Nov. 20, 1927 Adams, J., & Co. 

1,500 Aug. 28, 1926 Nov. 28, 1927 Adams, J., & Co. 

3,000 Sept. 3, 1926 Dec. 3, 1927 Adams, J., & Co. 

" " ' ■ " ' 1, 1928 Anderson, C. F. 

1, 1927 Atlantic & Pacific Fish Co. 

1, 1927 Atlantic & Pacific Fish Co. 

2, 1927 Banks Fish Market. 
11,552 June 14, 1926 Oct. 14, 1927 Batchelder & Snyder Co. 

5,284 July 2, 1926 Nov. 2, 1927 Batchelder & Snyder Co. 

1,390 June 14, 1926 Dec. 14, 1927 Burns-McKeon Co. 

4,300 June 14, 1926 Dec. 13, 1927 Burn=-McKeon Co. 

2,000 June 16, 1926 Dec. 15, 1927 Burns-McKeon Co. 

2,650 June 17, 1926 Dec. 17, 1927 Burns-McKeon Co. 

3,900 June 17, 1926 Dec. 17, 1927 Burns-McKeon Co. 

3,450 June 22, 1926 Dec. 21, 1927 Burns-McKeon Co. 



1,200 Oct. 

6,200 Oct. 

23,726 Oct. 



2,100 July 17, 1926 Jan. 

760 July 15, 1926 Dec. 

3,220 July 15, 1926 Dec. 

1,192 July 2, 1926 Oct. 



1 Imported, original date of storage unknown. 



2 Bait. 



88 

Table 11. — Requests for Extension of Time 

December 1, 1926, to December 

Weight Placed in 

Abticle. (Pounds). Storage. 

Mackerel 6,500 June 25, 1926 

Mackerel 1,600 July 27, 1926 

Mackerel 4,300 Sept. 7, 1926 

Mackerel 3,775 Oct. 5, 1926 

Mackerel! 650 June 27, 1926 

Mackerel 292 July 2, 1926 

Mackerel 6,056 June 14, 1926 

Mackerel 6,248 June 28, 1926 

Mackerel 6,172 June 14, 1926 

Mackerel 2,482 June 17, 1927 

Mackerel 1,260 July 15, 1926 

Mackerel 4,200 Sept. 9, 1926 

Mackerel 1,400 July 7, 1926 

Mackerel 2,400 June 19, 1926 

Mackerel 1,580 June 14, 1926 

Mackereli 420 June 21, 1926 

Mackerel 1,750 June 21, 1926 

Mackerel 1,925 June 28, 1926 

Mackerel 300 Aug. 9, 1926 

Mackerel 1,950 Apr. 14, 19272 

Mackerel 3,800 Apr. 14, 1927^ 

Mackerel 1,576 Aug. 27, 1926 

Mackerel 3,800 Aug. 21, 1926 

Mackerel - July 28, 1926 

Mackerel 2,824 July 8, 1926 

Mackerel 20,030 July 13, 1926 

Mackerel 4,800 July 14, 1926 

Mackerel 8,254 July 14, 1926 

Mackerel 15,000 July 14, 1926 

Mackerel 18,750 July 15, 1926 

Mackerel 805 July 7, 1926 

Mackerel 4,970 July 9, 1926 

Mackerel 2,555 July 13, 1926 

Mackerel 245 Aug. 1, 1926 

Mackerel 1,960 Aug. 2, 1926 

Mackerel 490 Aug. 8, 1926 

Mackerel 507 June 4, 1926 

Mackerel 1,530 July 17, 1926 

Mackerel 675 Aug. 11, 1926 

Mackerel 2,100 Aug. 27, 1926 

Mackerel 5,056 May 18, 1926 

Pollock 2,540 Oct. 14, 1926 

Pollock 500 Oct. 14, 1926 

PoUock 150 Oct. 28, 1926 

Salmon 560 June 23, 1926 

Salmon 500 Oct. 15, 1926 

Salmon 844 Oct. 20, 1926 

Salmon, silver .... 200 Sept. 3, 1926 

Salmon, fall 750 Oct. 15, 1926 

Salmon, fall 1,750 Oct. 15, 1926 

Salmon 400 Oct. 10, 1926 

Salmon 3,000 Nov. 9, 1926 

Salmon 250 July 3, 1926 

Salmon 500 Oct. 15, 1926 

Salmon 1,800 Oct. 20, 1926 

Salmon 2,210 Oct. 15, 1926 

Salmon 1,700 Sept. 3, 1926 

Salmon 1,255 Oct. 15, 1926 

Salmon 6,100 Oct. 15, 1926 

Scallops 40 gal. Oct. 22, 1926 

Scallops. SO gal. Oct. 29, 1926 

Scallops 80 gal. Nov. 1, 1926 

Scallops 28 gal. Oct. 14, 1926 

Scallops 40 gal. Nov. 14, 1926 

Sole! 2,383 May 22, 1926 

Solei 500 June 1, 1926 

Solei ...... 738 July 6, 1926 

Solei 1,617 July 17, 1926 

Sole' 724 July 30, 1926 

Solei 610 July 31, 1926 

Sole 4,500 Feb. 18, 1926 

Sole 50,772 June 15, 1926 



P.D. 34. 

granted on Goods in Cold Storage from 
1,1927 — Condnded. 

Extension 
Granted to — Name. 

1927 Burns-McKeon Co. 

1928 Burns-McKeon Co. 

1927 Burns-McKeon Co. 

1928 Burns-McKeon Co. 
1928 Dennis, Joseph K. 
1928 Dennis, Joseph K. 
1927 Doe, Wimam A., Co. 
1927 Fitch, Warren, Co. 
1927 Foley, M. F., Co. 
1927 Foley, M. F., Co. 
1927 Foley, M. F., Co. 
1927 Hamele, H. W. 
1927 Jamaica Plain Market. 
1927 Kashman, J., & Son. 
1927 Malone, E. A. 
1927 Malone, E. A. 
1927 Malone, E. A. 
1927 Malone, E. A. 
1927 Nagle, John, & Co. 
1927 National Seasealed Fillets Inc. 
1927 National SeasealedFilletsInc. 
1923 Neal, John R., Co. 
1927 New Britain Fish Market Inc. 
1927 O'Brien, R., & Co. 
1927 O'Hara Brothers Co., Inc. 
1927 O'Hara Brothers Co., Inc. 
1927 O'Hara Brothers Co., Inc. 
1927 O'Hara Brothers Co., Inc. 
1927 O'Hara Brothers Co., Inc. 

1927 O'Hara Brothers Co., Inc. 

1928 Pier Fish Co. 
1928 Pier Fish Co. 
1928 Pier Fish Co. 
1927 Pier Fish Co. 
1927 Pier Fish Co. 
1927 Pier Fish Co. 
1927 Richardson, R. B. 
1927 Snow & Parker, Inc. 
1927 Snow & Parker, Inc. 
1927 Spivak, Barney. 
1927 Whitman, Ward & Lee Co. 
1927 Palmer Fish Co. 
1927 Russo & Sons. 
1927 Russo & Sons. 

1927 Burns-McKeon Co. 

1928 Burns-McKeon Co. 
1928 Burns-McKeon Co. 
1928 Commonwealth Ice & Cold 

Storage Co. 

1928 Foley, M. F., Co. 

1928 Foley, M. F., Co. 

1928 Henry & Close Co. 

1928 New England Fish Co. 

1927 O'Brien, R., & Co. 

1928 O'Hara Brothers Co., Inc. 
1928 Phillips, B. F., & Co. 
1928 Pier Fish Co. 
1927 Whitman, Ward & Lee Co. 



Dec. 25 

Jan. 27 

Dec. 7 

Jan. 1 

Jan. 1 

Jan. 1 
Nov. 6 

Dec. 1 
Sept. 14 
Sept. 16 

Oct. 14 

Dec. 7 
Nov, 
Nov. 15 

Dec. 14 

Dec. 21 

Dec. 21 

Dec. 28 

Dec. 9 

Dec. 1 

Dec. 1 

Feb. 27 

Dec. 1 

Dec. 31 

Dec. 20 

Dec. 13 

Dec. 15 

Dec. 15 

Dec. 14 

Dec. 15 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 

Dec. 1 

Dec. 1 

Dec. 1 

Dec. 3 

Dec. 1 

Dec. 11 

Nov. 27 

Oct. 1 

Nov. 14 

Dec. 14 

Dec. 28, 
July 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 



13 



Jan. 15 

Jan. 15 

Jan. 1 

Jan. 9 
Dec. 



Jan. 15 



Jan. 

Jan. 15 

Dec. 3 

Jan. 15 

Jan. 15 

Jan. 1 

Jan. 1 
Jan. 



Jan. 
Jan. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Apr. 
Dec. 



1928 Whitman, Ward & Lee Co. 

1928 Whitman, Ward & Lee Co. 

1928 First National Stores, Inc. 

1928 First National Stores, Inc. 

1928 First National Stores, Inc. 

1928 Phillips, B. F., & Co. 

1928 Phillips, B. F., & Co. 

1927 Gifford, C. H. 

1927 Gifford, C. H. 

1927 Gifford, C. H. 

1927 Gifford, C. H. 

1927 Gifford, C. H. 

1927 Gifford, C. H. 

1927 Hunt, Cassius, Co. 

1927 Provincetown Cold Storage 
Co. 



Table 12. 



Article. 
Broilers . 
Chickens 
Chickens 
Chickens 



Requests for Extension of Time not granted on Goods in Cold Storage 
from December 1, 1926, to December 1, 1927. 

Weight Placed in 
(Pounds). Storage. Name. 

446 Nov. 2, 1926 Weston-Thurston Co. 

428 Dec. 30, 1926 Berman & Co., Inc. 

1,380 - -2 Lamson & Co. 

855 Oct. .30, 1925 Lamson & Co. 



1 Bait. 



. 2 Original date of storage unknown. 



Name. 
Lamson & Co. 
Lamson & Co. 
Armour & Co. 
Armour & Co. 
Mantia, S., & Co. 
Burns-McKeon Co. 
Snow & Parker, Inc. 
Snow & Parker, Inc. 
Burns-McKeon Co. 
Burns-McKeon Co. 
Burns-McKeon Co. 
Pier Fish Co. 



P.D. 34. 89 

Table 12. — Requests for Extension of Time not granted on Goods in Cold Storage 
from December 1, 1926, to December 1, 1927 — Concluded. 

Weight Placed in 
Article. (Pounds). Storage. 

Chickens 843 Nov. 1925 

Chickens 5,376 Nov. 14, 1925 

Beef loins 48 Apr. 17, 1926 

Beef loins 55 May 1, 1926 

Butterfish 490 Aug. 13, 1926 

Halibut 560 Aug. 28, 1926 

Mackerel 450 June 15, 1926 

Mackerel 320 June 28, 1926 

Salmon 185 Aug. 28, 1926 

Salmon 830 Sept. 9, 1926 

Salmon 175 Sept. 29, 1926 

Salmon 1,750 Aug. 25, 1926 

Table 13. — Articles which had been in Cold Storage longer than Twelve Months and 

on which no Requests for Extensions had been made, ordered removed from 

December 1, 1926, to December 1, 1927. 

Weight Placed in 
Article. (Pounds). Storage. Name. 

Egg whites . 
Broilers . 
Broilers . 
Broilers . 
Broilers . 
Broilers . 
Broilers . 
Broilers . 
Capons . 
Chickens 
Chickens 
Chickens 
Chickens 
Chickens 
Chickens 
Chickens 
Chickens 
Chickens 
Chickens 
Chickens 
Fowl 
Poultry . 
Poultry . 
Poultry . 
Poultry . 
Venison. . 
Venison . 
Beef 

Beef livers 
Beef livers 
Beef ribs 
Lamb 

Lamb fores , 
Pork loins 
Sweetbreads . 
Bass, sea 
Bluefish . 
Bluefish .' 
Butterfish 
Butterfish 
Butterfish 
Halibut . 
Halibut . 
Halibut . 
HaUbut . 
Herring . 
Mackerel 
Mackerel 
Mackerel 
Mackerel 
Mackerel 
Mackerel 
Mackerel 
Mackerel 
Salmon . 
Salmon . 
Salmon 



Scallops 36 gal 

Smelts 

Sole . . . . . 
Squid . . .... 

Squid 

Trout 



- 


- 




-1 


Titman Egg Co. 


287 


June 


1H, 


1926 


Armour & Co. 


268 


June 


19, 


1926 


Armour & Co. 


64 


June 


22, 


1926 


Armour & Co. 


101 


June 


25, 


1926 


Armour & Co. 


263 


June 


25, 


1926 


Armour & Co. 


75 


July 


2, 


1926 


Armour & Co. 


91 


July 


2, 


1926 


Armour & Co. 


157 


Dec. 


1, 


1925 


Holmes, Samuel. 


442 


Oct. 


30, 


1925 


Armour & Co. 


2,218 


Nov. 


27, 


1925 


Childs, Sleeper Co. 


56 


Dec. 


17, 


1925 


Childs, Sleeper Co. 


64 


Oct. 


30, 


1925 


Hosmer, F. H., & Co. 


846 


Oct. 


30, 


1925 


Hosmer, F. H., & Co. 




Sept. 


28, 


1926 


Hurley, T. F. 


80 


Aug. 


30, 


1926 


Lawrence, H. L. 


479 


June 


17, 


1926 


Pittsfield Luncheonette. 


59 


Nov. 


28, 


1925 


Quinn, P. F., & Sons. 


2,629 


Oct. 


11, 


1926 


Segall, Jacob. 


— 


Nov. 


13, 


1925 


Wilson & Co. 


120 


July 


16, 


1926 


Burke Brothers. 


355 


Sept. 


1, 


1926 


Arron, Theodore, Co. 


246 


Nov. 


5, 


1926 


Austin, G. M., & Son. 


72 


July 


12, 


1926 


Benson Brothers. 








_i 


Moulton, Edwin H., Co. 


30 


Jan. 


8, 


1926 


Hayes, Raymond. 


62 


Dec. 


1, 


1925 


Tichell, Clarence. 


237 


Nov. 


11, 


1926 


Massachusetts Industrial School for Girls 


267 


May 


29, 


1926 


Brighton Dressed Meat Co. 


1,250 


Dec. 


22, 


1925 


Munroe-Sexton Co. 


399 


May 


17, 


1926 


Pineo Brothers. 


55 


Julv 


1, 


1926 


Harvard Provision Co. 


450 


Feb. 


27, 


1926 


Fletcher, J. V., Co. 


100 


Nov. 


22, 


1926 


Harvard Provision Co. 


39 


May 


25, 


1926 


Childs, Sleeper Co. 


478 


June 


4, 


1926 


First National Stores, Inc. 


850 


Aug. 


31, 


1926 


First National Stores, Inc. 


463 


Sept. 


4, 


1926 


First National Stores, Inc. 


23,463 


May 


13, 


1926 


Bishop & Pannen. 


432 


Sept. 


3, 


1926 


Freeman & Cobb Co. 


105 


June 


20, 


1926 


Rowe & Sullivan. 


229 


Sept. 


24, 


1926 


Atlas Fish Co. 


1,072 


Sept. 


30, 


1926 


Burns-McKeon Co. 


600 


Oct. 


25, 


1925 


First National Stores, Inc. 


214 


July 


2, 


1926 


Whitman, Ward & Lee Co. 


600 


Apr. 


21, 


19262 


Burns-McKeon Co. 


905 


Aug. 


31. 


1926 


Arrington, H. R. 


1,600 


July 


9, 


1926 


Busalacchi Brothers. 


284 


Sept. 


15, 


1926 


Cape Fish Co. 


198 


Aug. 


19, 


1926 


Connecticut Cash Market. 


400 


July 


13, 


1926 


Economy Market. 


100 


Sept. 


15, 


1926 


O'Brien, R., & Co. 


417 


Julv 


2, 


1926 


Saunders' Market. 


220 


Oct. 


8, 


1926 


Shea & O'Neill. 


305 


Sept. 


4, 


1926 


Atlas Fish Co. 


325 


Julv 


1, 


1926 


Bay State Smoked Fish Co. 


83 


Aug. 


15, 


1926 


Harding, F. E. 


36 gal. 


Oct. 


2, 


1926 


Arrington, H. R. 


1,960 


Nov. 


27, 


1925 


Mantia, S., Co. 


1,428 


May 


14, 


1926 


Smith, J. H., & Co. 


58 


Oct. 


5, 


1926 


Catalanotti, G., & Son. 


1,019 


Oct. 


11, 


1926 


Nagle, John, Co. 


300 


Dec. 


24, 


192fi2 


Shattuck & Jones. 



^ Original date of storage unknown. 
2 Received frozen and undated. 



90 P.D. 34. 

REPORT OF DIVISION OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES. 

Clarence L. Scamman, M.D., Director. 
FiLip C. FoRSBECK, M.D., Epidemiologist. 

The functions of the division are carried on by (o) an epidemiological staff, (6) a 
bacteriological staff, (c) a venereal disease staff and (d) a field force of six District 
Health Officers, who are representatives of the Commissioner in their respective 
districts, but included in the personnel of the division for administrative purposes. 

This year the cases of communicable disease (83,816) show a decrease over the 
number reported last year (100,376). This decrease has been due almost entirely 
to a low incidence of measles. 

The Minimum Quarantine Requirements adopted in October, 1926, by both the 
Massachusetts Association of Boards of Health and this Department have been 
accepted by at least fifty cities and towns in the commonwealth to date. Effort 
is being made to have all cities and towns adopt these requirements ia order that 
there may be a minimum of variation in quarantine procedures throughout the 
state. 

A short r^sum^ is given herewith of certain commimicable diseases as to mor- 
bidity, fatality and mortality. 

Anterior Poliomyelitis {Tables 11, III, IV). — There were 1,189 cases reported 
for the year. The incidence of this disease this year was greater than for any year 
since 1909 when the disease was made reportable, excepting the year 1916, when 
1,927 cases were reported. The tables referred to above show the morbidity, 
fatahty and mortality for this disease for eighteen years. The Department, in 
co-operation with the Harvard Infantile Paralysis Commission, will publish during 
the coming year certain facts in regard to the epidemiology of this disease, as well 
as certain information regarding its treatment in the acute stage with convalescent 
poliomyelitis serum and the after care of those left with paralysis. 

Diphtheria (Tables V, VI, VII). — The decline in diphtheria prevalence which 
began in the fall of 1924 reached a low point in the fall of 1926. In November of 
that year the incidence of the disease began to increase and this year the reported 
cases are 4,750, a 40% increase over 1926. The fatality rate, 5.6, is the lowest of 
which the Department has record, and the mortahty rate, 6.3, is the second lowest 
on record. 

Of the 249 diphtheria deaths in the commonwealth during the year 1926, 146 
were studied intensively. This study brought out the following facts: 

Summary} 

1. None of the 146 individuals had been actively immunized against 

diphtheria. 

2. Most of the deaths occurred among the poor. 

3. One child died of diphtheria who was said to have had a negative 

Schick test two years previously. 

4. About haff of the cases were of the pharyngeal type. 

5. Cardiac complications occurred in about one-third of the cases. 

6. About two-thirds of the cases were hospitalized. 

7. The average dose of antitoxin was about 40,000 U. 

Scarlet Fever (Table XI). — This year 16,546 cases of scarlet fever were re- 
ported which is the largest number since the disease was made reportable in 1884. 
The fatality rate, .9, is the lowest in the history of the Department; the mortality 
rate, 3.4, compares favorably with mortality rates in recent years. While the 
reported incidence of this disease is constantly increasing, and the fatality rate, 
as one would expect with better reporting, decreasing, the mortahty rate has also 
been decreasing. The mortality rate from this 'disease in 1870 was 46.9, while the 
mortality rate in any year in the last ten has never been above 5.5. 

Smallpox {Table XII). — Two cases of smallpox were reported this year. 
Neither of these individuals had ever been vaccinated and both were infected out- 

» Lane, E. A., and Forsbeck, F. C, Diphtheria Deaths in Massachusetts, 1926, New England Journal of 
Medicine, March 1, 1928. 



P.D. 34. 91 

side the state. Prior to the report of the first case on November 8th, no smallpox 
had been reported in this state since April 14, 1926, a period of eighteen months. 

Typhoid Fever (Tables XVI, XVII, XVIII, XIX). — The reported incidence 
of this disease, 466 cases, is the lowest recorded in any year since the disease was 
made reportable in 1893. Fofty-four deaths, giving a mortality rate of 1.0, is also 
the lowest mortality rate ever recorded from this disease in the state. Table XVII 
shows the source and mode of infection of reported cases from 1917 through 1927. 

The first typhoid carrier in this state was discovered in 1910. Since that date 
100 carriers have been discovered, 14 of whom were discovered during this year, 
the largest number discovered in any one year. At the present time the Depart- 
ment has knowledge of the whereabouts of 57 carriers still living within the state. 

Outbreaks Dubing 1927. 

1. Wakefield reported during February and March, 12 cases of typhoid fever. 
The infection occurred at a church supper. The vehicle of infection was corned 
beef, which was prepared and handled by a carrier. 

2. Billerica reported 23 cases of typhoid fever in March. These cases were 
due to the infection of a raw milk by a milk handler who was found to be a carrier. 

3. Boston reported during September an outbreak of 21 cases of typhoid fever 
connected with the Carney Hospital. The probable source of infection in this 
instance was a nurse suffering from a mild attack of the disease, who assisted in 
the preparation and handling of food. 

4. Four cases of typhoid fever occurred at the Concord Academy in November. 
The evidence indicates that these cases were due to the infection of food by a 
carrier employed in the kitchen. 

5. The total cases of typhoid fever in connection with the Lincoln-Concord- 
Weston outbreak^ was SP; 44 of these were reported in December, 1926, and 7 in 
January, 1927. 

6. During December, 1926, and January, 1927, Boston reported 35 cases of 
typhoid fever^ in coimection with a pasteurized milk supply. One of the producers 
who later died of the disease continued at work in the pasteurization plant at least 
fourteen days while ill with the disease. During the time he hand-bottled the 
milk and may have delivered unpasteurized milk to consumers who called at the 
plant. No other source of infection of this supply was discovered. The source of 
the proprietor's infection was never determined. 

7. During the fall of 1926 and January, 1927, 13 cases of typhoid fever occurred 
among the employees of the Bourne Mill at Tiverton, Rhode Island. Four of the 
cases resided in Tiverton and the balance in Fall River. Only 9 of the cases were 
reported to this Department. With the co-operation of the local health officials 
of both communities, the mill owners and the health departments of the two states 
concerned, the source of this infection was determined to be a leaky cross con- 
nection between a polluted water supply used for industrial purposes and the 
drinking water supply of the mill. This condition was remedied immediately by 
the mill management. 

8. Thirty cases of diphtheria occurred in Marlboro during August, September 
and October; 11 of these cases centered about a related group of individuals living 
in the same neighborhood; 12 cases occurred in connection with an unrecognized 
case of nasal diphtheria in a school; 7 more cases were related indirectly to both 
these groups.^ 

Milk Legislation. 

In view of the Department's continued interest in milk legislation, and the rela- 
tion of milk to the spread of communicable disease, it is well to note the following 
facts : 

Under the provisions of Chapter 259 of the Acts of 1927 no person shall maintain 
an establishment for the pasteurization of milk without a license from the board 
of health of the town where the estabhshment is to be located. This act gives the 

1 Carried as 1926 outbreak. ^ One case not officially reported. 

' Lane, E. A., Diphtheria Epidemic — Marlboro, August-November, 1927, New England Journal of Medicine, 
M^ch 8, 1928. 



92 P.D. 34. 

Department the power to make rules and regulations and power both to the local 
board and the Department to suspend the hcense if the establishment is operated 
or maintained in an unsanitary manner. A detailed discussion of this bill will be 
found in the Report of the Director of the Division of Food and Drugs, 

Thirty-four cities and towns, representing about forty-seven per cent of the 
total state population, require that the milk sold in their communities be pas- 
teurized or from tuberculosis free herds. Legislation has been introduced again 
this year by the Department which, if passed, will prevent the sale, after January 
1, 1931, of any milk in Massachusetts unless it be from tuberculosis free herds or 
pasteurized. 

Dispensaries. 

Sections 51-56, Chapter 111, General Laws, give the Department power to in- 
spect and license dispensaries as well as to make rules and regulations as to how 
they shall be conducted. Defined by statute a "dispensary shall mean any place 
or establishment, not conducted for profit, where medical or surgical advice or 
treatment, medicine or medical apparatus, is furnished to persons not residing 
therein; or any place or establishment, whether conducted for charitable purposes 
or for profit, advertised, announced, conducted or maintained under the name 
'dispensary' or 'clinic,' or other designation of like import." 

A survey of eighty-five dispensaries, under the definition quoted above, was 
made during 1927, seventy-five of which were licensed by the Department. Five 
establishments were considered as not coming within the scope of the statutes and 
applications for the balance, we anticipate, will come in during the coming year. 

On November 22, 1927, the Department adopted the following: 

Rules and Regulations for Dispensary License. 

(1) A licensed physician shall be in attendance at each clinic session where 
medical or surgical service is given and must see each case. 

(2) A registered nurse shall be in attendance throughout the clinic period at 
which medical or surgical service is given. 

(3) Two rooms, one for a waiting room, the other for examination and treat- 
ment, shall be provided where medical or surgical service is given. 

(4) Running water and apparatus for sterilizing instruments by boiUng shall be 
available. 

(5) An individual record shall be kept on each case. 

District Health Officers. 

In May, 1927, the number of District Health Officers was reduced from seven 
to si.x. Re-allocation of territory was based on the fact that Barnstable County 
had a full time health officer. The so-called Metropolitan District, which includes 
twenty-one cities and towns, was made having in mind the accessibility of these 
commimities to the central office by both electric and steam transportation. This 
re-assignment of territory makes available to remote areas in the state one more 
individual in the division office for emergency service in connection with outbreaks 
of disease. 

The activities of the District Health Officers during the past year, in addition to 
those required by statute, such as inspection of jails, lock-ups, hospitals, etc., have 
been as follows: routine visits to local boards of health, investigations of outbreaks 
of communicable disease, assistance in the furthering of the ten-year tuberculosis 
program and in the establishment of cancer clinics in their respective districts. As 
in the past, diphtheria immunization programs have been urged through local 
boards of health. This year a special effort has been made to have each com- 
munity assume responsibility for an annual immunization program which would 
involve the protection with toxin-antitoxin of the entering school classes at least. 
The result has been that many more local boards of health are now carrying on a 
continuous diphtheria immunization program with community funds, usually with 
the co-operation of the local medical profession. 

In addition to the routine visits made by the District Health Officers, the Divi- 
sion office staff made special visits to sixty-five different communities in connection 
with problems in the control of communicable disease either from the epidemiolog- 
ical or administrative point of view. 



P.D. 34. 93 

Venereal Disease. 

This year 4,294 cases of gonorrhea and 1,666 cases of syphihs were reported. 
Table VIII shows certain facts in regard to these two diseases for the last ten 
years. More intensive effort toward the control of these diseases by a broader 
policy of arsenical distribution is planned for the coming year. In addition to the 
educational aspects of social hygiene, which are being carried on very effectively 
by a part time physician, it is planned to have an Epidemiologist in immediate 
charge of all the activities connected with social hygiene, especially those having 
to do with treatment of venereal disease. 

Of the 52 treatment centers in the state, 15 are subsidized by the Department; 
13,219 individuals made 160,342 visits to the subsidized clinics in 1927. 

The social worker and special investigator on our staff have been concerned with 
the following activities: investigation of sources of infection, as well as lapsed and 
delinquent cases; visits to local boards of health, community social agencies, courts, 
probation officers and police officials. Their community contacts in interpreting 
to the different agencies, especially the local boards of health, the various phases 
of social hygiene problems have been undoubtedly worth while. That this is a 
fact is indicated by the interest more communities are showing in the appointment 
of social service workers and socially trained nurses in connection with the follow- 
up of delinquent patients and the investigation of sources of infection. 

Co-operation between the Massachusetts League of Women Voters and this 
Department has continued especially in connection with social hygiene in its 
educational aspects. Through Dr. Helen I. McGillicuddy approximately 9,000 
people have been reached during the j^ear. 

The Bacteriological Laboratory. 

During the year ended December 31, 1927, the Bacteriological Laboratory 
examined 33,425 specimens. This is an increase of 8,098 over the number examined 
last year. The principal increases were in the number of cultures examined for 
diphtheria bacilli and for typhoid bacilli. For the latter examination there was 
an increase of 84%. 

There were slight decreases in the malaria examinations and in pneumococcus 
type determination. For 32% of the pneumonia specimens the residence of the 
patients was given as Boston. 

Work has been started on the testing of human blood for agglutinins for bacillus 
abortus and related bacilli. Selected specimens of blood which have been sent to 
the laboratory for the Widal test for typhoid fever, if negative for typhoid, have 
been examined for abortus agglutinins. To date, negative findings have been 
obtained. 

Table I. — Laboratory Examinations. 

Positive. Negative. AtypicaL Total 

Diphtheria (primary) .... 845 9,711 - 10,556 

Diphtheria (secondary) . . 1,987 3,967 - 5,954 

Tuberculosis (sputum) .... 905 3,680 - 4,585 

Typhoid fever (Widal) .... 217 1,803 59 2,07-9 

Typhoid fever (culture) . . . . 155 2,852 - 3,007 

Malaria 3 41 - 44 

Gonorrhea 1,037 4,592 - 5,629 

Miscellaneous - - - 1,160 

Pneumococcus Type Determination: 

Type I (11.6%) 33 

Type II (2.8%) 8 

Type III (10.9%) 31 

Group IV (74.7%) 212 

No pneumococci 127 411 



Total 33,425 



94 



P.D. 34. 





Table II. - 


— Anterior Poliomyelitis Cases, 1907-27, 


hy Months 


Un- 
known 




Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Total 


1907 


1 


5 


1 


5 


2 


4 


12 


33 


57 48 


21 


16 


29 


234 


1908 


1 


1 


2 


1 


2 


7 


37 


37 


19 15 


9 


_ 


5 


136 


1909 


3 


4 


5 


5 


7 


34 


148 


187 


121 74 


17 


11 


307 


923 


1910 


10 


2 


2 


4 


4 


22 


159 


157 


129 97 


46 


22 


191 


845 


1911 


11 


2 


9 


8 


7 


8 


17 


61 


50 37 


16 


6 


38 


260 


1912 


7 


3 


8 


5 


15 


12 


34 


28 


25 21 


10 


1 


_ 


169 


1913 


4 


3 


4 


2 


6 


1 


10 


60 


125 89 


38 


19 


_ 


361 


1914 


14 


6 


8 


8 


4 


11 


10 


19 


25 31 


9 


6 


_ 


151 


1915 


5 


4 


6 


5 


5 


4 


9 


26 


15 28 


16 


12 


_ 


135 


1916 


6 


3 


5 


2 


3 


11 


106 


252 


623 701 


179 


36 


- 


1.927 


1917 


14 


2 


8 


9 


9 


15 


38 


38 


16 11 


10 


4 


_ 


174 


1918 


5 


3 


6 


6 


6 


6 


10 


20 


20 7 


7 


3 


- 


99 


1919 


4 


2 


2 


4 


— 


3 


5 


12 


9 17 


5 


3 


— 


66 


1920 


2 


4 


4 


1 


— 


5 


16 


93 


273 190 


-7-7 


31 


_ 


696 


1921 


10 


10 


7 


3 


6 


4 


26 


61 


54 27 


15 


10 


- 


233 


1922 


8 


4 


4 


3 


_ 


4 


23 


54 


63 28 


21 


5 


_ 


217 


1923 


10 


9 


5 


6 


4 


4 


8 


26 


38 48 


40 


25 


_ 


223 


1924 


24 


6 


9 


7 


5 


5 


12 


39 


88 56 


23 


13 


— 


277 


1925 


9 


4 


7 


2 


1 


2 


11 


30 


44 31 


14 


12 


_ 


167 


1926 


6 


4 


5 


5 


4 


5 


21 


75 


59 27 


26 


8 


_ 


246 


1927 


6 


2 


3 


4 


7 


11 


22 


174 


373 376 


146 


65 


- 


1,189 



Total 150 83 110 



95 



97 178 734 1,482 2,226 1,959 745 308 560 8,727 



Table III. — Anterior Poliomyelitis, 1909-27, hy Age Groups} 

Known Unknown 



Yeah. 


0-4. 


5. 


6-10. 11-20. 


21-30. 


31-7i 


*. Ages. 


Ages. 


Total. 


1909 


408 


32 


98 46 




21 


10 


615 


308 


923 


1910 


345 


51 


93 69 




28 


15 


601 


244 


845 


1911 


(missing) 




















0-4. 


5-9. 


10-19. 


20 and 


over. 


Known 
Ages. 


Unknown 

Ages. 


Total. 


1912 


60 


15 


8 




7 




90 


79 


169 


1913 


181 


. 58 


44 




9 




292 


69 


361 


1914 


62 


15 


10 




9 




96 


55 


151 


1915 


76 


24 


17 




5 




122 


13 


135 


1916 
1917 


1,289 
(missing) 


366 


110 




85 




1,850 


77 


1,927 




0-4. 


5-9. 


10-14. 15-19 


20 and ove 


Known 

Ages. 


Unknown 
Ages. Total. 


1918 


63 


13 


7 


5 




7 


95 


4 


99 


1919 


39 


13 


6 


3 




2 


63 


3 


66 


1920 


347 


165 


67 


34 




39 


652 


44 


696 


1921 


98 


53 


30 


13 




31 


225 


8 


233 


1922 


103 


52 


27 


15 




10 


207 


10 


217 


1923 


126 


46 


20 


8 




12 


212 


11 


223 


1924 


126 


65 


39 


15 




23 


268 


9 


277 


1925 


81 


27 


28 


8 




17 


161 


6 


167 


1926 


107 


70 


23 


15 




24 


239 


6 


245 


1^27 


529 


361 


131 


67 




67 


1,155 


34 


1,189 






Table IV. — Anterior Poliomyelitis. 






Yeab. 






Cases. 




Case Rate 
per 100,000. 


Death Rate Fatality Rate 
Deaths, per 100,000. Per Cent. 


19092 






. 923 




27 


8 


_2 


- 


- 


1910 






. 845 




25.0 


54 


1.6 


6.4 


1911 






. 232 




6.7 


36 


1.0 


15.5 


1912 






. 169 




4.8 


76 


2.2 


45.0 


1913 






. 361 




10 


1 


69 


1.9 


19.1 


1914 






151 




4 


1 


45 


1.2 


29.8 



1 In spite of the difference in the age groupings prior to 1918, and the incompleteness of the figures, it is 
thought desirable that this table be published at this time. 
' Made reportable November 4, 1909. 



P.D. 34. 



95 



Year. 




Table IV. - 


— Anterior Poliomyelitis. - 

Case Rate 
Cases. per 100,000. 


— Concluded. 

Death Rate Fatality Rate 
Deaths, per 100.000. Per Cent. 


1915 135 3.6 


32 


.9 23.7 


1916 












1,927 51.6 


452 


12.1 23.5 


1917 












174 4.6 


51 


1.4 29.3 


1918 












99 2.6 


37 


1.0 37.4 


1919 












66 1.7 


15 


.4 22.7 


1920 












696 18.0 


144 


3.7 20.7 


1921 












233 5.9 


48 


1.2 20.6 


1922 












217 5.4 


33 


.8 15.2 


1923 












223 5.5 


35 


.9 15.7 


1924 












277 6.8 


27 


.7 9.7 


1925 












167 4.0 


52 


1.3 31.1 


1926 












245 5.8 


44 


1.0 18.0 


1927 












1,189 27.8 


169 


4.0 14.2 


Table V. — Diphtheria. 

Case Rate 
Ybab. Cases. per 100,000. 


Deaths. 


Death Rate Fatality Rate 
per 100,000. Per Cent. 


1918-22 (av.) 
1923 










8,058 206.9 
9,018 222.8 


601 
579 


15.5 7.5 
14.3 6.4 


1924 












7,290 177.7 


534 


13.0 7.3 


1925 












4,482 107.8 


333 


8.0 7.4 


1926 
1927 












3,401 80.7 
4,750 111.3 


249 
268 


5.9 7.3 
6.3 5.6 



Table VI 



Diphtheria Cases, 1918-27, by Age Groups. 





0-4. 


5- 


9. 


10-14. 


15 & Over. 


Unknown. 




Year. 


Cases. 


% 


Cases. 


% 


Cases. 


% 


Cases. 


% 


Cases. 


% 


Cases. 


1918 . 


1,996 


28.8 


2,087 


30.2 


850 


12.3 


1,309 


18.9 


680 


9.9 


6,922 


1919 








2,052 


25.9 


2,858 


36.0 


1,145 


14.5 


1,159 


14.6 


716 


9.0 


7,929 


1920 








2,016 


26.8 


2,601 


34.6 


954 


12.7 


1,153 


15.4 


789 


10.5 


7,513 


1921 








2,464 


27.1 


3,456 


37.9 


1,180 


13.0 


1,244 


13.7 


756 


8.3 


9,100 


1922 








2,643 


29.9 


3,271 


37.1 


1,123 


12.7 


1,169 


13.3 


620 


7.0 


8,826 


1923 








2,607 


28.9 


3.707 


41.1 


1,043 


11.6 


1,158 


12.8 


503 


5.6 


9,018 


1924 








2,281 


31.3 


2,374 


32.5 


894 


12.3 


1,040 


14.3 


701 


9.6 


7,290 


1925 








1,380 


30.4 


1,544 


34.4 


501 


11.2 


670 


14.9 


407 


9.1 


4,482 


1926 








1,059 


31.1 


1,157 


34.0 


304 


8.9 


550 


16.2 


.331 


9.8 


3.401 


1927 








1,369 


28.8 


1,798 


37.9 


543 


11.4 


717 


15.1 


323 


6.8 


4,750 



Table VII. — Diphtheria Deaths, 1918-27, by Age Groups. 





0-4. 


5-9. 


10-14. 


15 & Over. 




Year. 


















Total 




Deaths. 


% 


Deaths. 


% 


Deaths. 


% 


Deaths. 


% 


Deaths. 


1918 


341 


56.1 


178 


29.3 


43 


7.1 


46 7.5 


608 


1919 


341 


57.5 


190 


32.0 


32 


5.4 


30 5.1 


593 


1920 


334 


56.5 


197 


33.3 


34 


5.8 


26 4.4 


591 


1921 


327 


53.9 


216 


35.6 


40 


6.6 


24 3.9 


607 


1922 


374 


61.7 


176 


29.0 


26. 


4.3 


30 5.0 


606 


1923 


334 


57.7 


193 


33.3 


21 


3.6 


31 5.4 


579 


1924 


336 


62.9 


141 


26.4 


31 


5.8 


26 4.9 


534 


1925 


199 


59.8 


101 


30.3 


17 


5.1 


16 4.8 


333 


1926 


140 


56.3 


77 


30.9 


12 


4.8 


20 8.0 


249 


1927 


136 


50.7 


96 


35.8 


18 


6.7 


18 6.7 


268 





Table VIII. 


— Gonorrhea and Syphilis. 








Gonorrhea. 






Syphilis. 






Year. 




Case Rate 




Case Rate 




Death Rate 


Fatality 
Rate 






per 100,000. 




per 100,000. 




per 100,000. 


Per Cent. 


1918-22 (av.) 


6,975 


179.0 


2,966 


76.3 


240 


6.1 


8.1 


1923 . . 


4,885 


120.7 


1,891 


46.7 


194 


4.8 


10.3 


1924 


5,241 


127.7 


2,325 


56.7 


176 


4.3 


7.6 


1925 . . 


5,192 


124.9 


2,147 


51.6 


148 


3.6 


6.9 


1926 


4,920 


116.8 


1,904 


45.1 


165 


3.9 


8.7 


1927 


4,294 


100.6 


1,666 


39.0 


135 


3.2 


8.1 



96 



P.D. 34. 



Table IX. — Lobar Pneumonia. 







Case Rate 




Death Rate FataUty Rate 


Yeak. 


Cases. 


per 100,000. 


Deaths. 


per 100,000. Per Cent. 


1918 


13,374 


351.8 


10,339 


271.9 77.3 


1919 


4,585 


119.5 


2,614 


68.2 57.0 


1920 


5,558 


143.2 


2,842 


73.2 51.1 


1921 


4,080 


103.7 


1,823 


46.3 44.7 


1922 ..... 


5,194 


130.1 


2,344 


58.7 45.1 


1923 


4,759 


117.6 


2,313 


57.2 48.6 


1924 ..... 


4,552 


111.0 


1,944 


47.4 42.7 


1925 


5,544 


133.3 


2,364 


56.9 42.6 


1926 


5,134 


121.8 


2,409 


57.2 46.9 


1927 


4,279 


100.2 


1,969 


46.1 46.0 




Table X 


. — Measles. 








Case Rate 




Death Rate Fatality Rate 


Year. 


Cases. 


per 100,000. 


Deaths. 


per 100,000. Per Cent. 


1918-22 (av.) . 


22,492 


578.7 


293 


7.6 1.3 


1923 


26,854 


663.6 


321 


7.9 1.2 


1924 


22,425 


546.6 


165 


4.0 .7 


1925 


28,816 


693.0 


337 


8.1 1.2 


1926 


30,020 


712.4 


367 


8.7 1.2 


1927 


13,498 


316.2 


87 


2.0 .6 


■ Ta 


BLE XI. - 


— Scarlet Fever. 








Case Rate 




Death Rate FataUty Rate 


Yeak. 


Cases. 


per 100,000. 


Deaths. 


per 100,000. Per Cent. 


1918-22 (av.) . 


7,793 


200.1 


151 


3.9 1.9 


1923 


12,300 


303.9 


155 


3.8 1.3 


1924 ..... 


14,410 


351.2 


158 


3.9 1.1 


1925 . . . . 


10,319 


248.2 


117 


2.8 1.1 


1926 . . . 


11,323 


268.7 


117 


2.8 1.0 


1927 


16,546 


387.6 


144 


3.4 .9 


T 


ABLE XI] 


. — Smallfox. 




Year. 






< 


ZJases. Deaths. 


1918-22 (av.) . . . 








27 1 


1923 ..... 








6 


1924 








12 2 


1925 . . . . 








3 


1926 . . 








4 


1927 








2 


Table XIII. — Units of Arsj 


ohenamin 
tri 


3, Sulphars 
huted. 


phenamine 


and Bichloridol Dis- 


Year. j 


^^rsphenamir 


e.i Sulpharsphenamine 


.1 Bichloridol.2 


1923 


. 42,843 




3,7373 


12,800 


1924 


. 27,603 




18,864 


13,412 


1925 


. 26,121 




27,911 


17,043 


1926 


. 21,726 




31,895 


9,486 


1927 


. 23,350 




28,716 


15,900 


Table X 


[V. — Tu 


berculosis, 

Case Rate 


Pulmonary 


Death Rate Fatality Rate 


Year. 


Cases. 


per 100,000. 


Deaths. 


per 100,000. Per Cent. 


191&-22 (av.) . 


6,647 


171.3 


3,917 


101.0 58.9 


1923 


. 5,356 


132.3 


3,062 


75.7 57.2 


1924 


. 5,376 


131.0 


2,953 


72.0 54.9 


1925 


. 5,385 


129.5 


2,883 


69.3 53.5 


1926 


. 5,444 


129.2 


2,961 


70.3 54.4 


1927 


. 5,049 


118.3 


2,774 


65.0 54.9 


1 Based on 6 gram unit. 


2 


CoUapsules. 


3 June to December. 



P.D. 34. 



97 



Table XV. — Tuberculosis, Non-Pulmonary 










Case Rate 




Death Rate Fatality Rate 


Year. 


Cases. 


per 100,000. 


Deaths. 


per 100,000. 


Per Cent. 


1918-22 (av.) . 


. . 795 


20.4 


661 


17.0 


83.1 


1923 . . . 


807 


19.9 


528 


13.0 


65.4 


1924 . 


. . 893 


21.8 


577 


14.1 


64.6 


1925 . 


825 


19.8 


576 


13.9 


69.8 


1926 . 


874 


20.7 


555 


13.2 


63.5 


1927 . 


807 


18.9 


429 


10.0 


53.2 



Table XVI. — Ttjphoid Fever. 



Yeak. 

1918-22 (av.) 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 

1927 





Case Rate 




Death Rate Fatality Rate 


Cases. 


per 100,000. 


Deaths. 


per 100,000. 


Per Cent. 


910 


23.5 


113 


2.9 


12.4 


622 


15.4 


70 


1.7 


11.3 


566 


13.8 


68 


1.7 


12.0 


592 


14.2 


73 


1.8 


12.3 


547 


13.0 


61 


1.4 


11.1 


466 


10.9 


44 


1.0 


9.4 



Table XVII. — Typhoid Fever Cases, 1917-27, Classified as to Source and Mode of 

Infection. 



1917. 



1918. 1919. 1920. 1921. 1922. 1923. 1924. 1925. 1926. 1927. 



1. 


Water . 


28 


21 


97 


32 


6 


5 


23 


25 


15 


21 


7 


2. 


Milk: . . 


85 


82 


48 


50 


146 


18 


9 


17 


8 


92 


37 




Carrier 


85 


68 


17 


- 


6 


8 


9 


17 


- 


44 


29 




Case . 


- 


1 


- 


- 


13 


10 


- 


- 


- 


28 


8 




Unknown . 


- 


13 


31 


50 


127 


- 


■ - 


- 


8 


20 


- 


3. 


Foods: . 
Carrier . 
Case 


68 
64 


- 


1 


4 


- 


4 


3 


15 


12 


6 


43 
16 
21 




Unknown . 


4 


- 


1 


4 


- 


4 


3 


15 


12 


6 


6 


4. 


Contact : 


96 


62 


120 


98 


108 


66 


45 


55 


40 


21 


32 




Carrier 


9 


15 


21 


11 


13 


5 


19 


5 


3 


5 


10 




Case 


87 


47 


99 


87 


95 


61 


26 


50 


37 


16 


22 


5. 


Unknown 


1,269 


902 


672 


751 


657 


600 


542 


454 


517 


407 


347 




Known 


277 


165 


266 


184 


260 


93 


80 


112 


75 


140 


119 



Total 1,546 1,067 938 935 917 693 622 566 592 547 466 



Table XVIII. — Tijplioid Fever Cases, 1918-27, hy Age Groups. 





0-14. 


15-39. 


40 & OVEB. 


Unknown. 




Yeak. 


Cases. 


% 


Cases. 


% 


Cases. 


% 


Cases. 


% 


Total 
Cases. 


1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 

1927 


320 30.0 
273 29.1 
299 32.0 
345 37.6 
196 28.3 
193 31.0 
157 27.7 
161 27.2 
164 30.0 
146 31.4 


526 49.3 
484 51.6 
475 50.8 
397 43.3 
345 49.8 
309 49.7 
272 48.1 
293 49.5 
255 46.6 
242 51.9 


154 14.4 
126 13.4 
141 15.1 
162 17.7 
130 18.8 

97 15.6 
120 21.2 
111 18.7 
110 20.1 

71 15.2 


67 6.3 
55 5.9 
20 2.1 
13 1.4 

22 3.1 

23 3.7 

17 3.0 
27 4.6 

18 3.3 
7 1.5 


1,067 
938 
935 
917 
693 
622 
566 
592 
547 
466 



98 



P.D. 34. 



Table XIX. — Typhoid Fever Deaths, 1918-27, by Age Groups. 

















0-14. 


15-39. 


40 & Over. 




Yeah. 














Total 




Deaths. 


% 


Deaths. 


% 


Deaths. 


% 


Deaths. 


1918 


18 


11.3 


102 63.7 


40 25.0 


160 


1919 














17 


15.9 


63 59.0 


27 25.1 


107 


1920 














15 


15.8 


51 53.7 


29 30.5 


95 


1921 














17 


14.3 


61 51.3 


41 34.4 


119 


1922 










' 




11 


12.8 


50 58.1 


25 29.1 


86 


1923 














8 


11.4 


43 61.4 


19 27.2 


70 


1924 














9 


13.2 


32 47.1 


27 39.7 


68 


1925 














15 


20.5 


33 45.2 


25 34.3 


73 


1926 














9 


14.8 


33 54.1 


19 31.1 


61 


1927 












5 


11.4 


27 61.4 


12 27.2 


44 



Table XX. — Whooping Cough. 



Year. 

1918-22 (av.) 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 

1927 





Case Rate 




Death Rate 


Fatality Rate 


Cases. 


per 100,000. 


Deaths. 


per 100,000. 


Per Cent. 


7,202 


185.4 


419 


10.8 


5.8 


10,612 


262.2 


493 


12.2 


4.6 


4,062 


99.0 


147 


3.6 


3.6 


8,077 


194.2 


269 


6.5 


3.3 



11,547 274.0 391 

6,273 146.9 149 



9.3 
3.5 



3.4 

2.4 



Typhoid Fever in Massachusetts.^ 
Carl R. Doering, M.D., Statistical Consultant. 

The death rate from typhoid fever has decreased since about 1860, more rapidly 
than the decrease that would be expected if the disease were dying out naturally. 
The discovery of the cause and the consequent control of water, milk and food 
supplies and other environmental factors have undoubtedly brought about the 
rapid decrease. 

Compared with the other nine registration states of 1900, then, as well as now, 
Massachusetts has the lowest rate and also has the highest rate of annual decrease 
in recent years. 

Annual fluctuations of the death rate from the trend line represent the degree of 
control maintained upon the disease. Lack of control measures would by and 
large produce epidemic conditions and efficient control would lead to an endemic 
picture. The computation of certain variation coefficients shows that Massa- 
chusetts is low among the states, the more rural states showing higher coefl&cients 
which indicate epidemic conditions. 

Correlations of the annual fluctuations show that when typhoid is high in neigh- 
boring states it also tends to be high in Massachusetts. This suggests that a signifi- 
cant amount of typhoid in Massachusetts is the result of importation. Equally 
valid however is the inference that Massachusetts exports typhoid. 

If Boston, Worcester and Springfield are excluded, the morbidity and mortality 
rates increase from towns under 2,500 to towns of 100,000. The case fatality re- 
mains constant. This points to the conclusion that typhoid in this state is not a 
rural problem but is one in which contact direct or indirect plays an important 
part. 

Table A shows that towns using water from the Metropolitan system have signifi- 
cantly lower morbidity and mortality rates. This may not, however, be wholly 
attributed to the difference in water supplies. 

Table B shows the course of water and milk outbreaks. The milk epidemics are 
explosive and short, the water outbreaks being long drawn out. 

Incidentally it was noticed in the study of the age specific rates back in 1849 
that in the 50's typhoid was a disease of old age and that now it is one affecting 
young adults. This change in its attack cannot be easily explained by control 
measures since these should have been equally effective upon all age groups. An 
explanation based upon an acquired immunity of the population is tentatively 
offered. 



1 This study will be published in ita entirety in one of the journals. 



P.D. 34. 

Table A. 
Typhoid Fever in Metropolitan Water District and the Rest of the State. 



99 





Averages — 1916-24. 


Rates per 100,000 
Population in 1920. 


Fatality 




No. of 
Cases. 


No. of 
Death.«. 


Ca.se. 


Death. 


(Per Cent). 


Metropolitan Water District 


226 


27 


18.7+.1.25 


2.2±.42 


11.9±2.15 


Rest of State 


752 


90 


28.4±1.04 


3.4±.36 


12.0±1.18 


Total 


978 


117 


25. 4± .81 


3.0±.28 


12.0 + 1.04 



Table B. 
Course of Milk and Water Outbreaks. 



Weeks. 


Months 




Source o 
break 


Uat- 


1 


2 
4 
52 


3 

3 

67 


4 
4 

87 


5 

16 
67 


6 
17 
35 


7 

7 
5 


8 

10 



9 
10 



10 

2 



11 

4 



12 




13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


5 


6 


Total 


Water . 


9 


2 






3 


2 





3 


1 


1 


5 


1 


104 


Milk 


39 


























o| 


352 



Cases and Deaths from Certain Communicable Diseases in Massachusetts from 1922 

to 1926. 





1922. 


1923. 


1921. 


1925. 


1926. 


Population 


3,991,333 


4,046,923 


4,102,513 


4,158,103 


4,213,693 


Disease. 


C. 


D. 


C. 


D. 


C. 


D. 


C. 


D. 


C. 


D. 


Actinomycosis .... 


3 


•) 


6 


4 


4 


2 


3 


1 


2 


1 


Anterior Poliomyelitis 






217 


33 


223 


35 


277 


27 


167 


52 


245 


44 


Antlirax 






3 


1 


7 


2 


11 


2 


5 


1 


13 


1 


Chicken Pox 






5,177 


8 


7,983 


11 


8,985 


9 


7,516 


9 


8,284 


7 


Dog Bite 






181 


- 


252 




208 


_ 


186 


- 


169 


— 


Dysentery . 






14 


10 


3 


2 


25 


3 


13 


5 


8 


3 


Encephalitis Lethargica 






163 


83 


180 


85 


106 


58 


146 


99 


105 


78 


Epidemic Cerebrospinal 


Men 
























ingitis 






10.5 


47 1 


121 


41 


128 


39 


■ 112 


35 


116 


39 


German Measles 






480 


2 


527 


_ 


1,644 


3 


6,778 


3 


6,236 


4 


Influenza 






7,453 


569 ; 


2,466 


742 


405 


277 


1,244 


519 


2,193 


718 


Malaria 






48 


4 


23 


3 


36 


2 


11 


6 


22 


1 


Mumps 






4,358 


2 


7,707 


6 


9,431 


12 


2,674 


6 


5,117 


2 


Ophthalmia Neonatorum 






1,219 


- 


1,480 


- 


1,820 


- 


1,988 


- 


1,832 


- 


Pellagra 






15 


9 


16 


11 


18 


12 


19 


10 


16 


11 


Septic Sore Throat 






123 


25 


197 


27 


170 


47 


116 


29 


129 


35 


Tetanus 






33 


21 


28 


18 


41 


23 


45 


35 


30 


23 


Trachoma . 






96 


_ 


62 




55 




75 


_ 


53 


- 


Trichinosis . 






19 


4 


13 


- 


40 


1 


26 


- 


13 


— 


Glanders 








_ 




_ 








_ 


- 


— 


Hookworm . 






42 


_ 


12 


— 


18 


- 


23 


— 


8 


- 


Leprosy 






1 


- 


1 


- 




- 




- 


1 


- 


Rabies 






2 


5 


3 


1 


1 


1 


2 


3 


- 


- 


Typhus Fever 










1 








2 




- 


- 



Cases and Deaths, with Case and Death Rates per 100,000 Population^ for All Report- 
able Diseases during the Year 1927. 















Case Rate 




Death Rate 


Fatality 


Disease. Cases. 


per 100,000 
Population. 


Deaths. 


per 100,000 
Population. 


Rate 
(Per Cent). 


Actinomycosis 
Anterior Poliomyelitis . 
Anthrax .... 










3 

1,189 
5 


.1 

27.8 
.1 


3 

169 


.1 

4.0 


100.0 
14.2 


Chicken Pox . 










9,927 


232.5 


8 


.2 


.1 


Diphtheria 
Dog Bite. 
Dysentery 
Encephalitis Lethargica 










4,750 

378 

14 

79 


111.3 

8.9 

.3 

1.9 


268 

7 
61 


6.3 

.2 

1.4 


5.6 

50.0 

77.2 



1 Population 1927: 4,269,283. 



100 P.D. 34. 

Cases and Deaths, with Case and Death Rates per 100,000 Population for All Report- 
able Diseases during the Year 1927. — Concluded. 

Case Rate Death Rate Fatality 

per 100,000 per 100,000 Rate 

Disease. Cases. Population. Deaths. Population. (Per Cent). 

Epidemic Cerebrospinal Meningitis ... 75 1 . S 43 1.0 57 . 3 

German Measles 646 15.1 1 .02 .2 

Gonorrhea 4,294 100.6 18 .4 .4 

Hookworm - - - - - 

Influenza 515 12.1 326 7.6 63.3 

Leprosy - - - - - 

Malaria 9 .2 1 .02 11.1 

Measles 13,498 316.2 87 2.0 .6 

Mumps 10,752 251.8 6 .1 .1 

Opthalmia Neonatorum! 1,827 42.8 

Pellagra 15 .4 10 .2 66.7 

Pneumonia Lobar 4,279 100.2 1,969 46.1 46.0 

Rabies 2 .04 2 .04 100.0 

Scarlet Fever 16,546 387.6 144 3.4 .9 

Septic Sore Throat 141 3.3 50 1.2 35.5 

SmaUpox 2 .04 

Syphilis 1,666 39.0 135 3.2 8.1 

Tetanus 25 .6 23 .5 92.0 

Trachoma 33 .8 

Trichinosis^ - - 12 .02 

Tuberculosis, Pulmonary 5,049 118.3 2,774 65.0 54.9 

Tuberculosis, Other Forms 807 18.9 429 10.0 53.2 

Tuberculosis, Hilum 551 12.9 

Typhoid Fever 466 10.9 44 1.0 9.4 

"Whooping Cough 6,273 146.9 149 3.5 2.4 

Totals 83,816 1,963.2 6,728 157.6 8.0 

1 Includes 307 cases of suppurative conjunctivitis, 
s Case not reported until January, 1928. 



P.D. 34. 



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102 



P.D. 34. 



Index to Line Numbers in the Table of Cases and Deaths from Diseases Dangerous 

to the Public Health. 



Abington 








122 


Dunstable 


. 342 


Lincoln ; 




Acton 








191 


Duxbury 


. 229 


Littleton 




Acushnet 








138 






Longmeadow 




Adams . 








65 


East Bridgewater 


. 154 


Lowell . 




Agawam 








107 


East Brookfield . 


. 286 


Ludlow . 




Alford . 








354 


East Longmeadow 


. 156 


Lunenburg 




Amesbury 








73 


Eastham 


. 320 


Lynn 




Amherst 








lis 


Easthampton 


74 


Lynnfield' 




Andover 








76 


Easton . 


. 124 






Arlington 








34 


Edgartown . 


. 268 


Maiden . 




Ashburnham 








204 


Egremont 


. 322 


Manchester . 




Ashby 








288 


Enfield . 


. 302 


Mansfield 




Ashfield . 








287 


Erving . 


. 260 


Marblehead . 




Ashland . 








186 


Essex 


. 259 


Marion . 




Athol 








85 


Everett . 


30 


Marlborough 




Attleboro 








45 






Marshfield 




Auburn . 








127 


Fairhaven 


70 


Mashpee 




Avon 








195 


Fall River 


8 


Mattapoisett 




Ayer 








174 


Falmouth 


. 130 


Maynard 










Fitchburg 


27 


Medfield 




Barnstable 




117 


Florida . 


. 334 


Medford 




Barre 








160 


Foxborough . 


. 128 


Medway 




Becket 








297 


Framingham . 


42 


Melrose . 




Bedford . 








241 


Franklin 


. 100 


Mendon. 




Belchertown 








163 


Freetown 


. 231 


Merrimac 




Bellingham 
Belmont 








168 
51 


Gardner . 


48 


Methuen 
Middleborough 




Berkley . 
Berlin 








273 


Gay Head 


. 358 


Middlefield . 










275 


Georgetown . 


. 225 


Middleton 




Bernardston 








292 


Gill. 


. 289 


Milford . 




Beverly . 
Billerica . 








43 


Gloucester 


. 38 


Millbury 










125 


Goshen . 


. 349 


MilUs . 




Blackstone 








133 


Gosnold . 


. 359 


Millville. 




Blandford 








330 


Grafton . 


. 103 


Milton . 




Bolton . 








294 


Granby . 


. 296 


Monroe . 




Boston 








3 


Granville 


. 312 


Monson . 




Bourne 








166 


Great Barrington. 


. 114 


Montague 




Boxborough 
Boxford . 








340 


Greenfield 


. 60 


Monterey 










313 


Greenwich 


. 325 


Montgomery. 




Boylston 
Braintree 








282 
64 


Groton . 
Groveland 


. 188 
. 200 


Mount Washington 




Brewster 








300 






Nahant . 




Bridgewater 
Brimfield 








82 
293 


Hadley . 
Hah fax . 


. 177 
. 308 


Nantucket 
Natick . 




Brockton 








77 


Hamilton 


. 205 


Needham 




Brookfield 








255 


Hampden 


. 309 


New Ashford 




T^rnriHiTif* 








26 


Hancock 


. 315 


New Bedford 




JDl UDR.11 lie 

Buckland 
Burlington 








236 


Hanover 


181 


New Braintree 










234 


Hanson . 


. 203 


New Marlborough 








Hardwick 


. 172 


New Salem . 










Harvard 


. 311 


Newbury 




Cambridge 








9 


Harwich 


. 206 


Newburyport 




Canton . 








123 


Hatfield . 


184 


Newton . 




Carlisle . 








316 


Haverhill 


25 


Norfolk ... 




Carver . 








250 


Hawley . 


. 341 


North Adams 




Charlemont 








295 


Heath 


. 345 


North Andover . 




Charleton 








198 


Hingham 


. 115 


North Attleborough 




Chatham 








230 


Hinsdale 


, 283 


North Brookfield . 




Chelmsford 








105 


Holbrook 


. 161 


North Reading . 




Chelsea . 








24 


Holden . 


152 


Northampton 




Cheshire 








215 


Holland . 


. 360 


Northborough 




Chester . 








238 


HoUiston 


. 179 


Northbridge . 




Chesterfield 








326 


Holyoke 


18 


Northfield 




Chieopee 








28 


Hopedale 


. 159 


Norton . 




Chilmark 








351 


Hopkinton . 


185 


Norwell . 




Clarksburg 








267 


Hubbardston 


. 280 


Norwood 




Clinton 








62 


Hudson . 


93 






Cohasset 








in 


Hull 


173 


Oak Bluffs . 




Colrain . 








243 


Huntington . 


. 239 


Oakham. 




Concord 








99 






Orange . 




Conway . 








290 


Ipswich . 


. 121 


Orleans . 




Cummington 






321 






Otis 








Kingston 


. ■ . 187 


Oxford . 




Dalton .... 


141 










Dana 








304 


Lakeville 


. 254 


Palmer . 




Danvers 








71 


Lancaster 


. 183 


Paxton . 




Dartmouth 








78 


I anesborough 


. 269 


Peabody . . i 




Dedham 








59 


T awrence 


15 


Pel ham . 




Deerfield 








170 


Lee .... 


. 145 


Pembroke . . | 




Dennis . 








226 


Leicester 


. 140 


Pepperell 




Lighton. 








155 


Lenox . 


175 


Peru 




Douglas. 








196 


I eominster . 


. 39 


Petersham 




Dover . 








278 


Leverett 


. 306 


Phillipston . 




E racut . 








106 


Lexington 


92 


Pittsfield 




Ludley . 








135 


Leyden . 


. 350 


Plainfield 





P.D. 34. 

Plainville 
Plymouth 
Plympton 
Prcgcott . 
Princeton 
Provancetown 

Quincy . 

Randolph 

Raynham 

Reading . 

Rehoboth 

Revere . 

Richmond 

Rochester 

Rockland 

Rockport 

Rowe 

Rowley . 

Royalston 

Russell . 

Rutland . 

Salem 

Salisbury 

Sandisfield 

Sandwich 

Saugus . 

Savoy 

Scituate . 

Seekonk . 

Sharon . 

Sheffield. 

Shelburne 

Sherborn 

Shirley . 

Shrewsbury 

Shutesbury 

Somerset 

Somerville 



103 



242 
69 
317 
353 
299 
153 

16 

120 
202 

89 
194 

33 
307 
277 

97 
147 
347 
251 
298 
253 
193 

29 
220 
323 
248 

67 
335 
182 
136 
157 
232 
240 
305 
192 
111 
356 
126 

13 



South Hadley 






102 


Warren . 








142 


Southampton 






286 


Warwick 








337 


Southborough 






207 


W ashington 








352 


Southbridge . 






56 


Watertown 








35 


Southwick 








262 


Wayland 








201 


Spencer . 








109 


Webster . 








68 


Springfield 








7 


Wellesley 








77 


Sterling . 








. 237 


WsUfleet 








301 


Stockbridge 








223 


Wendell. 








331 


Stoneham 








84 


Wenham 








274 


Stoughton 








94 


West Boylston 






212 


Stow 








272 


West Bridgewater 






167 


Sturbridge 








217 


West Brookfield 






261 


Sudbury 








246 


West Newbury 






265 


Sunderland 








263 


West Springfield 






55 


Sutton . 








214 


West Stockbridge 






264 


Swampscott 








88 


West Tisbury 






343 


Swansea. 








150 


Westborough 






112 




Westfield 






47 




Westford 








149 


Taunton . . .31 


Westhampton 






339 


Templeton . 




139 


Westminster 








208 


Tewksbury . 




129 


Weston . 








169 


Tewksbury State 


Infirmary 


366 


Westport 








137 


Tisbury . 




247 


Westwood 








224 


Tolland . 
Topsfield 




361 
291 


Weymouth 
Whately 








50 
271 


Townsend 




213 


Whitman 








96 


Truro 




324 


Wilbraham 








180 


Tyngsborough 




276 


Williamsburg 






211 


Tyringham . 




346 


Williamstown 






143 




Wilmington . 






148 


Upton 209 

Uxbridge . .113 


Winchendon 
Winchester 
Windsor. 
Winthrop 








116 
72 

336 
54 


Wakefield .... 53 


Woburn . 








49 


Wales . 








327 


Worcester 








5 


Walpole. 








104 


Worthington 








328 


Waltham 








32 


Wrentham 








158 


Ware 








90 




Wareham 








119 


Yarmouth 








235 



104 



P.D. 34. 









Cases and Deaths from Diseases 


Dangerous 








An- 










Ep. 

Cere- 


Ger- 








Popu- 


terior 
Polio- 


Chicken 


Diph- 1 


bro- 


man 


Gonor- 






lation 


Pox. 


theria. | 


spinal 


Mea- 


rhea. 




Cities and Towns grouped 


esti- 
mated 
as of 
July 1, 
1927. 


mye- 










Menin- 


sles. 






IN Order of Population. 












gitis. 








d 


s 




i 


s 
% 


d 


■^ 


S 


1 


i 


■§ 


s 




















S 




£ 




s 




.£ 


h4 






o 


Q 


O 





o 


Q 


U 


« 


o 





o 


W 


1 


Massachusetts 


4,269,283 


1189 


169 


9927 


8 


4750 


268 


75 


43 


646 


1 


4294 


18 


? 


Cities of over 500,000. 




























3 


Boston 


793,145 


277 


64 


2823 


1 


1259 


59 


23 


29 


162 


- 


2378 


7 


4 


Cities of over 160,000. 




























5 


Worcester 


195,471 


29 


6 


762 


1 


257 


14 


- 


- 


32 


- 


269 


- 


fi 


Cities, 100,000-150,000. 


838,391 


186 


30 


1572 


2 


1279 


97 


21 


4 


81 


- 


712 


3 


7 


Springfield 


147,400 


12 


6 


341 


- 


256 


18 


3 


2 


16 


- 


171 


2 


8 


FaU River 


132,638 


24 


3 


161 


- 


141 


18 


4 


- 


2 


- 


90 


- 


9 


Cambridge 


123,944 


54 


4 


314 


- 


141 


- 


5 


- 


23 


- 


126 


1 


10 


New Bedford 


118,821 


11 


2 


1,52 


1 


^04 


19 


1 


- 


8 


- 


64 


- 


11 


Lowell 


109,243 


13 


2 


75 


1 


191 


18 


3 


- 


3 


- 


156 


- 


1!^ 


Lynn 


104,766 


42 


8 


124 


_ 


136 


19 


4 


1 


15 


- 


73 


- 


13 


Somerville 


101,579 


30 


5 


105 


- 


110 


5 


1 


1 


14 


- 


32 


- 


14 


Cities, 50,000-100,000. 


444,857 


94 


9 


979 


/ 


275 


16 


/ 


2 


76 


- 


161 


3 


15 


Lawrence 


93,212 


19 


1 


63 


- 


35 


8 


2 


1 


b 


- 


63 


1 


Ifi 


Quincy 


65,275 


17 


1 


82 


- 


54 


1 


- 


- 


13 


- 


18 


- 


17 


Brockton 


64,954 


7 


1 


123 


- 


30 


- 


1 


- 


5 


- 


22 


1 


18 


Holyoke 


61,187 


4 


1 


43 


1 


45 


5 


3 


- 


6 


- 


17 


1 


19 


Newton 


55,982 


18 


1 


439 


- 


25 


- 


- 


- 


21 


- 


7 


- 


?n 


Maiden 


52,939 


13 


- 


49 


- 


52 


2 


1 


1 


3 


- 


14 


- 


?i 


Medford 


51,308 


16 


4 


180 


- 


34 


- 


- 


- 


23 


- 


20 


- 


?.?. 


Cities and Towns, 25,000-50,000. 


556,595 


^34 


^3 


948 


- 


620 


38 


/ 


3 


73 


1 


392 


/ 


?3 


Pittsfield 


49,066 


1 


1 


60 


- 


16 


i 


3 


2 


1 


- 


34 


- 


94 


Chelsea 


48,986 


20 


1 


55 


- 


31 


3 


1 


- 


2 


- 


12 


- 


M 


Haverhill 


47,239 


111 


15 


86 


- 


78 


3 


- 


- 


11 


- 


159 


- 


?lfi 


Brookline 


44,796 


16 


- 


178 


- 


8 


- 


- 


- 


10 


- 


7 


- 


27 


Fitchbnrg 


44,714 


2 


- 


17 


- 


36 


3 


- 


- 


1 


- 


IV 


- 


28 


Chicopee 


44,310 


2 


- 


18 


- 


51 


2 


- 


- 


1 


- 


6 


- 


m 


Salem 


42,945 


19 


3 


61 


- 


133 


11 


- 


- 


6 


- 


1 


- 


30 


Everett 


42,907 


14 


- 


88 


- 


46 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


39 


- 


31 


Taunton 


40,162 


5 


- 


45 


- 


12 


1 


1 


- 


2 


- 


2 


- 


3?, 


Waltham 


36,388 


9 


1 


81 


- 


87 


6 


- 


- 


3 


1 


14 


- 


33 


Revere 


35,162 


19 


1 


49 


- 


55 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


58 


- 


34 


Arlington 


27,632 


8 


- 


111 


- 


10 


1 


1 


- 


11 


- 


13 


- 


35 


Watertown 


27,203 


7 


- 


20 


- 


43 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


3 


- 


3fi 


Northampton 


25,085 


1 


1 


79 


- 


14 


5 


1 


1 


16 


- 


2V 


1 


37 


Cities and Towns, 10,000-25,000. 


675.896 


168 


/:* 


1481 


/ 


636 


32 


10 


3 


131 


- 


180 


1 


38 


Gloucester 


23,555 


16 


- 


5 


- 


21 


2 


- 


- 


2 


- 


5 


- 


39 


Leominster 


23,137 


- 


- 


23 


- 


43 


2 


- 


- 


2 


- 


19 


- 


40 


Methuen 


22,926 


6 


- 


84 


- 


8 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


41 


North Adams 


22,904 


3 


2 


15 


- 


9 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


4? 


Framingham 


22,811 


1 


- 


43 


- 


7 


- 


- 


- 


13 


- 


18 


- 


43 


Beverly 


22,737 


2 


- 


24 


- 


20 


I 


- 


- 


- 


- 


18 


- 


44 




21,004 


4 


- 


IV 


- 


5 


- 


2 


- 


3 


- 


6 


- 


45 


Attleboro 


21,003 


3 


1 


61 


- 


23 


2 


1 


- 


1 


- 


1 


- 


4fi 


Peabody 


20,005 


6 


- 


24 


- 


20 


2 


1 


1 


- 


- 


10 


- 


47 


Westfield 


19,657 


2 


- 


25 


- 


80 


b 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


48 


Gardner 


19,484 


6 


- 


3 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


26 


- 


49 


Wobum 


19,140 


3 


- 


9 


- 


16 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


50 


Weymouth 


18,193 


11 


2 


14 


- 


12 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


51 


Belmont 


17,187 


6 


- 


160 


- 


23 


- 


- 


- 


16 


- 


V 


- 


5? 


Marlboro 


16,751 


- 


- 


20 


- 


61 


4 


- 


- 


1 


- 


1 


- 


53 


Wakefield 


16,718 


5 


- 


17 


- 


5 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


54 


Winthrop 


16,457 


3 


- 


82 


- 


11 


- 


1 


- 


1 


- 


8 


- 


55 


West Springfield .... 


16,131 


1 


- 


lb 


- 


39 


2 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


5(1 


Southbridge ..... 


16,020 


- 


- 


5 


- 


14 


- 


. - 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


57 


Newburyport 


15,672 


12 


- 


32 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


4 


- 


- 


1 


5f 


Milford 


15,339 


6 


1 


32 


1 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


5' 


Dedham 


15,257 


12 


1 


35 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


fif 


Greenfield 


15,154 


2 


- 


80 


- 


14 


1 


1 


1 


37 


- 


7 


- 


fil 


Norwood 


14,801 


7 


- 


15 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


(\' 


Clinton 


14,693 


- 


- 


25 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


K 


Milton 


14,351 


7 


- 


71 


- 


6 


- 


- 


- 


8 


- 


2 


- 


W 


Braintree 


14,311 


4 


- 


28 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


2 


- 


6, 


Adams 


13,763 


1 


- 


10 


- 


3V 


5 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


fif 


) Natick 


13,710 


4 


- 


46 


- 


20 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


6 


- 


6' 


1 Saugus 


13,542 


5 




74 


- 


10 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


fi> 


i Webster 


13,443 


- 




- 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


fi 


) Plymouth 


13,230 


4 




24 


- 


V 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


1 


- 


7( 


) Fairhaven 


12,141 


- 




43 


- 


16 


- 


1 


- 


2 


- 


2 


- 


7 


I Danvers 


12,093 


1 




32 


- 


11 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


7 


I Winchester 


12,026 


1 




73 


- 


2 


- 


1 


1 


1 


- 


4 


- 


7 


5 Amesbury 


11,740 


12 




37 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


11 


- 


T 


I Easthampton 


11,724 


1 




- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


5 


- 


7. 


) Palmer 


11,535 


- 


- 


1 


- 


23 


4 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


~ 



P.D. 34. 

to the Public Health, 1927. 



105 

















Oph- 








Tuber- 


Tuber- 












Influ- 


Lobar 










thalmia 


Scarlet 


Syphi- 


culosis, 


culosis, 


Ty-. 


Whoop- 




enza. 


Pneu- 


Measles. 


Mumps. 


Neona- 


Fever. 


lis. 


Pulmo- 


Other 


phoid 


^^^K 






monia. 










torum. 








nary. 


Forms. 


Fever. 


Cough. 






1 




.s 




1 




J 




M 




2 




1 




1 




■1 




S 




1 


d 


$ 


03 


«^ 


t 


« 


rt 


s 


■g 


« 


rt 


^ 


ta 


gj 


c4 


§i 


■Ja 


m 


« 


1 


a 


i 


C3 


s 




«J 


C3 


4) 














ci 


a 




<U 










!S 


<u 


c3 


(U 


a 


O 


Q 


o 


Q 


O 


P 


O 


Q 


O 


Q 


O 


Q 


O 


Q 


O 


Q 


o 


P 


O 


P 


o 


P 


515 


326 


4279 


1969 


13498 


87 


10752 


6 


1827 


~^ 


16546 


144 


1666 


T3S 


5049 


2774 


807 


429 


466 


IT 


6273 


149 


2 
3 
4 
5 


163 


32 


1380 


533 


4427 


39 


2385 


- 


1034 


- 


3775 


54 


857 


56 


15Q3 


594 


305 


93 


100 


9 


1132 


29 


14 


7 


264 


113 


71 


_ 


455 


_ 


130 


_ 


490 


3 


169 


6 


253 


135 


56 


35 


21 


6 


276 


6 


122 


65 


923 


345 


953 


7 


1556 


/ 


231 


- 


3052 


19 


276 


21 


1079 


481 


192 


92 


106 


14 


1060 


27 


6 


20 


12 


151 


66 


54 


I 


210 


1 


28 


- 


223 




82 


4 


112 


65 


22 


15 


11 


- 


274 


6 


7 


23 


13 


133 


57 


93 


1 


71 


- 


62 


- 


178 




59 


8 


183 


109 


22 


18 


28 


3 


104 


2 


8 


44 


6 


237 


58 


498 


4 


713 


- 


17 


- 


488 




33 


2 


198 


102 


44 


10 


7 


1 


271 


4 


9 


4 


IS 


79 


33 


21 


- 


116 


- 


101 


_ 


347 




29 


5 


207 


92 


48 


18 


17 


4 


48 


1 


10 


7 


2 


79 


32 


16 


1 


216 


- 


7 


- 


170 




44 


1 


110 


47 


21 


16 


22 


3 


75 


8 


11 


9 




119 


57 


89 


- 


86 


- 


8 


- 


1036 




18 


1 


148 


29 


21 


11 


13 


1 


147 


3 


12 


15 




125 


42 


182 


- 


144 


_ 


8 


- 


610 




11 


- 


121 


37 


14 


4 


8 


2 


141 


3 


13 


4S 


J^ 


387 


192 


1561 


8 


2034 


/ 


260 


- 


1984 


13 


129 


8 


407 


191 


54 


46 


40 


3 


1009 


15 


14 


8 


Q 


48 


24 


726 


6 


39 


- 


85 


- 


389 




54 


2 


81 


31 


12 


10 


15 


1 


55 


4 


15 


11 




39 


21 


402 


- 


76 


- 


2 


- 


382 




8 


1 


69 


34 


8 


2 


4 


1 


93 


2 


16 


1 




68 


28 


21 


- 


192 


- 


159 


- 


440 


2 


49 


- 


71 


21 


8 


5 


4 


- 


119 


1 


17 


- 




20 


22 


17 


- 


23 


1 


1 


- 


88 


- 


11 


4 


36 


45 


6 


14 


5 


- 


89 


6 


18 


13 




65 


42 


100 


1 


1100 


- 


- 


- 


157 


_ 


2 


- 


48 


16 


8 


5 


3 


_ 


442 


_ 


19 


11 




77 


26 


23 


- 


104 


- 


11 


- 


182 


3 


3 


- 


43 


25 


5 


5 


6 


- 


84 


2 


20 


4 




70 


29 


272 


1 


500 


- 


2 


- 


346 


- 


2 


1 


59 


19 


7 


5 


3 


1 


127 


- 


21 


68 


42 


474 


191 


1703 


9 


1043 


2 


48 


- 


2245 


18 


88 


20 


608 


328 


85 


47 


67 


6 


866 


19 


22 


10 




41 


28 


216 


3 


39 


1 


1 


- 


477 


8 


13 


2 


37 


28 


6 


5 


2 


- 


112 


4 


23 


1 




75 


25 


142 


1 


153 


- 


9 


- 


95 


_ 


8 


7 


45 


33 


8 


3 


15 


- 


38 


_ 


24 


13 




61 


21 


363 


2 


8 


- 


4 


- 


194 


3 


18 


3 


53 


13 


10 


7 


12 


- 


90 


1 


25 


9 




27 


9 


201 


- 


228 


- 


- 


- 


127 


1 


2 


- 


32 


15 


5 


2 


4 


1 


187 


2 


26 


- 




45 


18 


130 


3 


12 


- 


5 


- 


29 


- 


16 


- 


37 


21 


7 


5 


4 


2 


30 


4 


27 


1 




11 


7 


6 


- 


8 


1 


2 


- 


50 


- 


4 


- 


43 


34 


4 


2 


1 


1 


16 


2 


28 


3 




33 


16 


12 


_ 


50 


- 


15 


- 


222 


1 


_ 


2 


47 


14 


12 


5 


3 


1 


29 


3 


29 


12 




59 


14 


80 


- 


146 


- 


2 


- 


175 


1 


8 


3 


60 


21 


9 


6 


6 


- 


53 


- 


30 


6 




17 


13 


4 


- 


3 


- 


3 


- 


54 


- 


1 


- 


47 


39 


2 


2 


3 


1 


10 


- 


31 


2 




22 


8 


70 


- 


118 


- 


2 


- 


89 


2 


1 


_ 


35 


13 


7 


5 


4 


_ 


65 


_ 


32 


2 




19 


8 


263 


- 


9 


- 


2 


- 


171 


- 


8 


1 


53 


15 


6 


- 


7 


- 


36 


2 


33 


1 




21 


5 


30 


- 


216 


- 


3 


- 


170 


- 


1 


1 


37 


11 


7 


2 


2 


- 


129 


1 


34 


1 




28 


12 


5 


- 


41 


- 


- 


- 


225 


- 


3 


- 


29 


10 


1 


1 


1 


- 


41 


- 


35 


7 




15 


7 


181 


- 


12 


- 


- 


- 


167 


2 


5 


1 


53 


61 


1 


2 


3 


- 


30 


- 


36 


63 


71 


571 


306 


2882 


// 


1870 


/ 


39 


- 


2939 


19 


63 


6 


584 


300 


73 


51 


56 


4 


962 


32 


37 


1 




15 


8 


5 


- 


2 


- 


3 


- 


79 


2 


1 


_ 


12 


8 


3 


2 


- 


- 


11 


5 


38 


- 




27 


13 


32 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


32 


- 


3 


1 


20 


5 


2 


3 


- 


- 


34 


2 


39 


2 




8 


3 


205 


2 


18 


- 


- 


- 


156 


1 


- 


1 


26 


7 


6 


2 


5 


- 


106 


1 


40 


2 




4 


3 


4 


- 


7 


- 


- 


- 


192 


4 


6 


- 


17 


9 


1 


1 


3 


- 


2 


1 


41 


3 


2 


12 


9 


538 


1 


247 


- 


- 


- 


53 


1 


6 


- 


29 


9 


4 


1 


- 


- 


72 


- 


42 


1 


- 


27 


8 


5 


1 


22 


- 


1 


- 


121 


1 


15 


- 


11 


7 


7 


2 


3 


_ 


28 


3 


43 


9 


- 


43 


14 


157 


1 


33 


- 


4 


- 


74 


1 


1 


- 


20 


1 


8 


3 


4 


1 


21 


- 


44 


2 


3 


15 


15 


7 


- 


37 


- 


- 


- 


87 


- 


- 


2 


81 


34 


6 


3 


- 


- 


3 


- 


45 


- 


- 


13 


7 


10 


- 


16 


- 


1 


- 


74 


- 


1 


- 


18 


6 


3 


1 


1 


- 


29 


3 


46 


2 


3 


17 


13 


27 


1 


18 


- 


- 


- 


32 


- 


- 


- 


13 


30 


- 


1 


2 


1 


6- 


- 


47 


- 


3 


16 


13 


1 


- 


2 


- 


3 


- 


64 


~ 


10 


- 


36 


10 


- 


_ 


6 


- 


13 


2 


48 


3 


10 


5 


4 


11 


- 


7 


- 


- 


- 


105 




- 


- 


7 


8 


1 


2 


- 


- 


3 


1 


49 


1 


- 


8 


12 


74 


- 


8 


- 


1 


- 


87 


1 


- 


- 


15 


5 


1 


- 


- 


- 


29 


- 


50 


3 


- 


14 


1 


13 


_ 


270 


- 


- 


- 


84 


1 


- 


- 


25 


6 


5 


1 


4 


- 


24 


1 


51 


- 


5 


10 


8 


2 


- 


50 


- 


- 


- 


64 


- 


3 


- 


13 


6 


- 


1 


3 


- 


26 


1 


52 


1 


- 


18 


11 


14 


- 


84 


- 


- 


- 


43 


- 


- 


- 


9 


3 


- 


1 


9 


- 


6 


_ 


53 


12 


- 


14 


10 


16 


- 


54 


- 


5 


- 


147 


- 


3 


- 


11 


3 


- 


2 


1 


- 


16 


- 


54 


2 


- 


24 


6 


2 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


52 


- 


- 


- 


8 


5 


1 


_ 


1 


_ 


8 


_ 


55 


- 


2 


13 


8 


4 


1 


3 


- 


- 


- 


11 


- 


- 


- 


12 


2 


2 


2 


2 


- 


6 


1 


56 


2 


3 


21 


12 


134 


- 


6 


- 


3 


_ 


88 


1 


- 


- 


9 


7 


2 


1 


1 


_ 


14 


1 


57 


- 


2 


10 


21 


1 


- 


20 


- 


- 


- 


16 


- 


- 


- 


9 


7 


- 


1 


- 


- 


9 


_ 


58 


- 


2 


1 


6 


1 


- 


23 




- 


_ 


70 


_ 


_ 


_ 


6 


2 


1 


1 


_ 


_ 


5 


_ 


59 


1 


4 


11 


8 


704 


1 


60 


- 


6 


- 


112 


- 


6 


1 


6 


3 


- 


_ 


2 


- 


78 


_ 


60 


- 


- 


8 


6 


3 


- 


16 


- 


- 


- 


24 


- 


- 


- 


12 


1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


4 




61 


- 


1 


44 


13 


3 


- 


23 


- 


- 


- 


44 


1 


- 


- 


8 


1 


1 


1 


_ 


- 


27 


_ 


62 


1 


- 


14 


6 


88 


- 


208 


- 


- 


- 


42 


- 


2 


- 


8 


3 


3 


2 


2 


- 


50 


1 


63 


5 


3 


12 


6 


594 


1 


41 


- 


- 


- 


81 


- 


- 


- 


9 


39 


_ 


1 


1 


_ 


66 


3 


64 


- 


2 


12 


6 


18 


- 


10 


- 


- 


- 


240 


3 


- 


- 


6 


7 


- 


- 


1 


- 


2 


- 


65 


- 


2 


13 


9 


79 


- 


93 


- 


1 


- 


100 


- 


3 


- 


10 


1 


1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


20 


_ 


66 


5 


- 


9 


5 


24 


- 


14 


- 


- 


- 


117 


- 




- 


18 


7 


- 


1 


- 


- 


12 


1 


67 


- 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


32 


1 


- 


- 


8 


5 


_ 


3 


_ 


_ 






68 


- 


4 


6 


1 


2 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


6 


- 


- 


- 


7 


2 


- 


- 


1 


- 


25 


2 


69 


- 


2 


8 


4 


4 


- 


6 


- 


3 


- 


59 


- 


- 


- 


11 


3 


1 


_ 


1 


1 


35 


1 


70 


- 


1 


4 


7 


- 


- 


67 


- 


2 


- 


62 


- 


- 


1 


23 


22 


2 


4 


- 


- 


9 


1 


71 


- 


1 


10 


5 


16 


- 


60 


- 


1 


- 


48 


- 


1 


- 


4 


4 


1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


78 




72 


- 


- 


20 


2 


10 


1 


6 


1 


- 


- 


22 


- 


1 


- 


9 


4 


- 


1 


- 


- 


7 


- 


73 


- 


1 


20 


5 


- 


- 


9 


- 


- 


- 


55 


1 


1 


- 


6 


2 


3 


1 


1 


_ 


4 


1 


74 


- 


- 


2 


1 


1 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


8 


3 


1 


4 


- 


- 


2 


- 


75 



106 



P.D. 34. 

















c 


^ase 


s and Deaths from 


Diseases Dangerous 








■ An- 






Ep. 












terior 






Cere- 


Ger- 








Popu- 


Polio- 


Chicken 


Diph- 


bro- 


man 


Gonor- 






lation 


mye- 


Pox. 


theria. 


spinal 


Mea- 


rhea. 




Cities aud Towns grouped 


esti- 


litis. 






Menin- 


sles. 






IN Ohder of Population. 


mated 








gitis. 










as of 


























6 

o 

a 




July 1, 
1927. 


i 


la 


1 


1 


i 


1 

c3 


i 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 






rt 




03 


^ 


S 




o 










^ 






o 


P 


o 


Q 


o 


Q 


6 


Q 


O 


Q 


O 


Q 


"76 


Andover 


11,157 


8 


1 


13 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


7 


_ 


_ 


_ 


77 


Wellesley . 








10.259 


1 


- 


104 


_ 


1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


11 


_ 


7 


_ 


78 


Dartmouth 








10,111 


- 


- 


26 


- 


9 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


79 


North Attleboro 








10.024 


3 


- 


34 


- 


45 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


80 


Cities and Towns 


,'5,0{ 


»e-io 


,000. ' 


378,534 


01 


11 


717 


1 


264 


4 


2 


- 


44 


- 


112 


2 


81 


Northbridge 








9,999 


4 


- 


1 


- 


2 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


- 


82 


Bridgewater 










9,909 


1 


- 


48 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


10 


- 


10 


- 


83 


Nepdham . 










9,816 


1 


- 


31 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


2 


- 


84 


Stoneham . 










9,602 


1 


- 


31 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


85 


Athol . 










9,521 


- 


- 


10 


- 


1 


_ 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


3 


- 


86 


Middleboro 










9,428 


3 


- 


11 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


~ 


87 


Ludlow 










9,371 


1 


- 


36 


- 


57 


1 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1 


_ 


88 


Swampscott 










9,318 


1 


- 


33 


- 


13 


- 


- 


_ 


4 


- 


5 


_ 


89 


Reading 










9,231 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


90 


Ware . 










8,672 


_ 


- 


2 


- 


1 


- 


_ 


- 


_ 


_ 


- 


_ 


91 


Marblehead 










8,594 


_ 


_ 


13 


- 


2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


7 


_ 


92 


Lexington . 










8,.397 


3 


- 


54 


- 


5 


- 


_ 


_ 


5 


_ 


2 


_ 


93 


Hudson 










8,355 


1 


1 


14 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


94 


Stoughton . 










8,280 


- 


- 


3 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


95 


Maynard . 










8,186 


1 


- 


1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


96 


Whitman . 










8,159 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


97 


Rockland . 










8,144 


3 


- 


3 


- 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


98 


Montague . 










8,099 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


99 


Concord 










7,310 


- 


- 


12 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


51 


- 


100 


Franklin . 










7,293 


2 


- 


15 


- 


43 


- 


- 


- 


7 


- 


4 


- 


101 


North Andover 










7,084 


1 


- 


48 


- 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


1 


- 


- 


_ 


102 


South Hadley 










7,070 


- 


- 


7 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


103 


Grafton 










7.009 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


104 


Walpole 










6,962 


1 


- 


31 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


7 


- 


105 


Chelmsford 










6,953 


5 


1 


44 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


1 


106 


Dracut 










6,877 


1 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


107 


Agawam . 










6,832 


1 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


108 


Millbury 










6,779 


2 


- 


16 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


109 


Spencer 










6,777 


- 


- 


4 


- 


5 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


110 


Mansfield . 










6,734 


1 


- 


10 


- 


9 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


9 


- 


111 


Shrewsbury 










6,724 


- 


- 


- 


- 


8 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


112 


Westboro . 










6,586 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


1 


113 


Uxbridge 










6,510 


- 


- 


2 


- 


1 


- 


1 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


114 


Great Barringto 


n 








6,443 


- 


- 


7 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


115 


Hingham . 










6,392 


3 


- 


11 


- 


1 


- 


- 




- 


- 


- 


- 


116 


Winchendon 










6,286 


3 


1 


3 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


117 


Barnstable . 










6,174 


_ 


_ 


19 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


- 


118 


Amherst 










6,150 


8 


_ 


10 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


119 


Wareham . 










6,098 


4 


- 


3 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


120 


Randolph . 










6,022 


2 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


121 


Ipswich 










5,992 


26 


2 


10 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


7 


- 


122 


Abington 










5,923 


2 


2 


- 


- 


9 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


123 


Canton 










5,878 


3 


1 


39 


- 


15 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


124 


Easton 










5,457 


1 


- 


4 


- 


18 


- 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


125 


Billerica 










5,455 


1 


- 


20 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


12g 


Somerset 










5,374 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


127 


Auburn 










5,370 


1 


1 


62 


- 


4 


- 


1 


- 


1 


- 


1 


- 


128 


Foxboro 










5,274 


1 


- • 


24 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


- 


2 


- 


1 


_ 


129 


Tewksbury. 










5.212 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


130 


Falmouth . 










5,205 


1 


- 


24 


- 


11 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


131 


Monson 










5,199 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


132 


Orange 










5,033 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


133 


Blackstone . 










5,016 


- 


- 


- 


- 


8 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


134 


Towns, 


2,500 


-5,00 


0. 




188,354 


38 


5 


307 


- 


73 


4 


2 


- 


20 


- 


37 


; 


135 


Dudley 










4,974 


- 


- 


6 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


136 


Seekonk 










4,745 


- 


- 


- 


- 


5 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


137 


Westport . 










4,675 


3 


- 


2 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


138 


Acushnet . 










4,. 589 


- 


- 


3 


- 


5 


- 


- 


- 




- 


- 


- 


139 


Templeton . 










4,517 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


140 


Leicester . 










4,313 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


141 


Dalton 










4,236 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


142 


Warren 










4,155 


- 


- 


27 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


6 


- 


143 


Willi amstown . 










4,132 


- 


- 


38 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


144 


Oxford 










4,112 


1 


- 


- 


- 


8 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


145 


Lee 










4,047 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


146 


Medfield . 










3,984 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


147 


Rockport . 










3,978 


1 


1 


6 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


148 


'Wilmington 










3,915 


- 


- 


4 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


149 


Westford . 










3,742 


- 


- 


4 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


150 


Swansea 










3,642 


2 


1 


- 


- 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 



P.D. 34. 

to the Public Health, 1927 — Continued. 



107 



















Oph- 






Tuber- 


Tuber- 








Influ- 


Lobar 










thalmia 


Scarlet 


Syphi- 


culosis, 


culosis, 


1^-. 


Whoop- 




enza. 


Pneu- 


Measles. 


Mumps. 


Neona- 


Fever. 


hs. 


Pulmo- 


Other 


phoid 


ing 








monia. 










torum. 






nary. 


Forms. 


Fever. 


Cough. 




. 


1 




.A 




1 




i 




J3 




Xi 




1 




1 




1 




i 




1 


1 












1 










■*i> 














% 


-^ 


0^ 






2 






eJ 




& 


08 




d 


% 


cS 




« 




OS 


s 


rt 


03 


03 


S 






Si 




.t 


o5 


a 


03 


Si 


c5 


Si 




0) 




<o 






a> 




1) 


c 


o 


° 


U 


Q 


O 


Q 


O 


Q 


u 


Q 


o 


Q 


O 


Q 


O 


Q 


o 


Q 


O 


Q 


O 


Q 


3 


2 


2 


8 


8 


9 


- 


40 


- 


- 


~I~ 


70 


- 


- 


- 


9 


4 


1 


1 


_ 


_ 


22 


_ 


T6 


_ 


- 


20 


3 


32 


- 


126 


- 


- 


- 


57 


- 


- 


- 


5 


1 


2 


1 


- 


- 


37 


_ 


77 


- 


5 


6 


2 


2 


- 


143 


- 


3 


- 


18 


- 


- 


- 


4 


S 


2 


- 


1 


1 


11 


_ 


78 


- 


- 


5 


4 


30 


1 


9 


- 


2 


- 


17 


- 


- 


- 


6 


3 


2 


- 


- 


- 


2 


_ 


79 


8 


33 


159 


IW 


1073 


5 


716 


- 


23 


- 


1006 


;; 


42 


7 


268 


157 


27 


22 


35 


_ 


590 


14 


80 


1 


2 


11 


3 


3 


- 


6 


- 


- 


- 


12 


1 


- 


- 


4 


6 


- 


- 


1 


- 


16 


3 


81 


- 


1 


9 


5 


4 


- 


5 


- 


- 


- 


40 


1 


1 


1 


40 


14 


2 


1 


2 


- 


39 


_ 


82 


- 


3 


6 


5 


10 


- 


55 


- 


- 


- 


33 


1 


- 


- 


5 


2 


1 


_ 


1 


- 


6 


_ 


83 


_ 


- 


9 


2 


20 


- 


15 


- 


- 


- 


37 


- 


1 


1 


18 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


20 


1 


84 


_ 


1 


1 


1 


4 


- 


1 


- 


1 


- 


22 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


14 


3 


85 


- 


1 


4 


3 


8 


- 


67 


- 


2 


- 


11 


2 


- 


- 


13 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


15 




86 


- 


1 


1 


3 


3 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


7 


- 


3 


- 


2 


2 


1 


1 


- 


- 


10 


1 


87 


- 


- 


3 


2 


127 


- 


81 


- 


2 


- 


57 


- 


3 


- 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


87 




88 


- 


1 


- 


3 


1 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


16 


- 


- 


- 


5 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


2 


89 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


4 


5 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


90 


- 


- 


2 


1 


5 


- 


9 


- 


1 


- 


28 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


2 


I 


- 


- 


48 


_ 


91 


1 


- 


6 


2 


6 


- 


15 


- 


- 


- 


39 


1 


- 


- 


17 


3 


1 


- 


2 


_ 


6 


_ 


92 


- 


- 


6 


5 


5 


- 


1 


- 


1 


- 


9 


- 


- 


- 


10 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


10 


_ 


93 


- 


- 


- 


6 


1 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


20 


- 


- 


- 


2 


2 


1 


- 


- 


- 


8 


_ 


94 


- 


1 


- 


2 


1 


- 


12 


- 


- 


- 


29 


- 


- 


- 


9 


4 


1 


2 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 


95 


- 


- 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


11 


- 


- 


- 


2 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 


_ 


96 


1 


- 


4 


1 


9 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


65 


- 


- 


- 


11 


5 


2 


- 


_ 


_ 


9 


_ 


97 


1 


4 


- 


6 


44 


3 


4 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


98 


2 


1 


1 


3 


4 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


31 


- 


19 


- 


2 


1 


- 


- 


5 


_ 


1 


1 


99 


1 


2 


6 


1 


187 


1 


2 


- 


- 


- 


96 


3 


- 


- 


2 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 




100 


_ 


- 


1 


2 


108 


- 


11 


- 


2 


- 


20 


- 


- 


- 


9 


2 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


7 


_ 


101 


- 


1 


2 


4 


5 


- 


26 


- 


1 


- 


8 


- 


2 


- 


1 


2 


- 


1 


- 


- 


38 


_ 


102 


- 


1 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


21 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


103 


_ 


- 


12 


- 


25 


- 


76 


- 


3 


- 


24 


- 


1 


- 


8 


2 


- 


- 


2 


_ 


31 


_ 


104 


- 


- 


10 


3 


3 


- 


26 


- 


1 


- 


13 


- 


- 


- 


8 


2 


1 


- 


2 


- 


32 


_ 


105 


- 


1 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


1 


2 


5 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


106 


- 


- 


2 


I 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


5 


- 


- 


- 


2 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


107 


- 


1 


6 


4 


2 


- 


3 


- 


1 


- 


18 


- 


- 


- 


2 


3 


1 


2 


1 


- 


10 


_ 


108 


- 


- 


5 


3 


- 


- 


8 


- 


- 


- 


6 


- 


- 


- 


4 


2 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 


4 


_ 


109 


- 


- 


4 


2 


8 


- 


7 


- 


- 


- 


10 


- 


3 


- 


3 


1 


1 


1 


- 


- 


4 


_ 


110 


- 


1 


- 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


111 


- 


1 


- 


7 


- 


- 


6 


- 


- 


- 


31 


- 


- 


- 


14 


12 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


112 


- 


1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


- 


- 


- 


113 


- 


- 


5 


3 


76 


- 


14 


- 


- 


- 


10 


1 


1 


- 


1 


1 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 


5 


_ 


114 


- 


1 


4 


3 


6 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


11 


- 


- 


- 


7 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


36 


_ 


115 


- 


1 


- 


2 


4 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


33 


- 


- 


- 


3 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


7 


1 


116 


- 


2 


4 


2 


1 


- 


18 


- 


1 


- 


31 


- 


- 


- 


3 


1 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


7 


_ 


117 


_ 


- 


3 


2 


294 


- 


9 


- 


2 


- 


16 


- 


- 


- 


2 


_ 


_ 


_ 


2 


_ 


29 


_ 


118 


- 


- 


1 


1 


4 


- 


6 


- 


- 


- 


7 


- 


- 


- 


3 


2 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


17 


_ 


119 


- 


1 


1 


2 


2 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


30 


- 


- 


- 


5 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


16 


- 


120 


_ 


- 


4 


4 


3 


- 


22 


- 


- 


- 


SO 


- 


7 


1 


3 


2 


1 


- 


- 


_ 


4 


_ 


121 


- 




- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


11 


- 


- 


1 


1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


122 


- 


- 


2 


2 


5 


- 


26 


- 


- 


- 


22 


1 


- 


- 


5 


- 


4 


2 


_ 


_ 


4 


_ 


123 


- 


- 


1 


2 


1 


- 


42 


- 


- 


- 


9 


- 


- 


- 


5 


1 


3 


1 


- 


- 


11 


- 


124 


- 


- 


12 


4 


6 


- 


33 


- 


- 


- 


22 


- 


- 


- 


7 


7 


- 


- 


15 


- 


15 


1 


125 


- 


1 


3 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


9 


- 


- 


- 


1 


5 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


126 


- 


- 


1 


1 


1 


- 


46 


- 


1 


- 


14 


- 


1 


- 


2 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


127 


- 


1 


3 


2 


35 


1 


34 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


- 


1 


3 


9 


- 


1 


- 


_ 


1 


_ 


128 


1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


3 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


1 


129 


- 


- 


- 


- 


40 


- 


9 


- 


- 


- 


7 


- 


- 


- 


4 


1 


1 


2 


- 


- 


13 


- 


130 


- 


- 


3 


4 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


4 


1 


- 


1 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


131 


- 


1 


_ 


5 
4 


~ 


~ 


: 


~ 


- 


- 


6 

1 


: 


~ 


~ 


- 


2 


1 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


132 
133 


12 


19 


55 


73 


239 


4: 


270 


; 


2 


- 


585 


3 


IS 


- 


119 


78 


9 


17 


16 


; 


163 


3 


134 


- 


_ 


1 


3 

1 


- 


- 


~ 


- 


: 


- 


21 
3 


- 


- 


- 


5 


1 

I 


- 


- 


1 


- 


7 


1 


135 
136 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


16 


- 


- 


- 


7 


- 


- 


- 


8 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


7 


- 


137 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


11 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


1 


2 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 


138 


~ 


2 


_ 


4 


10 


_ 


3 


~ 


~ 


: 


4 
3 


- 


- 


: 


~ 


4 


1 


- 


- 


- 


9 


- 


139 
140 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


8 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


141 


- 


- 


6 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


21 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


14 


- 


142 


- 


1 


- 


3 


- 


- 


27 


- 


- 


- 


9 


- 


- 


- 


2 


1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


_ 


1 


143 


- 


2 


_ 


1 
1 


1 


_ 


20 


~ 


- 


: 


1 
6 


: 


2 


: 


2 


1 
1 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


144 
145 


- 


1 


- 


7 


2 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


11 


- 


- 


- 


4 


12 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


146 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


5 


- 


- 


- 


44 


- 


- 


- 


2 


4 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


_ 


147 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


20 


2 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


5 


- 


148 


- 


- 


- 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


1 


- 


4 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


8 


1 149 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


11 


- 


- 


- 


3 2| 


- 


- 


1 


- 


3 


- 150 



108 



P.D. 34. 









Cases and Deaths from Diseases Dangerous 




Cities and Towns GROtrPED 
IN Okder OF Population. 


Popu- 
lation 

esti- 
mated 

as of 
July 1, 

1927. 


An- 
terior 
Polio- 
mye- 
litis. 


Chicken 
Pox. 


Diph- 
theria. 


Ep. 
Cere- 
bro- 
spinal 
Menin- 
gitis. 


Ger- 
num 

Mea- 
sles. 


Gonor- 
rhea. 


1 

3 


1 

o 


Q 


O 


i 

I 


O 


i 

I 


a 


1 

Q 


d 


1 
Q 


6 


i 
t 

Q 


151 
152 
153 
154 
155 
156 
157 
158 
159 
160 
161 
162 
163 
164 
165 
166 
167 
168 
169 
170 
171 
172 
173 
174 
175 
176 
177 
178 
179 
180 
181 
182 
183 
184 
185 
186 
187 
188 
189 
190 
191 
192 
193 
194 
195 
196 
197 
198 
199 
200 
201 
202 
203 
204 
205 
206 
207 
208 
209 
210 
211 
212 
213 
214 
215 
216 
217 
218 
219 
220 
221 
222 
223 
224 
225 


Longmeadow 

Holden 

Provincetown 

East Bridgewater .... 

Dighton 

East Longmeadow .... 

Sharon 

Wrentham 

Hopedale 

Barre 

Holbrook 

Nantucket 

Belchertown 

North Brookfield . . . . 

Medway 

Bourne 

West Bridgewater .... 

Bellingham 

Weston 

Deerfield 

Cohasset 

Hardwick 

HuU 

Ayer 

Lenox 

Norton 

Hadley 

Pepperell 

Holliston 

Wilbraham 

Hanover 

Scituate 

Lancaster 

Hatfield 

Hopkinton 

Ashland 

Kingston 

Groton 

Manchester 

Towns ttnder 2,500. 

Acton 

Shirley 

Rutland 

Rehoboth 

Avon 

Douglas 

Millville 

Charleton . . . . 

Merrimac 

Groveland 

Wayland 

Raynham 

Hanson 

Ashbumham 

Hamilton 

Harwich 

Southboro 

Westminster 

Upton 

Northboro 

Williamsburg 

West Boylston 

Townsend 

Sutton 

Cheshire 

Lunenburg 

Marshfield 

Millis 

Salisbury 

Middleton 

North Reading 

Stockbridgo 

Westwood 

Georgetown 


3,639 
3,634 
3,593 
3,560 
3,478 
3,469 
3,398 
3,387 
3,329 
3,318 
3,318 
3,303 
3,267 
3,233 
3,223 
3,220 
3,211 
3,210 
3,174 
3,038 
3,030 
3,030 
3,028 
3,023 
2,981 
2,936 
2,931 
2,912 
2,855 
2,855 
2,831 
2,789 
2,770 
2,724 
2,704 
2,620 
2,533 
2,531 
2,513 
198,704 
2,482 
2,450 
2,447 
2,445 
2,439 
2,439 
2,425 
2,421 
2,421 
2,415 
2,390 
2,312 
2,274 
2,222 
2,182 
2,174 
2,145 
2,114 
2,112 
2,060 
2,047 
2,040 
2,030 
2,001 
1,999 
1,978 
1,962 
1,948 
1,921 
1,869 
1,867 
1,860 
1,857 
1,855 
1,839 


2 

1 
1 

6 
1 

1 
1 

2 

1 
2 
1 

1 

3 

1 

1 

1 

2 

1 

72 

1 

1 

7 
2 
3 

6 

1 

2 
2 

1 

2 
2 
I 

1 
3 


1 
1 

I 

8 

1 

1 
1 


12 
11 

12 
20 
10 

1 

14 

1 

7 

1 

10 

10 

9 

1 
4 
2 

2 
40 

20 
4 

21 
1 

331 
9 

3 

2 

1 

1 

9 
2 

4 
2 

9 

13 
1 

2 


- 


3 
2 

2 

3 
6 
2 
1 

2 

1 
1 

5 
1 

14 
1 

1 

1 

2 

84 

8 

6 

1 

1 
1 

8 
3 
1 


2 

1 
4 


1 
_ 

3 
1 


1 


1 

6 

1 

\ 

1 
2 

2 

27 

1 
2 

3 

1 
1 


- 


1 

3 

1 

24 
1 

9 

1 

1 

1 


1 



P.D. 34. 

to the Public Health, 1927 — Continued. 



109 



Influ- 
enza. 


Lobar 
Pneu- 
monia. 


Measles. 


Mumps. 


Oph- 
thalmia 

Neona- 
torum. 


Scarlet 
Fever. 


Syphi- 
lis. 


Tuber- 
culosis, 
Pulmo- 
nary. 


Tuber- 
culosis, 
Other 
Forms. 


Ty- 
phoid 
Fever. 


Whoop- 
ing 
Cough. 




U 


1 
Q 


O 


1 

p 


1 
a 
O 


1 
Q 


O 


1 


6 


i 

Q 




1 
P 


1 

a 


1 

p 


O 


1 


6 


1 
p 


U 


i 

i 

p 


J 


1 


d 

13 


1 
2 

1 

5 

1 

12 

1 
1 

1 


1 

1 
1 

2 

2 
I 

1 

2 

1 

23 

2 

1 

1 

1 

1 
I 


1 
8 

2 

2 

9 
1 

6 
2 

3 
2 

4 

1 

3 

2 

~ 

1 

58 

1 

2 

3 
2 
3 

2 

2 
2 

2 

1 

2 
1 

1 


1 

5 
1 
2 
1 

6 
2 
5 

1 
3 
2 

1 

1 
2 

2 
2 

3 
1 

1 

1 
1 
1 

1 
1 

1 

1 

1 

65 

3 

1 

1 
1 

1 

2 
3 

1 

1 
1 

1 

1 

2 
2 

1 

1 

1 
1 

1 


1 

34 

3 

108 

1 

2 
5 

5 
5 

4 
12 
5 
7 
1 

1 

19 
2 
9 

1 

4 
6 

10 
11 
2 

2 

98 
41 

19 

1 

7 

1 

10 

21 

1 
4 


1 

1 

1 

4 

1 


11 
7 
1 

4 
18 
60 

7 
7 

3 
14 

1 

8 
2 
5 
1 
3 
9 

28 
6 

423 
1 
1 

2 

6 

1 
79 

1 

1 

4 

7 

8 
5 

93 
1 
1 


- 


1 

10 

1 


- 


4 
3 
13 
6 
4 

38 
6 
6 

102 

3 
2 
12 

15 
9 
8 

41 
1 

15 
3 
4 

31 
3 
2 

10 

11 
3 
3 
3 
8 
3 

10 
3 
3 
9 
5 

5 

4 

4 
11 
3 

3 
2 
5 

22 
2 

1 

1 

32 

1 
4 
3 
7 
4 
4 
1 
3 

5 

2 
9 

3 
2 
1 


1 

1 


1 

1 
1 

1 

10 
6 


4 

1 

1 


1 

3 
2 
2 
1 
3 

20 
15 
4 

2 

2 
2 

1 

2 
4 

3 

1 
1 
2 

1 
3 

2 
4 

2 

1 

1 

1 
4 
1 

1 

1 
10 

1 

2 

1 
1 

1 

1 
2 

2 

1 


1 

3 

1 

2 
9 
10 

5 

1 
5 

1 

1 

2 

1 
1 

1 
1 
1 

2 

428 

214 

2 

2 

38 
1 

3 

1 

3 

1 

I 

1 

2 

93 

13 

2 

1 


1 
1 

2 
1 

2 


1 

2 
1 

1 
1 

1 

1 
1 
1 

1 

1 

1 
1 

25 

3 

1 

1 
1 

3 

1 


3 

1 

1 

1 
2 

~ 
1 

1 

25 
1 

1 

2 
2 

1 


1 


28 
24 

1 

1 
3 

5 
1 

1 

1 

1 
3 

20 

1 
5 

1 

12 
215 

2 

4 
34 

10 

1 
1 

4 

3 

1 
12 
4 

18 

3 

2 
1 


4 
1 


151 
152 
153 
154 
155 
156 
157 
158 
159 
160 
161 
162 
163 
164 
165 
166 
167 
168 
169 
170 
171 
172 
173 
174 
175 
176 
177 
178 
179 
180 
181 
182 
183 
184 
185 
186 
187 
188 
189 
190 
191 
192 
193 
194 
195 
196 
197 
198 
199 
200 
201 
202 
203 
204 
205 
206 
207 
208 
209 
210 
211 
212 
213 
214 
215 
216 
217 
218 
219 
220 
221 
222 
223 
224 
225 



110 



P.D. 34. 









Cases and Deaths from Diseases Dangerous 




CrriES AND Towns ghocped 
IN Ordeb of Population. 


Popu- 
lation 
esti- 
mated 
as of 
July 1, 
1927. 


An- 
terior 
Polio- 
mye- 
litis. 


Chicken 
Pox. 


Diph- 
theria. 


Ep. 

Cere- 
bro- 
spinal 
Menin- 
gitis. 


Ger- 
man 
Mea- 
sles. 


Gonor- 
rhea. 


6 
IS 

3 


d 


1 
Q 


6 


1 


6 


1 


6 


1 

Q 


U 


J 

1 
Q 


d 


1 


226 
227 
228 
229 
230 
231 
232 
233 
234 
235 
236 
237 
238 
239 
240 
241 
242 
243 
244 
245 
246 
247 
248 
249 
250 
251 
252 
253 
254 
255 
256 
257 
258 
259 
260 
261 
262 
263 
264 
265 
266 
267 
268 
269 
270 
271 
272 
273 
274 
275 
276 
277 
278 
279 
280 
281 
282 
283 
284 
285 
286 
287 
288 
289 
290 
291 
292 
293 
294 
295 
296 
297 
298 
299 
300 


Dennis 

Northfield 

Nahant 

Duxbury 

Chatham 

Freetown 

Sheffield 

Mattapoisett 

Burlington 

Yarmouth ...... 

Buckland 

Sterling . . . 

Chester 

Huntington 

Shelburne 

Bedford 

Plainville 

Colrain 

Pembroke 

Norwell 

Sudbury 

Tisbviry 

Sandwich 

Newbury 

Carver 

Rowley 

Littleton 

Russell 

LakeviDe 

Brookfield 

Oak Bluffs 

lAncoln 

Lynnfield 

Essex 

Erving . . . . 

West Brookfield .... 

Southwick 

Sunderland 

West Stockbridge .... 

West Newbury 

Marion 

Clarksburg 

Edgartown 

Lanesboro 

Norfolk 

Whately 

Stow 

Berkeley 

Wenham 

Berlin 

Tyngsboro 

Rochester 

Dover 

Orleans 

Hubbardston 

Mendon 

Boylston 

Hinsdale 

New Marlboro 

Southampton 

East Brookfield 

Ashfield 

Ashby 

Gill 

Conway 

Topsfield 

Bemardston 

Brimfield 

Bolton 

Charlemont 

Granby 

Becket 

Royalston 

Princeton 

Brewster 


1,839 

1,839 

1.763 

1,753 

1,741 

1,717 

1,690 

1,675 

1,663 

1,662 

1,607 

1,606 

1,604 

1,592 

1,581 

1,579 

1,575 

1,541 

1,532 

1,515 

1,511 

1,496 

1,488 

1,486 

1,482 

1,476 

1,467 

1,466 

1,448 

1,437 

1,427 

1,416 

1,401 

1,374 

1,350 

1,328 

1,296 

1,290 

1,277 

1,272 

1,266 

1,258 

1,253 

1,235 

1,235 

1,229 

1,221 

1,197 

1,167 

1,1.57 

1,134 

1,122 

1,120 

1,105 

1.076 

. 1,057 

1.042 

1,035 

982 

959 

940 

937 

936 

934 

920 

920 

873 

865 

839 

822 

821 

821 

821 

811 

810 


1 
1 

8 
2 

5 

2 

1 
2 

1 
4 

1 
1 

1 

1 

1 

3 

1 


1 

2 

1 


1 

32 
2 
16 

3 
2 

2 
1 

12 

1 

6 

3 

21 

23 

7 

49 

2 

13 

3 

2 

5 

8 

14 


- 


3 

1 
3 
1 
1 

10 
1 

1 
2 

1 

1 

3 
1 

2 
4 

4 

1 
4 


1 

1 
1 

1 


1 
_ 

1 


- 


13 

_ 

1 
1 

1 
1 


~ 


1 

1 

1 

1 


- 



P.D. 34. 

to the Public Health, 1927 — Continued. 



Ill 



Influ- 
enza. 


Lobar 
Pneu- 
monia. 


Measles. 


Mumps. 


Oph- 
thalmia 
Neona- 
torum, 


Scarlet 
Fever. 


Syphi- 
lis. 


Tuber- 
culosis, 
Pulmo- 
nary. 


Tuber- 
culosis, 
Other 
Formi. 


Ty- 
phoid 
Fever. 


Whoop- 
ing 
Cough. 




i 


1 




..c 
Q 


J 




6 


i 

1 
p 


O 


1 


U 


1 
Q 


53 

o 


i 


1 


1 

CS 

Q 


6 


i 

I 


1 


1 


O 


1 


1 

3 


1 
1 

1 

3 


2 
1 

1 
2 

2 

1 

1 
1 

1 

1 

1 


1 

1 
2 

1 
2 

2 

2 

1 
1 
1 

2 

2 

_ 

2 

1 

2 
3 

2 


2 
3 

1 
2 

1 

1 
1 

1 

2 
2 
1 

1 
2 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 
1 

1 
1 

1 


1 

7 
2 

8 

1 

2 
1 

5 

2 

10 
3 

5 

8 
1 

2 
6 

1 
3 

2 

1 

2 

22 

2 

1 

74 

1 

6 

16 
2 

7 
3 

1 
13 


2 


1 

2 
3 
5 

5 

2 
1 

8 
5 

3 

1 
3 

3 

1 
2 

2 
5 

20 

1 
2 

6 

8 

1 
6 

1 


- 


1 
1 

5 
1 




15 
9 
8 
2 
2 
2 

30 
7 
1 
1 

8 
11 

12 
2 

10 
3 

5 
5 

4 
7 
1 
3 
1 
1 

1 
2 
10 
3 
2 

7 

1 
4 
13 
1 

6 
3 
2 
4 
16 
4 
6 
1 
2 
1 

2 
5 

1 
3 

6 

18 
2 

4 

1 
1 


1 
1 


1 
1 

1 

1 

2 


1 

1 


1 
3 

1 
2 
1 
2 
1 
2 
3 

1 

1 

2 
5 

3 

1 

20 

1 
1 

1 
1 
1 

2 

2 

1 
1 

1 

2 

1 


3 

1 
2 
1 

2 
3 

1 
3 

1 

1 
1 

1 

2 

1 

3 
1 

1 

1 

1 

1 
1 

1 

I 
1 

1 

1 
1 

1 

1 

1 
I 


1 
1 


11 

1 


1 

2 

1 
1 

1 

1 
1 

2 

1 
1 

1 

1 
1 


1 


7 
2 

1 
5 

1 

6 

7 

9 

2 
1 

3 
1 

10 

2 

12 
23 

_ 
1 
2 

3 


1 
1 

I 


226 
227 
228 
229 
230 
231 
232 
233 
234 
235 
236 
237 
238 
239 
240 
241 
242 
243 
244 
245 
246 
247 
248 
249 
250 
251 
252 
253 
254 
255 
256 
257 
258 
259 
260 
261 
262 
263 
264 
265 
266 
267 
268 
269 
270 
271 
272 
273 
274 
275 
276 
277 
278 
279 
280 
281 
282 
283 
284 
285 
286 
287 
288 
289 
290 
291 
292 
293 
294 
295 
296 
297 
298 
299 
300 



112 



P.D. 34. 



Cases and Deaths from Diseases Dangerous 





CrrrES and Towns ghouped 
IN Order of PoptrLATioN. 


Popu- 
lation 

esti- 
mated 

as of 
July 1, 

1927. 


An- 
terior 
PoUo- 
mye- 

litis. 


Chicken 
Pox. 


Diph- 
theria. 


Ep. 
Cere- 
bro- 
spinal 
Menin- 
gitis. 


Ger- 
man 
Mea- 
sles. 


Gonor- 
rhea. 


6 

•z 

S 
3 




1 


1 

Q 


6 


1 


1 


1 


6 


1 

Q 


6 


1 

Q 


6 


1 


301 
302 
303 
304 
305 
306 
307 
308 
309 
310 
311 
312 
313 
314 
315 
316 
317 
318 
319 
320 
321 
322 
323 
324 
325 
326 
327 
328 
329 
330 
331 
332 
333 
334 
335 
336 
337 
338 
339 
340 
341 
342 
343 
344 
345 
346 
347 
348 
349 
350 
351 
352 
353 
354 
355 
356 
357 
358 
359 
360 
361 
362 
363 
364 
365 

366 


Wellfleet . 
Enfield 
Petersham . 
Dana . 
Sherborn 
Leverett 
Richmond . 
HaUfax 
Hampden . 
Paxton 
Harvard 
Granville . 
B oxford 
Oakham 
Hancock . 
Carlisle 
Plympton . 
Pelham 
New Salem 
Eastham 
Cummington 
Egremont . 
Sandisfield . 
Truro . 
Greenwich . 
Chesterfield 
Wales . 
Worthington 
New Braintree 
Blandford . 
Wendell 
Otis . 
Phillipston . 
Florida 
Savoy . 
Windsor 
Warwick 
Monterey . 
Westhampton 
Boxboro 
Hawley 
Dunstable . 
West Tisbury 
Mashpee . 
Heath . 
Tyringham. 
Rowe . 
Plainfield . 
Goshen 
Leyden 
Chilmark . 
Washington 
Prescott 
Alford. 
Middlefield 
Shutesbury 
Montgomery 
Gay Head . 
Gosnold 
HoUand . 
ToUand 
Monroe 
Paru . 
New Ashford 
Mount Washing 

Tewksbury Stat 


ton . 
3ln£ 


irma 


• 
ry . 




770 
733 
683 
682 
661 
653 
644 
636 
634 
634 
627 
591 
581 
543 
528 
528 
527 
524 
521 
521 
517 
491 
489 
486 
472 
445 
439 
438 
434 
421 
419 
409 
395 
389 
385 
383 
378 
375 
351 
347 
340 
333 
327 
320 
287 
285 
276 
264 
262 
245 
240 
231 
230 
210 
198 
194 
189 
177 
144 
139 
134 
132 
99 
84 
53 


1 


1 


5 

4 
1 

3 
1 

5 

6 
2 

5 

11 

2 

7 


1 


1 

1 
2 

1 
3 

3 


- 


- 


1 


1 

1 

_ 


- 


1 
1 

44 


- 



P.D. 34. 

to the Public Health, 1927 — Concluded. 



113 



Influ- 
enza. 


Lobar 
Pneu- 
monia. 


Measles. 


Mumps. 


Oph- 
thalmia 
Neona- 
torum. 


Scarlet 
Fever. 


Syphi- 
lis. 


Tuber- 
culosis, 
Pulmo- 
nary. 


Tuber- 
culosis, 
Other 
Forms. 


Ty- 
phoid 
Fever. 


Whoop- 
ing 
Cough. 




O 




1 
O 




O 


.3 

1 
Q 


O 


Q 


O 


-3 
Q 


U 


1 
Q 




1 


U 


1 
Q 


1 


i 

Q 


d 


1 
ca 
u 

Q 


1 


1 
Q 


d 

3 


2 

1 

5 


1 
1 


1 
2 

2 
1 

8 


1 
2 

1 

1 
1 

1 
1 

11 


4 

4 
15 

1 
1 

2 

26 

31 

1 

7 
38 


1 


4 

1 

81 

_ 

21 
1 

2 
5 


- 


1 


- 


5 
9 
1 

1 

1 

3 

1 

1 

9 

2 

1 
3 

2 
5 


1 


18 


7 


1 

1 
40 


2 

1 

1 

1 
1 

1 
1 

82 


4 


2 

1 
1 


1 

2 


- 


_ 
1 

4 
4 

8 


- 


301 
302 
303 
304 
30.5 
306 
307 
30R 
309 
310 
311 
312 
313 
314 
315 
316 
317 
318 
319 
320 
321 
322 
323 
324 
325 
326 
327 
328 
329 
330 
331 
332 
333 
334 
335 
336 
337 
338 
339 
340 
341 
342 
343 
344 
345 
346 
347 
348 
349 
350 
351 
352 
353 
354 
355 
356 
357 
358 
359 
360 
361 
362 
363 
364 
365 

366 



114 



P.D. 34. 



In addition to the foregoing there 
occurred 3 cases of actinomycosis 
with 3 deaths. 

Cases. Deaths. 

Boston 2 3 

Quincy 1 - 

5 cases of anthrax: 

Haverhill 2 

Lowell 1 - 

Lynn 2 - 

378 cases of dog bite: 

Andover 1 - 

Arlington 11 - 

Attleboro 2 

Belmont 1 - 

Billerica 10 

Boston 74 - 

Braintree 1 — 

Brockton 3 - 

Brookline 6 - 

Cambridge 5 - 

Canton 1 - 

Chelmsford 9 

Chelsea 5 — 

Danvers 11 - 

Dedham 2 

Everett 13 

FaU River 2 

Hingham 4 - 

Holyoke 8 

Hudson 1 - 

Lee 1 - 

Lincoln 1 - 

Lowell 37 

Lynn 3 - 

Maiden 3 - 

Mansfield 1 - 

Marlborough 3 - 

Medford 21 

Mehose 3 - 

Milton 12 

Natick 8 

Newton 7 

North Andover 3 - 

Northbridge 5 - 

NorweU 2 - 

Peabody 18 

Quincy 10 

Rehoboth 1 - 

Ravere 16 - 

Salem 23 

SomerviUe 5 - 

Springfield 3 - 

Stoughton 5 - 

Waltham 1 

Watertown 2 - 

Weston 1 - 

"Weymouth 3 - 

"Winchester 2 - 

"Winthrop 8 

14 cases of dysentery with 7 deaths: 

Belchertown - 1 

Boston 11 4 

Chelsea - 1 

Everett 1 

Salem 1 1 

"Worcester 1 - 

79 cases of encephalitis lethargica 
with 61 deaths: 

Adams 1 2 

ArUngton 2 1 

Attleboro 1 - 

Belmont 1 - 

Boston 17 13 

Brockton 1 1 

Bridge water - 1 

Cambridge 2 1 

Chelsea 1 - 

Chicopee 1 1 

Dighton 1 1 

Everett 2 

FaU River 5 5 

Holyoke - 1 

Longmeadow - 1 

Lowell - 1 



Cases. 

Lynn 5 

Ludlow 1 

Maiden 4 

Mansfield 1 

Methuen 1 

New Bedford 3 

Newburyport 1 

Newton — 

Northampton 5 

Peabody 1 

Pittsfield 3 

Quincy 2 

Salem 2 

Somerville 4 

Southbridge - 

Springfield 1 

Stoneham 1 

Swampscott 1 

Tewksbury State Infirmary - 

"Waltham 3 

Webster - 

West Springfield 1 

Worcester 4 

551 cases of hilum tuberculosis: 

Arlington 3 

Ashburnham 1 

Ashby 2 

Attleboro 4 

Beverly 1 

Bolton 1 

Boston 219 

Bridgewater 1 

Brockton 8 

Brookline 9 

Cambridge 51 

Chelsea 33 

Chicopee 1 

Clinton 3 

Dighton 3 

East Longmeadow .... 1 

Everett 2 

Fall River 18 

Fitchburg 6 

Freetown 1 

Gloucester 8 

Haverhill 14 

Hudson 5 

Lancaster 5 

Leominster 4 

Lexington 1 

Lynn 8 

Maiden. . . . . .4 

Marblehead 1 

Maynard 5 

Medford 2 

Medway 2 

Melrose 7 

Methuen 3 

Middleboro 2 

Milford 1 

Millbury 5 

Newton 1 

North Adams 2 

Oxford 6 

Pittsfield 8 

Quincy 1 

Revere 3 

Rutland . ... . .8 

SomerviUe 8 

Southwick 2 

Springfield 34 

Stoneham 11 

Stow 1 

Townsend 1 

Wakefield 1 

Waltham 12 

Watertown 1 

West Boylston 4 

West Brookfield 1 

Westport 1 

9 cases of malaria with 1 death: 

Boston 4 

Brockton 2 

Chelmsford 1 

LoweU 1 

Salem I 



P.D. 34. 



115 



Cases. Deaths. 
15 eases of pellagra with 10 death.s: 

Boston 9 4 

Bridgewater 1 1 

Holyoke 1 - 

Melrose 1 - 

New Bedford 1 - 

Northampton 1 1 

Wahham - 1 

Ware 1 1 

Westboro - 1 

Worcester — 1 

2 cases of rabies with 2 deaths: 

Stoughton 1 1^ 

Westford 1 1- 

141 cases of septic sore throat 
with 50 deaths: 

Ajnherst 1 - 

ArUngton 1 1 

Attleboro - 1 

Beverly 3 1 

Boston 73 22 

Bridgewater - 1 

Brockton 1 1 

Brookline 2 - 

Cambridge 5 - 

Canton 1 - 

Chelsea 1 - 

Chelmsford 1 - 

Dracut - 1 

Everett 2 

FaU River 16 2 

Framingham 1 1 

Greenfield 2 

HaverhiU - 1 

Holliston 1 - 

Holyoke - 1 

Hopedale 1 - 

Ipswich 1 - 

Leominster 1 - 

Lowell 1 - 

Lynn 1 1 

Mansfield 2 

Medford 2 

Medway - 1 

New Bedford 2 

Newton 1 1 

Northampton 1 - 

Quincy 2 - 

Rockland - 1 

1 Died in a Boston Hospital. 
* Died in a Worcester Hospital. 



Cases. 

Salisbury 1 

Saugus 1 

SomerviUe — 

Spencer 1 

Springfield 1 

Taunton 1 

Wakefield 1 

Ware - 

Watertown 1 

Westboro - 

West Springfield 1 

Williamsburg 1 

Worcester 6 

2 cases of smallpox: 

Plainville 1 

Pittsfield 1 

25 cases of tetanus with 23 deaths: 

Amherst 1 

Barnstable - 

Boston 5 

Brockton 2 

Cambridge 1 

Conway — 

Fall River 1 

Greenfield 2 

Haverhill 1 

Lowell 1 

Lynn 1 

Natick 1 

New Bedford 3 

Northampton 2 

North Attleboro 1 

Palmer — 

Peabody — 

Pittsfield - 

Springfield 1 

Stockbridge 1 

Walpole 1 

Worcester — 

33 cases of trachoma: 

Boston 21 

Cambridge 4 

Chelsea 1 

Everett 1 

Fall River 2 

Haverhill 1 

Lowell 1 

New Bedford 1 

Plymouth 1 

1 death from trichinosis: 

Springfield - 



Deaths. 



116 P.D. 34. 

REPORT OF DIVISION OF BIOLOGIC LABORATORIES. 

Benjamin White, Ph.D., Director. 

Elliott S. Robinson, M.D., Assistant Director. 

I. Antitoxin and Vaccine Labobatory. 

1. New Buildings. 

The most important event in the past year has been the erection and occupation 
of sizeable additions to the laboratory and stable buildings. Because of the 
increased demand made upon this laboratory for biologic products, the need for 
additional accommodations had become imperative. By a very fortunate arrange- 
ment with Harvard University, a sum of money was appropriated for the con- 
struction of these buildings, and the Commonwealth made an appropriation of 
$29,500 for the purchase and installation of new equipment. The buildings as 
erected practically double the capacity of the laboratory and give about fifty 
per cent additional space in the stable. The laboratory building was so planned 
that the work of each function or each department could be segregated into an 
individual unit and this plan has reduced considerably the amount of labor neces- 
sary to take care of the increased production of serums and vaccines. The appro- 
priation for equipment made it possible to outfit each room almost completely 
and this has done much to do away with overcrowding of rooms and unnecessary 
delays in carrying out various processes. 

The additional stable space gives seventeen more stalls which will provide for 
more producing animals for some time to come. 

Other features worthy of mention are the provision for the first time for suitable 
lunch and rest rooms, for a library, for a more commodious business office, for 
adequate store rooms and for proper refrigerating facilities. All the refrigeration 
in the building, both in separate ice boxes and in three cold storage rooms is done 
electrically at a cost smaller than the former cost of ice and the previous packing, 
transportation and storage charges for all products which had to be kept at low 
temperatures. Another desirable feature is a lecture room accommodating about 
forty students, which is being used for classes from the Harvard School of Public 
Health and for demonstrations. The whole plant as it exists today is modern, 
fireproof, thoroughly equipped with the latest apparatus and with many devices 
for saving labor. It, therefore, is not only an ideal manufacturing plant but is 
well adapted for the accommodation of research students and for demonstration 
and teaching. 

As in past years the Commonwealth leases these buildings from Harvard College. 

2. Distribution of Products. 
The following table shows the amounts of the various products distributed each 
year for the past five years : 

Pboduct. 
Diphtheria Antitoxin, 1,000 unit doses 
Antimeningococcic Serum, 15 cc. doses 
Antipneumococcic Serum, 100 cc. doses . 
Antipneumococcic Serum, bulk cc. . 
Smallpox Vaccine Virus, capillary tubes . 
Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccine, 1 cc. doses 
Schick Outfits, 50 doses each .... 

Diphtheria toxin (bulk) cc 

Diphtheria Toxin-Antitoxin Mixture, 1 cc. doses 
Scarlet Fever Streptococcus Antitoxin, doses . 

Normal Serum, cc. 

Silver Nitrate Solution (ampoules) 
Anti-Measles-Diplococcus Serum, bottles . 
Influenza Serum, bottles 

(a) Diphtheria Antitoxin. — The increase in the amount of diphtheria antitoxin 
distributed over the previous year is the expected result of the increased prevalence 
of the disease. The lessened demand during the past two years has enabled this 
laboratory to build up reserve stocks of concentrated diphtheria antitoxin and to 
give these stocks a longer ageing. This ageing process results in a product which 
causes a smaller number of cases of serum sickness. 



1923. 


1924. 


1925. 


1926. 


1927. 


411,507 


442,905 


370,412 


296,591 


346,212 


4,609 


3,949 


3,262 


2,451 


2,837 


336 


335 


256 


247 


185 






278,600 


215,750 


213,490 


197,767 


249,090 


273,153 


298,834 


294,983 


60,976 


65,512 


90,776 


88,842 


108,387 


5,875 


6,427 


5,403 


5,031 


5